Engage: Brainstorming Body Systems. Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below.

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1 Engage: Brainstorming Body s Record the structures and function of each body system in the table below. Body Nervous Circulatory Excretory Immune Digestive Respiratory Skeletal Muscular Endocrine Integumentary Reproductive Lymphatic Structures Function

2 Explore: Interactions and Running Lesson 7 Instructions: The reading passage below contains descriptions of running. Below each paragraph, write the body system(s) that are involved. Running Running is a task that requires the interaction of many body systems working together. Runners prepare for races by consuming large amounts pasta and potatoes. Pasta and potatoes contain carbohydrates, which are the primary source of energy for muscles. Carbohydrates are ultimately broken down into glucose. Glucose is absorbed through the villi of the small intestine and diffuses into the bloodstream to be transported to muscle cells. As a runner begins to run a race, his or her respiration rate will increase. The runner begins to breathe deeper and at a rapid rate. In addition, the heart beats more quickly. This will result in more oxygen delivered to the muscle cells. Running requires a great deal of coordination and is accomplished through the contraction and relaxation of many muscle fibers. The brain sends a signal to the muscles, stimulating them to contract or relax. In response to the signal from the brain, the muscles contract and pull on the bones. The actual interaction of the muscles pulling on the bones produces movement. The muscle cells produce carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide is a waste product. Carbon dioxide is transported to the lungs by the blood. The lungs exchange gas and the waste is removed when the runner exhales. In addition to carbon dioxide, the cells of the body produce metabolic waste. The waste is filtered from the blood by the kidneys and collected as urine. Urine is stored in the bladder until it is released from the body. While running, the runner s body temperature increases. The regulation of body temperature s the production of sweat by the glands of the skin. Moisture on the skin evaporates and produces a cooling effect. The interaction of all the body systems helps to maintain homeostasis.

3 Explain: Body Interactions Lesson 7 Animals must maintain balance between their internal and external environments. This balance is maintained through the interaction of systems. Body systems interact to perform the functions of regulation, nutrient absorption, reproduction, and defense from injury or illness. Nutrient absorption s the passage of nutrients from the digestive system to the bloodstream. Digestion occurs as food passes through a series of digestive organs and is broken down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed and distributed to cells. The blood stream transports molecules to the cells. The main organ systems that interact in nutrient absorption are the digestive and circulatory systems. Regulation is the process of body systems working together to maintain homeostasis despite variation in external conditions. The nervous system and endocrine system help detect and coordinate the response to changes in the environment. Negative feedback is one example of regulation. If blood sugar gets too high, the hormone insulin is secreted. In response, the liver removes glucose from the blood and stores it as glycogen. Hormones are secreted by the endocrine system. Responses to stimuli from the nervous system the direct-connection pathways of neurons. In the running example, the brain sent a message to muscles to contract. This message was sent through neurons. A reflex arc is another example of regulation by the nervous system. Reflexes the detection of a stimulus such as a hot object by a sensory neuron. The impulse travels down the sensory neuron to the spinal cord. In the spinal cord, the impulse moves through an interneuron. The interneuron transmits the impulse to the motor neuron, which then stimulates the muscles necessary to contract, moving the appendage away from danger. Reproduction s gamete production, fertilization, and the development of offspring. The main systems involved in reproduction are the reproductive system, endocrine system, nervous system and circulatory system. The reproductive system s the reproductive organs such as testes, scrotum, penis, ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, and vagina. The endocrine system releases hormones including testosterone, progesterone, and estrogen that regulate the reproductive process. The circulatory system delivers nutrients to the developing fetus and transports hormones. Animals have many methods of defense against injury. The skin and skeleton provide physical protection from injury. Reflexes also play a role in defense from injury. The skin is part of the integumentary system, the skeleton is part of the skeletal system, and reflexes are coordinated by the nervous system. Animals have many methods of defense against illness. The immune system responds to invaders by recognizing, attacking, and destroying the invaders. The immune system s the skin; secretions of mucus, tears, sweat, and saliva; and white blood cells. The immune system works closely with other body systems, including the integumentary, circulatory, and lymphatic systems.

4 Explain: Body Interactions Instructions: Read the passage provided. Locate the four main functions that systems must interact to perform. Summarize the information in the boxes provided. STAAR Achievement Series for Science 2013 Region 4 Education Service Center

5 Elaborate: Describe the Interactions Lesson 7 Instructions: Read the scenario and describe the that occur among systems. Record your responses in your science notebook. Response Scenario Although it doesn t happen often, it can snow in Texas. Kids rush outside to play in the fresh snow and their body temperatures often drop. Humans have an average body temperature of 37 ºC (98.6ºF). If the temperature increases too much, proteins cannot function properly. If the temperature drops too low, chemical reactions are slowed. Your body has many responses to changes in temperature. The hypothalamus is responsible for regulating temperature, sending out signals that start or stop heat production. One response to a decrease in temperature is shivering. Shivering occurs when muscles are signaled by neurons to contract. A separate response occurs inside your cells. The hypothalamus receives signals and releases a hormone that stimulates other glands to release hormones, which ultimately target the thyroid gland. The thyroid gland releases thyroxin into the bloodstream, and cells become more active, resulting in an increased body temperature. When the temperature increases to 37 ºC, nerve receptors send a signal to the hypothalamus to stop releasing the hormone. Once this hormone is no longer released, the other glands are turned off. Fight or Flight Scenario When a person feels frightened or threatened by something in their environment, the stress response is initiated. Automatically, the nervous system triggers the production of epinephrine from the adrenal gland. Epinephrine circulates around your body to activate different responses. Epinephrine stimulates the heart to beat faster and stronger. It also affects the blood vessels that supply the digestive tract, directing blood away from the digestive system. The blood will be circulated to muscles instead of the digestive system, thus increasing survival chances. In the liver, epinephrine stimulates the breakdown of glycogen into glucose. The glucose will provide energy to responding cells. All of these activities increase the organism s chances of surviving a dangerous situation.

6 Name: Date: Evaluate: Interactions of Animal s 1 During the process of nutrient absorption in animals, which two body systems are most responsible for breaking down food into smaller pieces and distributing the nutrients to body cells? A B C D Endocrine system and immune system Digestive system and circulatory system Nervous system and digestive system Muscular system and endocrine system 2 A young boy cuts his hand on a piece of glass. To prevent infection, white blood cells travel to the site of the cut through the bloodstream. During this response to injury, the circulatory system works with which body system? F G H J Muscular system Integumentary system Excretory system Immune system STAAR Achievement Series for Science 2013 Region 4 Education Service Center

7 3 In females, the hormone estrogen causes the lining of the uterus to thicken. Estrogen is produced by the ovaries. When estrogen is produced, the reproductive system works with which body system? A B C D Endocrine system Muscular system Nervous system Lymphatic system 4 Dialysis is a medical treatment used when a person s kidneys are no longer able to function. During this process, a machine uses an artificial membrane to remove waste products from the blood. Which body system below is not functioning properly in a person who requires dialysis? F G H J Endocrine system Immune system Excretory system Integumentary system 5 In humans, the gases oxygen and carbon dioxide must be exchanged between the environment and cells. Explain the of the circulatory system and respiratory system involved in the process of gas exchange.

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