# Undergraduate Notes in Mathematics. Arkansas Tech University Department of Mathematics

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1 Undergraduate Notes in Mathematics Arkansas Tech University Department of Mathematics An Introductory Single Variable Real Analysis: A Learning Approach through Problem Solving Marcel B. Finan c All Rights Reserved Last Updated December 17, 2015

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3 Preface The present manuscript is designed for an introductory course in real analysis suitable to junior or beginning senior level students who already had the calculus sequel as well as a course in discrete mathematics or an equivalent course in mathematical proof. The content is considered of a moderate level of difficulty. The manuscript evolved from a class I taught at Arkansas Tech University in undergraduate real analysis. The class consisted of both Mathematics majors and Mathematics education majors. The approach adopted in this book is a modified Moore method also known as Inquiry-Based Learning (IBL). The basic results in single-variable analysis were submitted to the students in the form of definitions and short problems that the students were asked to solve and present their findings to their peers during class time with a little mentoring by the instructor. By leaving routine parts of a proof to the students constitutes a recommendable tactic since it will include the students in the enterprise of establishing the proof of a theorem, and thus strengthen their conviction in the end. The objectives of these notes are: Firstly, enhancing the student s mathematical thinking and problem-solving ability. Secondly, it improves the students skills in writing and presenting mathematical content, two essantial components for future mathematics educators. Marcel B Finan May 2009 i

4 ii PREFACE

5 Contents Preface i 0 Requirements Vocabulary of Mathematical Systems Some Vocabulary of Logic Writing Proofs Elegantly Properties of Real Numbers Basic Properties of Absolute Value Important Properties of the Real Numbers Sequences Sequences and their Convergence Arithmetic Operations on Sequences Monotone and Bounded Sequences Subsequences and the Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem Cauchy Sequences Limits The Limit of a Function Properties of Limits Connection Between the Limit of a Function and the Limit of a Sequence Continuity Continuity of a Function Properties of Continuous Functions Uniform Continuity

6 2 CONTENTS 4.4 Under What Conditions a Continuous Function is Uniformly continuous? More Continuity Results: The Intermediate Value Theorem Derivatives The Derivative of a Function Extreme values of a Function and Related Theorems The Mean Value Theorem and its Applications L Hôpital s Rule and the Inverse Function Theorem Riemann Integrals The Theory of Riemann Integral Classes of Riemann Integrable Functions Riemann Sums The Algebra of Riemann Integrals Composition of Riemann Integrable Functions and its Applications The Derivative of an Integral Series Series and Convergence Series with Non-negative Terms Alternating Series Absolute and Conditional Convergence The Integral Test for Convergence The Ratio Test and the n th Root Test Series of Functions Sequences of Functions: Pointwise and Uniform Convergence Power Series and their Convergence Taylor Series Approximations Taylor Series of Some Special Functions Uniform Convergence of Series of Functions: Weierstrass M Test Continuity, Integration and Differentiation of Power Series Index 163

7 Chapter 0 Requirements For this book, we require three things from the users: (1) Understanding the vocabulary of a mathematical system such as axiom, definition, lemma, etc. (2) understanding the basics of mathematical logic, and (3) writing elegant mathematics. 0.1 Vocabulary of Mathematical Systems What is a mathematical system? We will define a mathematical system to be a triplet (S, O, A), where S is a non-empty sets of elements, O is a collection of operations on the elements of S, and A is a set of axioms involving the elements of S and the operations O. For example, S = R is the set of all real numbers. The basic operations on the real numbers are addition and multiplication. Examples of axioms in R are the commutative property of both addition and multiplication of real numbers. What is a definition? By a mathematical definition we mean a mathematical statement that involve the elements of S and O. For example, we define the average of two real numbers a and b to be the real number 1 2 (a+b). What is an axiom? An axiom is a statement that is accepted without questioning. For example, the axioms of the real lines are: (i) Commutativity: a + b = b + a and ab = ba. (ii) Associativity: (a+b)+c = a+(b+c) = a+b+c and a(bc) = (ab)c = abc. (iii) Distributivity of multiplication over addition: a(b + c) = ab + ac. 3

8 4 CHAPTER 0. REQUIREMENTS (iv) Zero element: a + 0 = 0 + a = a. (v) Identity element: a 1 = 1 a = a. (vii) Opposite element: a + ( a) = ( a) + a = 0. (viii) Inverse element: a ( 1 a) = ( 1 a) a = 1, where a 0. What is a proof? A proof is an argument establishing either the truth or falsity of a mathematical statement. What is a theorem? A theorem is a mathematical statement that requires a proof. What is a lemma? A lemma is a minor statement that requires a proof but whose sole purpose is to help proving a major result such as a theorem. What is a Corollary A corollary is a theorem that is the result of previously proved major theorem.

9 0.2. SOME VOCABULARY OF LOGIC Some Vocabulary of Logic A proposition is any meaningful statement that is either true or false, but not both. We will use lowercase letters, such as p, q, r,, to represent propositions. New propositions called compound propositions or propositional functions can be obtained from old ones by using symbolic connectives which we discuss next. Let p and q be propositions. The conjunction of p and q, denoted by p q (read p wedge q ), is the proposition: p and q. This proposition isdefined to be true only when both p and q are true and it is false otherwise. The disjunction of p and q, denoted by p q (read p vee q ), is the proposition: p or q. The or is used in an inclusive way. This proposition is false only when both p and q are false, otherwise it is true. The negation of p, denoted p, is the proposition that is false when p is true and true when p is false. Two propositions are logically equivalent if they have exactly the same truth values under all circumstances. We write p q. Let p and q be propositions. The conditional proposition p q is the proposition that is false only when p is true and q is false; otherwise it is true. p is called the hypothesis and q is called the conclusion. It is easy to show that p q ( p) q. The proposition p q is always true if the hypothesis p is false, regardless of the truth value of q. We say that p q is true by default or vacuously true. In terms of words the proposition p q also reads: (a) if p then q. (b) p implies q. (c) p is a sufficient condition for q. (d) q is a necessary condition for p. (e) p only if q. The converse of p q is the proposition q p. The opposite or inverse of p q is the proposition p q. The contrapositive of p q is the proposition q p. It can be shown that [p q] [ q p]. This is referred to as the proof by contrapositive.

10 6 CHAPTER 0. REQUIREMENTS The biconditional proposition of p and q, denoted by p q, is the propositional function that is true when both p and q have the same truth values and false if p and q have opposite truth values. Also reads, p if and only if q or p is a necessary and sufficient condition for q. It can be shown that p q [p q] [q p]. To say that statements p 1, p 2,, p n are all equivalent means that either they are all true or all false. To prove that they are equivalent, one assumes p 1 to be true and proves that p 2 is true, then assumes p 2 to be true and proves that p 3 is true, continuing in this fashion, assume that p n 1 is true and prove that p n is true and finally, assume that p n is true and prove that p 1 is true. This is known as the proof by circular argument. An indirect method of proving p q is the proof by contradiction: We want to show that q is true. Instead, we assume it is not, i.e., q is true, and derive that a proposition of the form r r is true. But r r is a contradiction which is always false. Hence, the assumption q must be false, so the original proposition q must be true. The method of proof by contradiction is not limited to just proving conditional propositions of the form p q, it can be used to prove any kind of statement whatsoever. Finally, we recall the reader of the method of proof by induction: We want to prove that a statement P (n) is true for any non-negative integer n n 0. The steps of mathematical induction are as follows: (i) (Basis of induction) Show that P (n 0 ) is true. (ii) (Induction hypothesis) Assume P (k) is true for n 0 k n. (iii) (Induction step) Show that P (n + 1) is true.

11 0.3. WRITING PROOFS ELEGANTLY Writing Proofs Elegantly An elegant proof is a proof that uses words and sentences and not just a sequence of symbols. A weak proof is one that consists mainly of symbols. To be more precise. Suppose that we want to prove that the sum of two even integers m and n is always even. An elegant proof proceeds as follows: Since m and n are even integers, there exist integers k 1 and k 2 such that m = 2k 1 and n = k 2. Adding the two numbers together, we find m + n = 2k 1 + 2k 2 = 2(k 1 + k 2 ) = 2k, where k = k 1 + k 2 Z. From the definition of an even integer, we conclude that m + n is even. An example of a weak or non-explanatory proof of the above result can be as follows: m = 2k 1, n = 2k 2 m + n = 2(k 1 + k 2 ) = 2k m + n is even.

12 8 CHAPTER 0. REQUIREMENTS

13 Chapter 1 Properties of Real Numbers In this chapter we review the important properties of real numbers that are needed in this course. 1.1 Basic Properties of Absolute Value In this section, we introduce the absolute value function and we discuss some of its properties. The use of absolute value will be apparent in many of the discussions of this course. Definition Let a R. We define the absolute value of a, denoted by a, to be the largest of the two numbers a and a. That is, Exercise Show that a a and a a. Exercise Show that a = max{ a, a}. a = { a if a 0 a if a < 0. That is, the absolute value function is a piecewise defined function. Graph this function in the rectangular coordinate system. 9

14 10 CHAPTER 1. PROPERTIES OF REAL NUMBERS Exercise Show that a 0 with a = 0 if and only if a = 0. Exercise Show that if a = b then a = ±b. Exercise Solve the equation 3x 2 = 5x + 4. Exercise Show that a = a. Exercise Show that ab = a b. Exercise Show that 1 a = 1, where a 0. a Exercise Show that a b = a where b 0. b Exercise Show that for any two real numbers a and b we have ab a b. Exercise Recall that a number b 0 is the square root of a number a, written a = b, if and only if a = b 2. Show that a2 = a. Exercise Suppose that A and B are points on a coordinate line that have coordinates a and b, respectively. Show that a b is the distance between the points A and B. Thus, if b = 0, a measures the distance from the number a to the origin. Exercise Graph the portion of the real line given by the inequality (a) x a < δ (b) 0 < x a < δ where δ > 0. Represent each graph in interval notation.

15 1.1. BASIC PROPERTIES OF ABSOLUTE VALUE 11 Exercise Show that x a < k if and only if a k < x < a + k, where k > 0. Exercise Show that x a > k if and only if x < a k or x > a + k, where k 0. The statements in the above two exercises remain true if < and > are replaced by and. Exercise Solve each of the following inequalities: (a) 2x 3 < 5 and (b) x + 4 > 2. Write your answer in interval notation. Exercise (Triangle inequality) Use Exercise 1.1.1, Exercise 1.1.7, and the expansion of a + b 2 to establish the inequality a + b a + b, where a and b are arbitrary real numbers. Exercise Show that for any real numbers a and b we have a b a b. Hint: Note that a = (a b) + b.

16 12 CHAPTER 1. PROPERTIES OF REAL NUMBERS Practice Problems Exercise Let a R. Show that max{a, 0} = 1(a + a ) and min{a, 0} = 1 (a a ). 2 2 Exercise Show that a + b = a + b if and only if ab 0. Exercise Suppose 0 < x < 1 2. Simplify x+3 2x 2 +5x 3. Exercise Write the function f(x) = x x 4 as a piecewise defined function (i.e. without using absolute value symbols). Sketch its graph. Exercise Prove that a b a b for any real numbers a and b. Exercise Solve the equation 4 x x 3 = 1. Exercise What is the range of the function f(x) = x x for all x 0? Exercise Solve 3 x 2 7. Write your answer in interval notation. Exercise Simplify x 2 x. Exercise Solve the inequality x+1 < 3. Write your answer in interval notation. x 2 Exercise Suppose x and y are real numbers such that x y < x. Show that xy > 0.

17 1.2. IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF THE REAL NUMBERS Important Properties of the Real Numbers In this section we will discuss some of the important properties of real numbers. We assume that the reader is familiar with the basic operations of real numbers (i.e. addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, and inequalities) and their properties (i.e. commutative, associative, reflexive, symmetry, etc.) Definition A set A R is said to be bounded from below if and only if there is a real number m such that m x for all x A. We call m a lower bound of A. A set A is said to be bounded from above if and only if there is a real number M such that x M for all x A. In this case, we call M an upper bound. A is said to be bounded if and only if it is bounded from below and from above. Exercise Prove that A is bounded if and only if there is a positive constant C such that x C for all x A. Exercise Let A = [0, 1]. (a) Find an upper bound of A. How many upper bounds are there? (b) Find a lower bound of A. How many lower bounds are there? By the previous exercise, we see that a set might have an infinite number of both upper bounds and lower bounds. This leads to the following definition. Definition Suppose A is a bounded subset of R. A number α that satisfies the two conditions (i) α is an upper bound of A, (ii) for every upper bound γ of A we have α γ is called the supremum or the least upper bound of A and is denoted by α = sup A. Thus, the supremum is the smallest upper bound of A. A number β that satisfies the two conditions (i) β is a lower bound of A,

18 14 CHAPTER 1. PROPERTIES OF REAL NUMBERS (ii) for every lower bound γ of A we have γ β is called the infimum or the greatest lower bound of A and is denoted by β = inf A. Thus, the infimum is the largest lower bound of A. The supremum may or may not be an element of A. If it is in A then the supremum is called the maximum value of A. Likewise, if the infimum is in A then we call it the minimum value of A. Exercise Consider the set A = { 1 n : n N}. (a) Show that A is bounded from above. Find the supremum. Is this supremum a maximum of A? (b) Show that A is bounded from below. Find the infimum. Is this infimum a minimum of A? Exercise Consider the set A = {1 1 : n N}. n (a) Show that 1 is an upper bound of A. (b) Suppose L < 1 is another upper bound of A. Let n be a positive integer such that n > 1. Such a number n exist by the Archimedian property 1 L which we will discuss below. Show that this leads to a contradiction. Thus, L 1. This shows that 1 is the least upper bound of A and hence sup A = 1. Among the most important fact about the real number system is the so-called Completeness Axiom of R: Any subset of R that is bounded from above has a least upper bound and any subset of R that is bounded from below has a greatest lower bound. The first consequence of this axiom is the so-called Archimedean Property. This is the property responsible for the fact that given any real number we can find an integer which exceeds it. Exercise Let a, b R with a > 0. (a) Suppose that na b for all n N. Show that the set A = {na : n N} has a supremum. Call it c. (b) Show that na c a for all n N. That is, c a is an upper bound of A. Hint: n + 1 N for all n N. (c) Conclude from (b) that there must be a positive integer n such that na > b.

19 1.2. IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF THE REAL NUMBERS 15 A consequence of the Archimedean property is the fact that between any two real numbers there is a rational number. We say that the set of rationals is dense in R. We prove this result next. Exercise Let a and b be two real numbers such that a < b. (a) Let a denote the greatest integer less than or equal to a. We call the floor function.show that a 1 < a < a + 1. (b) Let n be a positive integer such that n > 1. Show that na + 1 < nb. b a (c) Let m = na + 1. Show that na < m < nb. Thus, a < m < b. We see n that between any two distinct real numbers there is a rational number.

20 16 CHAPTER 1. PROPERTIES OF REAL NUMBERS Practice Problems Exercise Consider the set A = { ( 1)n : n N}. n (a) Show that A is bounded from above. Find the supremum. Is this supremum a maximum of A? (b) Show that A is bounded from below. Find the infimum. Is this infimum a minimum of A? Exercise Consider the set A = {x R : 1 < x < 2}. (a) Show that A is bounded from above. Find the supremum. Is this supremum a maximum of A? (b) Show that A is bounded from below. Find the infimum. Is this infimum a minimum of A? Exercise Consider the set A = {x R : x 2 > 4}. (a) Show x A and x < 2 lead to a contradiction. Hence, we must have x 2 for all x A. That is, 2 is a lower bound of A. (b) Let L be a lower bound of A such that L > 2. Let y = L+2. Show that 2 2 < y < L. (c) Use (a) to show that y A and L y. Show that this leads to a contradiction. Hence, we must have L 2 which means that 2 is the infimum of A. Exercise Show that for any real number x there is a positive integer n such that n > x. Exercise Let a and b be any two real numbers such that a < b. (a) Let w be a fixed positive irrational number. Show that there is a rational number r such that a < wr < b. (e) Show that wr is irrational. Hence, between any two distinct real numbers there is an irrational number. Exercise Suppose that α = sup A <. Let ɛ > 0 be given. Prove that there is an x A such that α ɛ < x.

21 1.2. IMPORTANT PROPERTIES OF THE REAL NUMBERS 17 Exercise Suppose that β = inf A <. Let ɛ > 0 be given. Prove that there is an x A such that β + ɛ > x. Exercise For each of the following sets S, find sup{s} and inf{s}, if they exist. (a) S = {x R : x 2 < 5}. (b) S = {x R : x 2 > 7}. (c) S = { 1 n : n N}.

22 18 CHAPTER 1. PROPERTIES OF REAL NUMBERS

23 Chapter 2 Sequences 2.1 Sequences and their Convergence In this section, we introduce sequences and study their convergence. Definition A sequence is a function with domain N = {1, 2, 3, } and range a subset of R. That is, a :N R n a(n) = a n We write a = {a n } n=1 and we call a n the n th term of the sequence. Exercise Find a simple expression for the general term of each sequence. (a) 1, 1 2, 1 3, 1 4, (b) 2, 3 2, 4 3, 5 4, (c) 1, 1 3, 1 5, 1 7, 1 9, (d) 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, Definition A sequence {a n } n=1 is said to converge to a number L if and only if for every positive number ɛ there exists a positive integer N = N(ɛ) (depending on ɛ) such that n N = a n L < ɛ. 19

24 20 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES We write lim a n = L. n We say that the sequence is convergent. If a sequence is not convergent then it is said to be divergent. Note that a n L is the distance between the points a n and L on the real line. The definition says that no matter how small a positive number ɛ we take, the distance between a n and L will eventually be smaller than ɛ, i.e., the numbers a n will eventually lie between L ɛ and L + ɛ. Thus the terms of the sequence will eventually lie in the shaded region shown in the Figure Figure Exercise Show that the sequence { 1 n} converges to 0. n=1 converges to 1, where C 0 is a con- Exercise Show that the sequence { } 1 + C n n=1 stant. Exercise Is there a number L with the property that ( 1) n L < 1 for all n N 1, where N 1 is some positive integer? Hint: Consider the inequality with an even integer n greater than N 1 and an odd integer n greater than N 1. Exercise Use the previous exercise to show that the sequence {( 1) n } n=1 is divergent. The following exercise shows that the limit of a convergent sequence is unique.

25 2.1. SEQUENCES AND THEIR CONVERGENCE 21 Exercise Suppose that lim n a n = a and lim n a n = b with a < b. Show that by choosing ɛ = b a > 0 we end up with the impossible inequality b a < b a. 2 A similar result holds if b < a. Thus, we must have a = b. Hint: Exercise and Exercise We next introduce the concept of a bounded sequence. This concept provides us with a divergence test for sequences. We will see that if a sequence is not bounded then it is divergent. Definition A sequence {a n } n=1 is said to be bounded if there is a positive constant M such that a n M for all n N. Exercise Show that each of the following sequences is bounded. Identify M in each case. (a) a n = ( 1) n. 1 (b) a n = n ln (n+1). Exercise Let {a n } n=1 be a sequence such that a n K for all n N. Show that this sequence is bounded. Identify your M. Exercise Show that a convergent sequence is bounded. convergence with ɛ = 1. Hint: use the definition of The converse of the above result is not always true. sequence need not be convergent. That is, a bounded Exercise Give an example of a bounded sequence that is divergent. The following result is known as the squeeze rule. be three sequences with the following condi- Exercise Let {a n } n=1, {b n} n=1, {c n} n=1 tions:

26 22 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES (1) b n a n c n for all n K, where K is some positive real number. (2) lim n b n = lim n c n = L. Show that lim n a n = L. Hint: Use the definition of convergence along Exercise Exercise An expansion of (a + b) n, where n is a positive integer is given by the Binomial formula n (a + b) n = C(n, k)a k b n k k=0 where C(n, k) = n! k!(n k)!. (a) Use the Binomial formula to establish the inequality (1 + x) 1 n 1 + x n, x 0. (b) Show that if a 1 then lim n a 1 n = 1. Hint: Use Exercise

27 2.1. SEQUENCES AND THEIR CONVERGENCE 23 Practice Problems Exercise Prove that the sequence {cos (nπ)} n=1 is divergent. Exercise Let {a n } n=1 be the sequence defined by a n = n for all n N. Explain why the sequence {a n } n=1 does not converge to any limit. Exercise (a) Show that for all n N we have n! n n 1 n. (b) Show that the sequence {a n } n=1 where a n = n! n n its limit. is convergent and find Exercise Using only the definition of convergence show that lim n 3 n n 1001 = 1. Exercise Consider the sequence defined recursively by a 1 = 1 and a n+1 = 2 + a n for all n N. Show that a n 2 for all n N. Exercise Calculate lim n (n 2 +1) cos n n 3. Exercise Calculate lim n 2( 1) n+3 n. Exercise Suppose that lim n a n = L with L > 0. Show that there is a positive integer N such that 2a N > L.

28 24 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES Exercise Let a R and n N. Clearly, a < a + 1. n (a) Show that there is a 1 Q such that a < a 1 < a + 1. Hint: Exercise n 1.2.6(c). (b) Show that there is a 2 Q such that a < a 2 < a 1. (c) Continuing the above process we can find a sequence {a n } n=1 such that a < a n < a + 1 for all n N. Show that this sequence converges to a. n We have proved that if a is a real number then there is a sequence of rational numbers converging a. We say that the set Q is dense in R.

29 2.2. ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS ON SEQUENCES Arithmetic Operations on Sequences In this section we discuss the operations of addition, subtration, scalar multiplication, multiplication, reciprocal, and the ratio of two sequences. Our first result concerns the convergence of the sum or difference of two sequences. Exercise Suppose that lim n a n = A and lim n b n = B. Show that lim a n ± b n = A ± B. n The next result concerns the product of two sequences. Exercise Suppose that lim n a n = A and lim n b n = B. (a) Show that b n M for all n N, where M is a positive constant. (b) Show that a n b n AB = (a n A)b n + A(b n B). (c) Let ɛ > 0 be arbitrary and K = M + A. Show that there exists a positive integer N 1 such that a n A < ɛ 2K for all n N 1. (d) Let ɛ > 0 and K be as in (c). Show that there exists a positive integer N 2 such that b n B < ɛ 2K for all n N 2. (e) Show that lim n a n b n = AB. Exercise Give an example of two divergent sequences {a n } n=1 and {b n } n=1 such that {a n b n } and {a n + b n } are convergent. Exercise Let k be an arbitrary constant and lim n a n = A. Show that lim n ka n = ka. Exercise Suppose that lim n a n = 0 and {b n } n=1 is bounded. Show that lim n a n b n = 0. Exercise sin n (a) Use the previous exercise to show that lim n = 0. n sin n (b) Show that lim n = 0 using the squeeze rule. n

30 26 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES Exercise Suppose that lim n a n = A with A 0. Show that there is a positive integer N such that a n > A for all n N. Hint: Use Exercise Exercise Let {a n } n=1 be a sequence with the following conditions: (1) a n 0 for all n 1. (2) lim n a n = A, with A 0. (a) Show that there is a positive integer N 1 such that for all n N 1 we have 1 1 a n A < 2 A a 2 n A. (b) Let ɛ > 0 be arbitrary. Show that there is a positive integer N 2 such that for all n N 2 we have a n A < A 2 2 ɛ. (c) Using (a) and (b), show that lim n Exercise Let 0 < a < 1. Show that lim n a 1 n 1 a n = 1 A. = 1. Hint: Use Exercise (b). Exercise Show that if lim n a n = A and lim n b n = B with b n 0 for all n 1 and B 0, then a n lim = A n b n B. Hint: Note that an b n = a n 1 b n. Exercise Given that lim n a n = A and lim n b n = B with a n b n for all n 1. (a) Suppose that B < A. Let ɛ = A B > 0. Show that there exist positive 2 integers N 1 and N 2 such that A ɛ < a n < A + ɛ for n N 1 and B ɛ < b n < B + ɛ for n N 2. (b) Let N = N 1 + N 2. Show that for n N we obtain the contradiction b n < a n. Thus, we must have A B.

31 2.2. ARITHMETIC OPERATIONS ON SEQUENCES 27 Practice Problems Exercise a Suppose that lim n n bn = L and lim n b n = 0 where b n 0 for all n N. Find lim n a n. Exercise The Fibonacci numbers are defined recursively as follows: a 1 = a 2 = 1 and a n+2 = a n+1 + a n for all n N. Suppose that lim n a n+1 a n = L. Find the value of L. Exercise Show that the sequence defined by a n = n n n2 + 3 ( 1)n n has two limits by finding lim n a 2n and lim n a 2n+1. Exercise Use the properties of this section to find 2n2 + 5n lim. n n + 4 Exercise Find the limit of the sequence defined by Exercise Consider the sequence defined by a n = n 1 2 ln n. a n = n. (a) Show that a n n for all n N. (b) Show that the sequence {a n } n=1 is divergent. Hint: Exercise

32 28 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES Exercise Find the limit of the sequence defined by a n = ln (2n + n) ln n. Exercise Consider the sequence defined by a n = n 3 n + 1. (a) Show that 3 < a n < 3 n 2 for all n N. (b) Find the limit of a n as n. Exercise Let {a n } n=1 be a convergent sequence of nonnegative terms with limit L. Suppose that the terms of sequence satisfy the recursive relation a n a n+1 = a n + 2 for all N N. Find L. Exercise Find the limit of the sequence defined by a n = cos 1 n + sin n n. Exercise Suppose that a n+1 = a2 n+1 a n. Show that the sequence {a n } n=1 is divergent.

33 2.3. MONOTONE AND BOUNDED SEQUENCES Monotone and Bounded Sequences One of the problems with deciding if a sequence is convergent is that you need to have a limit before you can test the definition. However, it is often the case that it is more important to know if a sequence converges than what it converges to. In this and the next section, we look at two ways to prove a sequence converges without knowing its limit. That is convergence is solely based on the terms of the sequence. Definition A sequence {a n } n=1 is said to be increasing if and only if a n a n+1 for all n 1. A sequence {a n } n=1 is said to be decreasing if and only if a n a n+1 for all n 1. A sequence that is either increasing or decreasing is said to be monotone. Exercise Show that the sequence { 1 n } n=1 is decreasing. Exercise Show that the sequence { 1 1+e n } n=1 is increasing. Definition A sequence {a n } n=1 is said to be bounded from below if and only if there is a constant m such that m a n for all n 1. We call m a lower bound. A sequence {a n } n=1 is said to be bounded from above if and only if there is a constant M such that a n M for all n 1. We call M an upper bound. Exercise Show that the sequence { 1 n } n=1 is bounded from below. bound? Are there more than one lower bound? What is a lower Exercise Show that the sequence { 1 } 1+e n n=1 is bounded from above. What is an upper bound? Are there more than one upper bound? Suppose that N a n M for all n 1. That is, the sequence is bounded from above and below. As we have seen from the previous two exercises, the sequence may have many lower and upper bounds.

34 30 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES Definition The largest lower bound is called the greatest lower bound ( or the infimum) denoted by inf{a n : n 1}. Note that the infimum is a lower bound. Moreover, for any lower bound m of {a n } n=1 we have m inf{a n : n 1}. The smallest upper bound is called the least upper bound ( or the supremum) denoted by sup{a n : n 1}. Note that the supremum is an upper bound. Moreover, for any upper bound M of {a n } n=1 we have sup{a n : n 1} M. The next result shows that an increasing sequence that is bounded from above is always convergent. Exercise Let {a n } n=1 be an increasing sequence that is bounded from above. (a) Show that there is a finite number M such that M = sup{a n : n 1}. (b) Let ɛ > 0 be arbitrary. Show that M ɛ cannot be an upper bound of the sequence. (c) Show that there is a positive integer N such that M ɛ < a N. (d) Show that M ɛ < a n for all n N. (e) Show that M ɛ < a n < M + ɛ for all n N. (f) Show that lim n a n = M. That is, the given sequence is convergent. Exercise Consider the sequence {a n } n=1 defined recursively by a 1 = 3 and a 2 n+1 = 1 a 2 n + 1 for n 1. (a) Show by induction on n 1, that a n+1 = a n n+1 (b) Show that this sequence is increasing. (c) Show that {a n } n=1 is bounded from above. What is an upper bound? (d) Show that {a n } n=1 is convergent. What is its limit? Hint: In finding the limit, use the arithmetic operations of sequences. Exercise Let {a n } n=1 be a decreasing sequence such that m a n for all n 1. Show that {a n } n=1 is convergent. Hint: Let b n = a n and use Exercise and Exercise Exercise Show that a monotone sequence is convergent if and only if it is bounded.

35 2.3. MONOTONE AND BOUNDED SEQUENCES 31 Practice Problems Exercise Let a n be defined by a 1 = 2 and a n+1 = 2 + a n for n N. (a) Show that a n 2 for all n N. That is, {a n } n=1 is bounded from above. (b) Show that a n+1 a n for all n N. That is, {a n } n=1 is increasing. (c) Conclude that {a n } n=1 is convergent. Find its limit. Exercise Let a n = n k=1 1. k 2 (a) Show that a n < 2 for all n N. Hint: Recall that n k=1 (b) Show that {a n } n=1 is increasing. (c) Conclude that {a n } n=1 is convergent. Exercise Consider the sequence {a n } n=1 defined recursively as follows a 1 = 2 and 7a n+1 = 2a 2 n + 3 for all n N. (a) Show that 1 2 < a n < 3 for all n N. (b) Show that a n+1 a n for all n N. (c) Deduce that {a n } n=1 is convergent and find its limit. 1 = 1 1. (n+1)n n+1 Exercise Let {a n } n=1 be an increasing sequence. Define b n = a 1+a 2 + +a n. Show that n the sequence {b n } n=1 is increasing. Exercise Give an example of a monotone sequence that is divergent. Exercise Consider the sequence defined recursively by a 1 = 1 and a n+1 = 3 + an 2 all n N. (a) Show that a n 6 for all n N. (b) Show that {a n } n=1 is increasing. (c) Conclude that the sequence is convergent. Find its limit. for Exercise Give an example of two monotone sequences whose sum is not monotone.

36 32 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES 2.4 Subsequences and the Bolzano-Weierstrass Theorem In this section we consider a sequence contained in another sequence. More formally we have Definition Consider a sequence {a n } n=1. A sequence consisting of terms of the given sequence of the form {a nk } k=1 where n 1 < n 2 < n 3 < is called a subsequence. Exercise Let {a nk } k=1 be a subsequence of a sequence {a n} n=1. Use induction on k to show that n k k for all k N. Exercise Let {a n } n=1 be a sequence of real numbers that converges to a number L. Let {a nk } k=1 be any subsequence of {a n} n=1. (a) Let ɛ > 0 be given. Show that there is a positive integer N such that if n N then a n L < ɛ. (b) Let N be the first positive integer such that n N N. Show that if k N then a nk L < ɛ. That is, the subsequence {a nk } k=1 converges to L. Hence, every subsequence of a convergent sequence is convergent to the same limit of the original sequence. The next result shows that every sequence has a monotonic subsequence. Exercise Let {a n } n=1 be a sequence of real numbers. Let S = {n N : a n > a m for all m > n}. (a) Suppose that S is infinite. Then there is a sequence n 1 < n 2 < n 3 < such n k S. Show that a nk+1 < a nk. Thus, the subsequence {a nk } k=1 is decreasing. (b) Suppose that S is finite. Let n 1 be the first positive integer such that n 1 S. Show that the subsequence {a nk } k=1 is increasing. As a corollary to the previous exercise we obtain the following famous result which says that every bounded sequence of real numbers has a convergent subsequence.

37 2.4. SUBSEQUENCES AND THE BOLZANO-WEIERSTRASS THEOREM33 Exercise (Bolzano-Weierstrass) Prove that every bounded sequence has a convergent subsequence. Exercise Hint: Exercise Show that the sequence {e sin n } n=1 has a convergent subsequence.

38 34 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES Practice Problems Exercise Prove that the sequence {a n } n=1 where a n = cos nπ 2 is divergent. Exercise Prove that the sequence {a n } n=1 where a n = (n2 + 20n + 35) sin n 3 n 2 + n + 1 has a convergent subsequence. Hint: Show that {a n } n=1 is bounded. Exercise Show that the sequence defined by a n subsequence. = 2 cos n sin n has a convergent Exercise True or false: There is a sequence that converges to 6 but contains a subsequence converging to 0. Justify your answer. Exercise Give an example of an unbounded sequence with a bounded subsequence. Exercise Show that the sequence {( 1) n } n=1 is divergent by using subsequences.

39 2.5. CAUCHY SEQUENCES Cauchy Sequences The notion of a Cauchy sequence provides us with a characterization of convergence in terms of just the terms in the sequence without explicit reference to the limit. Definition A sequence {a n } n=1 is called a Cauchy sequence if for every ɛ > 0 there exists a positive integer N = N(ɛ) such that if n, m N then a n a m < ɛ. Thus, for a sequence to be Cauchy, we don t require that the terms of the sequence to be eventually all close to a certain limit, just that the terms of the sequence to be eventually all close to one another. Exercise Consider the sequence whose n th term is given by a n = 1. Let ɛ > 0 be n arbitrary and choose N > 2. Show that for m, n N we have a ɛ m a n < ɛ. That is, the above sequence is a Cauchy sequence. Hint: Exercise The next result shows that Cauchy sequences are bounded sequences. Exercise Show that any Cauchy sequence is bounded. Hint: Let ɛ = 1 and use Exercise Exercise Show that if lim n a n = A then {a n } n=1 is a Cauchy sequence. Thus, every convergent sequence is a Cauchy sequence. Now, consider a Cauchy sequence {a n } n=1. Create new sequences as follows: For each n 1, a new sequence is obtained by deleting the previous n 1 terms from the original sequence. For example, if n = 1, the new sequence is just the original sequence, for n = 2 the new sequence is {a 2, a 3, }, for n = 3 the new sequence is {a 3, a 4 } and so on. Exercise (a) Using Exercise 2.5.2, show that for each n 1, the sequence {a n, a n+1, } is bounded. (b) Show that for each n 1 the infimum of {a n, a n+1, } exists. Call it b n.

40 36 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES Exercise (a) Show that the sequence {b n } n=1 is bounded from above. (b) Show that the sequence {b n } n=1 is increasing. Hint: Show that b n is a lower bound of the sequence {a n+1, a n+2, }. Exercise Show that the sequence {b n } n=1 is convergent. Call the limit B. Exercise (a) Let ɛ > 0 be arbitrary. Using the definition of Cauchy sequences and Exercise , show that there is a positive integer N such that a N ɛ < 2 a n < a N + ɛ for all n N. 2 (b) Using (a), show that a N ɛ is a lower bound of the sequence {a 2 N, a N+1, } Thus, a N ɛ b 2 n for all n N. (c) Again, using (a) show that b n < a N + ɛ for all n N. Thus, combining 2 (b) and (c), we obtain a N ɛ b 2 n < a N + ɛ. 2 (d) Using Exercise , show that a N ɛ B a 2 N + ɛ. 2 (e) Using (a), (d), and Exercise , show that lim n a n = B. Thus, every Cauchy sequence is convergent.

41 2.5. CAUCHY SEQUENCES 37 Practice Problems Exercise (a) Show that if {a n } n=1 is Cauchy then {a 2 n} n=1 is also Cauchy. (b) Give an example of Cauchy sequence {a 2 n} n=1 such that {a n } n=1 is not Cauchy. Exercise Let {a n } n=1 be a Cauchy sequence such that a n is an integer for all n N. Show that there is a positive integer N such that a n = C for all n N, where C is a constant. Exercise Let {a n } n=1 be a sequence that satisfies a n+2 a n+1 < c 2 a n+1 a n for all n N where 0 < c < 1. (a) Show that a n+1 a n < c n a 2 a 1 for all n 2. (b) Show that {a n } n=1 is a Cauchy sequence. Exercise What does it mean for a sequence {a n } n=1 to not be Cauchy? Exercise Let {a n } n=1 and {b n } n=1 be two Cauchy sequences. Define c n = a n b n. Show that {c n } n=1 is a Cauchy sequence. Exercise Suppose {a n } n=1 is a Cauchy sequence. Suppose a n 0 for infinitely many n and a n 0 for infinitely many n. Prove that lim n a n = 0. Exercise Explain why the sequence defined by a n = ( 1) n is not a Cauchy sequence.

42 38 CHAPTER 2. SEQUENCES

43 Chapter 3 Limits 3.1 The Limit of a Function A fundamental concept in single variable calculus is the concept of the limit of a function. In this section, we introduce the definition of limit and discuss some of its properties. Definition Let f be a function with domain D R. Let a be a point in D. We say that f has a limit L at a if and only if for every ɛ > 0 there exists a positive number δ depending on ɛ such that for any x D with the property 0 < x a < δ we have f(x) L < ɛ. In symbol we write lim f(x) = L. x a Figure

44 40 CHAPTER 3. LIMITS Geometrically, the definition says that for any ɛ > 0 (as small as we want), there is a δ > 0 (sufficiently small) such that if the distance between a point x and a is less than δ (i.e. the point x is inside the tiny interval around a) then the distance between f(x) and L is less than ɛ (i.e, the point f(x) is inside the tiny interval around L) as shown in Figure Exercise Show that lim x 1 x 2 1 x 1 = 2. The limit of a function may not exist as shown in the next exercise. Exercise Let f(x) = x. Suppose that lim x x 0 f(x) = L. (a) Show that there is a positive number δ such that if 0 < x < δ then x L x < 1. 4 (b) Let x 1 = δ and x 4 2 = δ. Compute the value of f(x 4 1) f(x 2 ). (c) Use (a) to show that f(x 1 ) f(x 2 ) < 1. 2 x (d) Conclude that L does not exist. That is, lim x 0 does not exist. x Exercise Let f(x) = sin ( 1 x). Suppose that limx 0 f(x) = L. (a) Show ( that there is a positive number δ such that if 0 < x < δ then sin 1 x) L < (b) Let n be a positive integer such that x 1 = < δ and x 1 (2n+1)π 2 = δ. Compute the value of f(x 1 ) f(x 2 ). (c) Use (a) to show that f(x 1 ) f(x 2 ) < 1. 2 (d) Conclude that L does not exist. That is, lim x 0 sin ( 1 x) does not exist. (2n+1)π < The next exercise shows that a function can have only one limit, if such a limit exists. Exercise Suppose that lim x a f(x) exists. Also, suppose that lim x a f(x) = L 1 and lim x a f(x) = L 2. So either L 1 = L 2 or L 1 L 2. (a) Suppose that L 1 L 2. Show that there exist positive constants δ 1 and δ 2 such that if 0 < x a < δ 1 then f(x) L 1 < L 1 L 2 2 and if 0 < x a < δ 2 then f(x) L 2 < L 1 L 2 2.

45 3.1. THE LIMIT OF A FUNCTION 41 (b) Let δ = min{δ 1, δ 2 } so that δ δ 1 and δ δ 2. Show that if 0 < x a < δ then L 1 L 2 < L 1 L 2 which is impossible. (c) Conclude that L 1 = L 2. That is, whenever a function has a limit, that limit is unique.

46 42 CHAPTER 3. LIMITS Practice Problems Exercise Using the ɛδ definition of limit to show that lim x 1 (2x2 + x + 1) = 2. Exercise x Prove directly from the definition that lim x 1 = 1. x+3 4 Exercise In this exercise we discuss the concept of sided limits. (a) We say that L is the left side limit of f as x approaches a from the left if and only if ɛ > 0, δ > 0 such that 0 < a x < δ f(x) L < ɛ and we write lim x a f(x) = L. Show that lim x 0 x x = 1. (b) We say that L is the right side limit of f as x approaches a from the right if and only if ɛ > 0, δ > 0 such that 0 < x a < δ f(x) L < ɛ and we write lim x a + f(x) = L. Show that lim x 0 + x x = 1. Exercise Prove that L = lim x a f(x) if and only if lim x a f(x) = lim x a + f(x) = L. Exercise Using ɛ and δ, what does it mean that lim x a f(x) L?

47 3.2. PROPERTIES OF LIMITS Properties of Limits When computing limits, one uses some established properties rather than the ɛδ definition of limit. In this section, we discuss these basic properties. Exercise Suppose that lim x a f(x) = L 1 and lim x a g(x) = L 2. Show that lim [f(x) ± g(x)] = L 1 ± L 2. x a Exercise Suppose that lim x a f(x) = L 1 and lim x a g(x) = L 2. Show the following: (a) There is a δ 1 > 0 such that 0 < x a < δ 1 = f(x) < 1 + L 1. Hint: Notice that f(x) = (f(x) L 1 ) + L 1. (b) Given ɛ > 0, there is a δ 2 > 0 such that 0 < x a < δ 2 = f(x) L 1 < ɛ 2(1 + L 2 ). Exercise Suppose that lim x a f(x) = L 1 and lim x a g(x) = L 2. (a) Show that f(x)g(x) L 1 L 2 = f(x)(g(x) L 2 ) + L 2 (f(x) L 1 ). (b) Show that f(x)g(x) L 1 L 2 f(x) g(x) L 2 + L 2 f(x) L 1. (c) Show that lim x a f(x)g(x) = L 1 L 2. Hint: Use the previous exercise. Exercise (a) Suppose that f(x) M for all x in its domain and lim x a g(x) = 0. Show that lim f(x)g(x) = 0. x a Hint: Recall Exercise (b) Show that lim x 0 x sin ( 1 x) = 0. The following exercise says that when a function approaches a nonzero number as the variable x approaches a, then there is an open interval around a where the function is always different from zero in that interval.

48 44 CHAPTER 3. LIMITS Exercise Suppose that lim x a f(x) = L with L 0. Show that there exists a δ > 0 such that 0 < x a < δ = f(x) > L 2 > 0. Hint: Recall the solution to Exercise Exercise Let g(x) be a function with the following conditions: (1) g(x) 0 for all x in the domain of g. (2) lim x a g(x) = L 2, with L 2 0. (a) Show that there is a δ 1 > 0 such that if 0 < x a < δ 1 then 1 g(x) 1 L 2 < 2 L 2 g(x) L 2. 2 (b) Let ɛ > 0 be arbitrary. Show that there is δ 2 > 0 such that if 0 < x a < δ 2 then g(x) L 2 < L ɛ. (c) Using (a) and (b), show that Hint: Recall Exercise lim x a 1 g(x) = 1 L 2. Exercise Show that if lim x a f(x) = L 1 and lim x a g(x) = L 2 where g(x) 0 in its domain and L 2 0 then f(x) lim x a g(x) = L 1. L 2 Hint: Recall Exercise Exercise Let f(x) and g(x) be two functions with a common domain D and a a point in D. Suppose that f(x) g(x) for all x in D. Show that if lim x a f(x) = L 1 and lim x a g(x) = L 2 then L 1 L 2. Hint: Recall Exercise

49 3.2. PROPERTIES OF LIMITS 45 Practice Problems Exercise Let D be the domain of a function f(x). Suppose that f(x) 0 for all x in D and lim x a f(x) = L with L > 0. (a) Show that f(x) L f(x) L =. f(x) + L (b) Let ɛ > 0. Show that there exists δ > 0 such that f(x) L < ɛ L whenever 0 < x a < δ. (c) Show that lim f(x) = L. x a Exercise (Squeeze Rule) Let f(x), g(x) and h(x) be three functions with common domain D and a be a point in D. Suppose that (1) g(x) f(x) h(x) for all x in D. (2) lim x a g(x) = lim x a h(x) = L. Show that lim x a f(x) = L. Hint: Recall Exercise Exercise Consider the following figure. where 0 < x < π 2. (a) Using geometry, establish the inequality 0 < sin x < x.

50 46 CHAPTER 3. LIMITS Hint: The area of a circular sector with radius r and central angle θ is given by the formula 1 2 r2 θ. (b) Show that lim x 0 + sin x = 0. (c) Show that lim x 0 sin x = 0. Thus, we conclude that lim x 0 sin x = 0. Hint: Recall that the sine function is an odd function. (d) Show that lim x 0 cos x = 1. Hint: cos 2 x + sin 2 x = 1. (e) Using geometry, establish the double inequality (f) Using (a) show that (g) Show that (h) Show that for π 2 sin x cos x 2 Exercise Find each of the following limits: (1) lim x x x 1. x 2 1 x 2 (2) lim x 2 x 2 5x+6. < x 2 < tan x 2. cos x < sin x x < 1 cos x. sin x lim x 0 + x = 1. < x < 0 we have also sin x lim x 0 x = 1. Exercise Find lim x x 2 +x x 2 x by using the change of variable u = 1 x. Exercise Find lim x 0 3 x sin 1 x. Exercise Find lim x 0 x 2 tan x. Exercise Let n be a positive integer. Prove that lim x a [f(x)] n = [lim x a f(x)] n.

51 3.3. CONNECTION BETWEEN THE LIMIT OF A FUNCTION AND THE LIMIT OF A SEQUENCE 3.3 Connection Between the Limit of a Function and the Limit of a Sequence The limit of a function given so far is known as the ɛδ definition. In this section, we will establish an equivalent definition that involves the limit of a sequence. Exercise Suppose that lim x a f(x) = L, where a is in the domain of f. Let {a n } n=1 be a sequence whose terms belong to the domain of f and are different from a and suppose that lim n a n = a. (a) Let ɛ > 0 be arbitrary. Show that there exist a positive integer N and a positive number δ such that for n N we have a n a < δ and for 0 < x a < δ we have f(x) L < ɛ. (b) Use (a) to conclude that for a given ɛ > 0 there is a positive integer N such that if n N then f(a n ) L < ɛ. That is, lim n f(a n ) = L. Using Definition 3.1.1, what do we mean by lim x a f(x) L? This means that there is an interval centered at L such that for any interval centered at a we can find a point x in that interval and in the domain of f such that f(x) is not in the interval centered at L. This is the same thing as saying that we can find an ɛ > 0 such for all δ > 0 there is x δ (in the domain of f) with the property that 0 < x δ a < δ but f(x δ ) L ɛ. Exercise Let f : D R be a function with the property that for any sequence {a n } n=1 (with a n a for all n 1) if lim n a n = a then lim n f(a n ) = L. We want to show that lim x a f(x) = L (a) Suppose first that lim x a f(x) L. Show that there is an ɛ > 0 and a sequence {a n } n=1 of terms in the domain of f such that 0 < a n a < 1 n and f(a n ) L ɛ. (b) Use the squeeze rule to show that lim n a n a = 0. (c) Use the fact that a a a for any number a and the squeeze rule to show that lim n (a n a) = 0. (d) Use Exercise to show that lim n a n = a. (e) Using (a), (d), the given hypothesis and Exercise , show that ɛ 0.

52 48 CHAPTER 3. LIMITS Thus, this contradiction shows that lim x a f(x) L cannot happen. We conclude that lim f(x) = L. x a The above two exercises establish that the sequence version and the ɛδ version are equivalent. In many cases, one is interested in knowing that the limit of a function exist without the need of knowing the value of the limit. In what follows, we will establish a result that uses Cauchy sequences to provide a test for establishing that the limit of a function exists. Exercise Let f be a function with domain D and a be a point in D. Suppose that f satisfies the following Property: (P) If {a n } n=1, with a n in D, a n a for all n 1 and lim n a n = a then {f(a n )} n=1 is a Cauchy sequence. (a) Let {a n } n=1 be a sequence of elements of D such that a n a for all n 1 and lim n a n = a. Show that the sequence {f(a n )} n=1 is convergent. Call the limit L. Hint: See Exercise (b) Let {b n } n=1 be a sequence of elements of D such that b n a for all n 1 and lim n b n = a. Show that the sequence {f(b n )} n=1 converges to some number L. Exercise Let {a n } n=1 and {b n } n=1 be the two sequences of the previous exercise. Define the sequence {c n } = {b 1, a 1, b 2, a 2, b 3, a 3, }. That is, c n = a k if n = 2k and c n = b k if n = 2k + 1 where k 0. (a) Show that for all n 1 we have c n D and c n a. (b) Let ɛ > 0. Show that there exist positive integers N 1 and N 2 such that if n N 1 then a n a < ɛ and if n N 2 then b n a < ɛ. (c) Let N = 2N 1 + 2N Show that if n N then c n a < ɛ. Hence, lim n c n = a. Hint: Consider the cases n = 2k or n = 2k + 1. (d) Show that lim n f(c n ) = L for some number L. The next exercise establishes the fact that the two sequences {f(a n )} n=1 and {f(b n )} n=1 converge to the same limit.

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