Chapter 1 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Outline

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1 Chapter 1 An Introduction to Anatomy and Physiology Lecture Outline Introduction Characteristics of Living Things 1. Organization 2. Responsiveness 3. Growth & Differentiation 4. Reproduction 5. Movement 6. Metabolism & Excretion "Form Follows Function" Anatomy Gross Microscopic Cytology Histology Physiology Levels of Organization 1. Chemical/Molecular 2. Cellular 3. Tissue 4. Organ 5. Organ System Integumentary Skeletal Muscular Nervous Endocrine Cardiovascular Lymphatic Respiratory Digestive Urinary Reproductive 6. Organism Homeostasis Homeostatic Regulation Autoregulation Extrinsic Regulation Mechanism 1. Receptor 2. Control/Integration Center 3. Effector Negative Feedback Positive Feedback Anatomical Terms Anatomical position Supine Prone Body Regions Cephalic Cervical Thoracic Brachial Antebrachial Carpal Manual Abdominal Lumbar Gluteal Pelvic Pubic Inguinal Femoral Crural Sural Tarsal Pedal Plantar Abdominopelvic regions Clinical Right & Left Upper Right & Left Lower Anatomical Right & Left Hypochondriac Right & Left Lumbar Right & Left Inguinal Epigastric Umbilical Hypogastric Directional Terms Anterior Posterior Ventral Dorsal Cranial/Cephalic Caudal Superior Inferior Medial Lateral Proximal Distal Superficial Deep Planes and Sections 1. Transverse 2. Frontal/Coronal 3. Sagittal Body Cavities 1. Dorsal Body Cavity Cranial cavity Spinal cavity 2. Ventral Body cavity Thoracic cavity Pleural cavity Visceral pleura Parietal pleura Pericardial cavity Visceral pericardium Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 1 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Handout

2 Parietal pericardium Mediastinum Abdominopelvic cavity Peritoneal cavity Abdominal cavity Pelvic cavity Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 2 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Handout

3 Levels of Organization in the Human Body: 1. Chemical/ Molecular Level Atoms, the smallest stable unit of matter, form molecules The shape of the molecule determines its function 2. Cellular Level Molecules form organelles Each type of organelle performs a specific function Organelles together make up a cell, the smallest living unit 3. Tissue Level A tissue is a group of cells working together to perform one or more specific functions 4. Organ Level An organ is two or more tissues working together to perform several functions 5. Organ System Level An organ system involves the interaction of multiple organs to achieve common goals (11 organ systems, see on reverse) 6. Organism (Human) Level Organ systems work together to maintain the life and health of the body Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 3 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Handout

4 Organ System Overview Integumentary System Protects against the environment and helps control body temperature Skeletal System Provides support, protects tissues, stores minerals, and makes blood Muscular System Produces movement and locomotion, provides support, and generates heat Nervous System Directs immediate response to stimuli by coordinating activities of other organ systems Endocrine System Directs long term changes in other organ systems via hormones Cardiovascular System Transports cells and dissolved materials including wastes and gases Lymphatic System Defends against infection and disease, and returns tissue fluid to the bloodstream Respiratory System Delivers air to sites where gas exchange can occur between air and circulating blood Digestive System Processes food, absorbs nutrients, and eliminates waste products Urinary System Eliminates excess water, salts, and waste products Reproductive System Produces sex cells and hormones Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 4 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Handout

5 Anatomical regions Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 5 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Handout

6 Body Cavities Directional Terms Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D. 6 SCCC BIO130 Chapter 1 Handout Planes of Section

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