# 1. Prove that the empty set is a subset of every set.

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1 1. Prove that the empty set is a subset of every set. Basic Topology Written by Men-Gen Tsai Proof: For any element x of the empty set, x is also an element of every set since x does not exist. Hence, the empty set is a subset of every set. 2. A complex number z is said to be algebraic if there are integers a 0,..., a n, not all zero, such that a 0 z n + a 1 z n a n 1 z + a n = 0. Prove that the set of all algebraic numbers is countable. Hint: For every positive integer N there are only finitely many equations with n + a 0 + a a n = N. Proof: For every positive integer N there are only finitely many equations with n + a 0 + a a n = N. (since 1 n N and 0 a 0 N). We collect those equations as C N. Hence C N is countable. For each algebraic number, we can form an equation and this equation lies in C M for some M and thus the set of all algebraic numbers is countable. 3. Prove that there exist real numbers which are not algebraic. Proof: If not, R 1 = { all algebraic numbers } is countable, a contradiction. 1

2 4. Is the set of all irrational real numbers countable? Solution: If R Q is countable, then R 1 = (R Q) Q is countable, a contradiction. Thus R Q is uncountable. 5. Construct a bounded set of real numbers with exactly three limit points. Solution: Put A = {1/n : n N} {1 + 1/n : n N} {2 + 1/n : n N}. A is bounded by 3, and A contains three limit points - 0, 1, Let E be the set of all limit points of a set E. Prove that S is closed. Prove that E and E have the same limit points. (Recall that E = E E.) Do E and E always have the same limit points? Proof: For any point p of X E, that is, p is not a limit point E, there exists a neighborhood of p such that q is not in E with q p for every q in that neighborhood. Hence, p is an interior point of X E, that is, X E is open, that is, E is closed. Next, if p is a limit point of E, then p is also a limit point of E since E = E E. If p is a limit point of E, then every neighborhood N r (p) of p contains a point q p such that q E. If q E, we completed the proof. So we suppose that q E E = E E. Then q is a limit point of E. Hence, N r (q) where r = 1 min(r d(p, q), d(p, q)) is a neighborhood of q and contains 2 a point x q such that x E. Note that N r (q) contains in N r (p) {p}. That is, x p and x is in N r (p). Hence, q also a limit point of E. Hence, E and E have the same limit points. 2

3 Last, the answer of the final sub-problem is no. Put E = {1/n : n N}, and E = {0} and (E ) = φ. 7. Let A 1, A 2, A 3,... be subsets of a metric space. (a) If B n = n i=1 A i, prove that B n = n i=1 A i, for n = 1, 2, 3,... (b) If B = i=1, prove that B i=1 A i. Show, by an example, that this inclusion can be proper. Proof of (a): (Method 1) B n is the smallest closed subset of X that contains B n. Note that A i is a closed subset of X that contains B n, thus n B n A i. i=1 If p B n B n, then every neighborhood of p contained a point q p such that q B n. If p is not in A i for all i, then there exists some neighborhood N ri (p) of p such that (N ri (p) p) A i = φ for all i. Take r = min{r 1, r 2,..., r n }, and we have N r (p) B n = φ, a contradiction. Thus p A i for some i. Hence that is, n B n A i. i=1 n B n = A i. i=1 (Method 2) Since n i=1 A i is closed and B n = n i=1 A i n i=1 A i, B n n i=1 A i. Proof of (b): Since B is closed and B B A i, B A i for all i. Hence B A i. Note: My example is A i = (1/i, ) for all i. Thus, A i = [1/i, ), and B = (0, ), B = [0, ). Note that 0 is not in A i for all i. Thus this inclusion can be proper. 3

4 8. Is every point of every open set E R 2 a limit point of E? Answer the same question for closed sets in R 2. Solution: For the first part of this problem, the answer is yes. (Reason): For every point p of E, p is an interior point of E. That is, there is a neighborhood N r (p) of p such that N r (p) is a subset of E. Then for every real r, we can choose a point q such that d(p, q) = 1/2 min(r, r ). Note that q p, q N r (p), and q N r (p). Hence, every neighborhood N r (p) contains a point q p such that q N r (p) E, that is, p is a limit points of E. For the last part of this problem, the answer is no. Consider A = {(0, 0)}. A = φ and thus (0, 0) is not a limit point of E. 9. Let E o denote the set of all interior points of a set E. (a) Prove that E o is always open. (b) Prove that E is open if and only if E o = E. (c) If G is contained in E and G is open, prove that G is contained in E o. (d) Prove that the complement of E o is the closure of the complement of E. (e) Do E and E always have the same interiors? (f) Do E and E o always have the same closures? Proof of (a): If E is non-empty, take p E o. We need to show that p (E o ) o. Since p E o, there is a neighborhood N r of p such that N r is contained in E. For each q N r, note that N s (q) is contained in N r (p), where s = min{d(p, q), r d(p, q)}. Hence q is also an interior point of E, that is, N r is contained in E o. Hence E o is always open. Proof of (b): ( ) It is clear that E o is contained in E. Since E is open, every point of E is an interior point of E, that is, E is contained in E o. Therefore E o = E. 4

5 ( ) Since every point of E is an interior point of E (E o (E) = E), E is open. Proof of (c): If p G, p is an interior point of G since G is open. Note that E contains G, and thus p is also an interior point of E. Hence p E o. Therefore G is contained in E o. (Thus E o is the biggest open set contained in E. Similarly, E is the smallest closed set containing E.) Proof of (d): Suppose p X E o. If p X E, then p X E clearly. If p E, then N is not contained in E for any neighborhood N of p. Thus N contains an point q X E. Note that q p, that is, p is a limit point of X E. Hence X E o is contained in X E. Next, suppose p X E. If p X E, then p X E o clearly. If p E, then every neighborhood of p contains a point q p such that q X E. Hence p is not an interior point of E. Hence X E is contained in X E o. Therefore X E o = X E. Solution of (e): No. Take X = R 1 and E = Q. Thus E o = φ and E o = (R 1 ) o = R 1 φ. Solution of (f): No. Take X = R 1 and E = Q. Thus E = R 1, and E o = φ = φ. 10. Let X be an infinite set. For p X and q X, define 1 (if p q) d(p, q) = 0 (if p = q) Prove that this is a metric. Which subsets of the resulting metric space are open? Which are closed? Which are compact? Proof: (a) d(p, q) = 1 > 0 if p q; d(p, p) = 0. (b) d(p, q) = d(q, p) since p = q implies q = p and p q implies q p. (c) d(p, q) d(p, r) + d(r, q) for any r X if p = q. If p q, then either r = p or 5

6 r = q, that is, r p or r q. Thus, d(p, q) = 1 d(p, r) + d(r, q). By (a)-(c) we know that d is a metric. Every subset of X is open and closed. We claim that for any p X, p is not a limit point. Since d(p, q) = 1 > 1/2 if q p, there exists an neighborhood N 1/2 (p) of p contains no points of q p such that q X. Hence every subset of X contains no limit points and thus it is closed. Since X S is closed for every subset S of X, S = X (X S) is open. Hence every subset of X is open. Every finite subset of X is compact. Let S = {p 1,..., p n } be finite. Consider an open cover {G α } of S. Since S is covered by G α, p i is covered by G αi, thus {G α1,..., G αn } is finite subcover of S. Hence S is compact. Next, suppose S is infinite. Consider an open cover {G p } of S, where G p = N 1 (p) 2 for every p S. Note that q is not in G p if q p. If S is compact, then S can be covered by finite subcover, say G p1,..., G pn. Then there exists q such that q p i for all i since S is infinite, a contradiction. Hence only every finite subset of X is compact. 11. For x R 1 and y R 1, define d 1 (x, y) = (x, y) 2, d 2 (x, y) = x y, d 3 (x, y) = x 2 y 2, d 4 (x, y) = x 2y, d 5 (x, y) = x y 1 + x y. 6

7 Determine, for each of these, whether it is a metric or not. Solution: (1) d 1 (x, y) is not a metric. Since d 1 (0, 2) = 4, d 1 (0, 1) = 1, and d 1 (1, 2) = 1, d 1 (0, 2) > d 1 (0, 1) + d 1 (1, 2). Thus d 1 (x, y) is not a metric. (2) d 2 (x, y) is a metric. (a) d(p, q) > 0 if p q; d(p, p) = 0. (b) d(p, q) = p q = q p = d(q, p). (c) p q p r + r q, p q p r + r q p r + r q. That is, d(p, q) d(p, r) + d(r, q). (3) d 3 (x, y) is not a metric since d 3 (1, 1) = 0. (4) d 4 (x, y) is not a metric since d 4 (1, 1) = 1 0. (5) d 5 (x, y) is a metric since x y is a metric. Claim: d(x, y) is a metric, then is also a metric. d (x, y) = d(x, y) 1 + d(x, y) Proof of Claim: (a) d (p, q) > 0 if p q; d(p, p) = 0. (b) d (p, q) = d (q, p). (c) Let x = d(p, q), y = d(p, r), and z = d(r, q). Then x y+z. d (p, q) d (p, r) + d (r, q) x 1 + x y 1 + y + z 1 + z x(1 + y)(1 + z) y(1 + z)(1 + x) + z(1 + x)(1 + y) x + xy + xz + xyz (y + xy + yz + xyz) + (z + xz + yz + xyz) x y + z + 2yz + xyz x y + z Thus, d is also a metric. 12. Let K R 1 consist of 0 and the numbers 1/n, for n = 1, 2, 3,... Prove that K is compact directly from the definition (without using the Heine-Borel theorem). 7

8 Proof: Suppose that {O α } is an arbitrary open covering of K. Let E {O α } consists 0. Since E is open and 0 E, 0 is an interior point of E. Thus there is a neighborhood N = N r (0) of 0 such that N E. Thus N contains 1 [1/r] + 1, 1 [1/r] + 2,... Next, we take finitely many open sets E n {O α } such that 1/n E n for n = 1, 2,..., [1/r]. Hence {E, E 1,..., E [1/r] is a finite subcover of K. Therefore, K is compact. Note: The unique limit point of K is 0. Suppose p 0 is a limit point of K. Clearly, 0 < p < 1. (p cannot be 1). Thus there exists n Z + such that 1 n + 1 < p < 1 n. Hence N r (p) where r = min{ 1 p, p 1 } contains no points of K, n n+1 a contradiction. 13. Construct a compact set of real numbers whose limit points form a countable set. Solution: Let K be consist of 0 and the numbers 1/n for n = 1, 2, 3,... Let xk = {xk : k K} and x + K = {x + k : k K} for x R 1. I take S n = (1 1 2 ) + K n 2, n+1 S = S n {1}. n=1 Claim: S is compact and the set of all limit points of S is K {1}. Clearly, S lies in [0, 1], that is, S is bounded in R 1. Note that S n [1 1 2 n, n+1 ]. By Exercise 12 and its note, I have that all limit points of S [0, 1) is 0, 1 2,..., 1 2 n,... 8

9 Clearly, 1 is also a limit point of S. Therefore, the set of all limit points of S is K {1}. Note that K {1} S, that is, K is compact. I completed the proof of my claim. 14. Give an example of an open cover of the segment (0, 1) which has no finite subcover. Solution: Take {O n } = {(1/n, 1)} for n = 1, 2, 3,... The following is my proof. For every x (0, 1), 1 x ( [1/x] + 1, 0) {O n} Hence {O n } is an open covering of (0, 1). Suppose there exists a finite subcovering ( 1, 1),..., ( 1, 1) n 1 n k where n 1 < n 2 <... < n k, respectively. Clearly 1 2n p any elements of that subcover, a contradiction. (0, 1) is not in Note: By the above we know that (0, 1) is not compact. 15. Show that Theorem 2.36 and its Corollary become false (in R 1, for example) if the word compact is replaced by closed or by bounded. Theorem 2.36: If {K α } is a collection of compact subsets of a metric space X such that the intersection of every finite subcollection of {K α } is nonempty, then K α is nonempty. Corollary: If {K n } is a sequence of nonempty compact sets such that K n contains K n+1 (n = 1, 2, 3,...), then K n is not empty. Solution: For closed: [n, ). For bounded: ( 1/n, 1/n) {0}. 9

10 16. Regard Q, the set of all rational numbers, as a metric space, with d(p, q) = p q. Let E be the set of all p Q such that 2 < p 2 < 3. Show that E is closed and bounded in Q, but that E is not compact. Is E open in Q? Proof: Let S = ( 2, 3) ( 3, 2). Then E = {p Q : p S}. Clearly, E is bounded in Q. Since Q is dense in R, every limit point of Q is in Q. (I regard Q as a metric space). Hence, E is closed in Q. To prove that E is not compact, we form a open covering of E as follows: {G α } = {N r (p) : p E and (p r, p + r) S} Surely, {G α } is a open covering of E. If E is compact, then there are finitely many indices α 1,..., α n such that E G α1... Gαn. For every G αi = N ri (p i ), take p = max 1 i n p i. Thus, p is the nearest point to 3. But N r (p) lies in E, thus [p + r, 3) cannot be covered since Q is dense in R, a contradiction. Hence E is not compact. Finally, the answer is yes. Take any p Q, then there exists a neighborhood N(p) of p contained in E. (Take r small enough where N r (p) = N(p), and Q is dense in R.) Thus every point in N(p) is also in Q. Hence E is also open. 17. Let E be the set of all x [0, 1] whose decimal expansion contains only the digits 4 and 7. Is E countable? Is E dense in [0, 1]? Is E compact? Is E perfect? Solution: E = { n=1 a n 10 : a n n = 4 or a n = 7 } 10

11 Claim: E is uncountable. Proof of Claim: If not, we list E as follows: x 1 = 0.a 11 a 12...a 1n... x 2 = 0.a 21 a 22...a 2n x k = 0.a k1 a k2...a kn (Prevent ending with all digits 9) Let x = 0.x 1 x 2...x n... where 4 if a nn = 7 x n = 7 if a nn = 4 By my construction, x / E, a contradiction. Thus E is uncountable. Claim: E is not dense in [0, 1]. Proof of Claim: Note that E (0.47, 0.74) = φ. Hence E is not dense in [0, 1]. Claim: E is compact. Proof of Claim: Clearly, E is bounded. For every limit point p of E, I show that p E. If not, write the decimal expansion of p as follows p = 0.p 1 p 2...p n... Since p / E, there exists the smallest k such that p k 4 and p k 7. When p k = 0, 1, 2, 3, select the smallest l such that p l = 7 if possible. (If l does not exist, then p < 0.4. Thus there is a neighborhood of p such that contains no points of E, a contradiction.) Thus 0.p 1...p l 1 4p l+1...p k 1 7 < p < 0.p 1...p k 1 4. Thus there is a neighborhood of p such that contains no points of E, a contradiction. 11

12 When p k = 5, 6, 0.p 1...p k 1 47 < p < 0.p 1...p k Thus there is a neighborhood of p such that contains no points of E, a contradiction. When p k = 8, 9, it is similar. Hence E is closed. Therefore E is compact. Claim: E is perfect. Proof of Claim: Take any p E, and I claim that p is a limit point of E. Write p = 0.p 1 p 2...p n... Let x k = 0.y 1 y 2...y n... where y n = p k if k n 4 if p n = 7 7 if p n = 4 Thus, x k p 0 as k. Also, x k p for all k. Hence p is a limit point of E. Therefore E is perfect. 18. Is there a nonempty perfect set in R 1 which contains no rational number? Solution: Yes. The following claim will show the reason. Claim: Given a measure zero set S, we have a perfect set P contains no elements in S. Proof of Claim: (due to SYLee). Since S has measure zero, there exists a collection of open intervals {I n } such that S I n and I n < 1. 12

13 Consider E = R 1 I n. E is nonempty since E has positive measure. Thus E is uncountable and E is closed. Therefore there exists a nonempty perfect set P contained in E by Exercise 28. P S = φ. Thus P is our required perfect set. 19. (a) If A and B are disjoint closed sets in some metric space X, prove that they are separated. (b) Prove the same for disjoint open sets. (c) Fix p X, δ > 0, define A to be the set of all q X for which d(p, q) < δ, define B similarly, with > in place of <. Prove that A and B are separated. (d) Prove that every connected metric space with at least two points is uncountable. Hint: Use (c). Proof of (a): Recall the definition of separated: A and B are separated if A B and A B are empty. Since A and B are closed sets, A = A and B = B. Hence A B = A B = A B = φ. Hence A and B are separated. Proof of (b): Suppose A B is not empty. Thus there exists p such that p A and p B. For p A, there exists a neighborhood N r (p) of p contained in A since A is open. For p B = B B, if p B, then p A B. Note that A and B are disjoint, and it s a contradiction. If p B, then p is a limit point of B. Thus every neighborhood of p contains a point q p such that q B. Take an neighborhood N r (p)of p containing a point q p such that q B. Note that N r (p) A, thus q A. With A and B are disjoint, we get a contradiction. Hence A (B) is empty. Similarly, A B is also empty. Thus A and B are separated. Proof of (c): Suppose A B is not empty. Thus there exists x such 13

14 that x A and x B. Since x A, d(p, x) < δ. x B = B B, thus if x B, then d(p, x) > δ, a contradiction. The only possible is x is a limit point of B. Hence we take a neighborhood N r (x) of x contains y with y B where r = δ d(x,p) 2. Clearly, d(y, p) > δ. But, d(y, p) d(y, x) + d(x, p) < r + d(x, p) δ d(x, p) = + d(x, p) 2 δ + d(x, p) = 2 < δ + δ = δ. 2 A contradiction. Hence A B is empty. Similarly, A B is also empty. Thus A and B are separated. Note: Take care of δ > 0. Think a while and you can prove the next sub-exercise. Proof of (d): Let X be a connected metric space. Take p X, q X with p q, thus d(p, q) > 0 is fixed. Let A = {x X : d(x, p) < δ}; B = {x X : d(x, p) > δ}. Take δ = δ t = td(p, q) where t (0, 1). Thus 0 < δ < d(p, q). p A since d(p, p) = 0 < δ, and q B since d(p, q) > δ. Thus A and B are non-empty. By (c), A and B are separated. If X = A B, then X is not connected, a contradiction. Thus there exists y t X such that y / A B. Let E = E t = {x X : d(x, p) = δ t } y t. For any real t (0, 1), E t is non-empty. Next, E t and E s are disjoint if t s (since a metric is well-defined). Thus X contains a uncount- 14

15 able set {y t : t (0, 1)} since (0, 1) is uncountable. Therefore, X is uncountable. Note: It is a good exercise. If that metric space contains only one point, then it must be separated. Similar Exercise Given by SYLee: (a) Let A = {x : d(p, x) < r} and B = {x : d(p, x) > r} for some p in a metric space X. Show that A, B are separated. (b) Show that a connected metric space with at least two points must be uncountable. [Hint: Use (a)] Proof of (a): By definition of separated sets, we want to show A B = φ, and B A = φ. In order to do these, it is sufficient to show A B = φ. Let x A B = φ, then we have: (1) x A d(x, p) r(2) x B d(x, p) > r It is impossible. So, A B = φ. Proof of (b): Suppose that C is countable, say C = a, b, x 3,... We want to show C is disconnected. So, if C is a connected metric space with at least two points, it must be uncountable. Consider the set S = {d(a, x i ) : x i C}, and thus let r R S and inf S < r < sup S. And construct A and B as in (a), we have C = A B, where A and B are separated. That is C is disconnected. Another Proof of (b): Let a C, b C, consider the continuous function f from C into R defined by f(x) = d(x, a). So, f(c) is connected and f(a) = 0, f(b) > 0. That is, f(c) is an interval. Therefore, C is uncountable. 20. Are closures and interiors of connected sets always connected? (Look at subsets of R 2.) 15

16 Solution: Closures of connected sets is always connected, but interiors of those is not. The counterexample is S = N 1 (2, 0) N 1 ( 2, 0) {x axis} R 2. Since S is path-connected, S is connect. But S o = N 1 (2) N 1 ( 2) is disconnected clearly. Claim: If S is a connected subset of a metric space, then S is connected. Pf of Claim: If not, then S is a union of two nonempty separated set A and B. Thus A B = A B = φ. Note that S = S T = A B T = (A B) T c = (A T c ) (B T c ) where T = S S. Thus (A T c ) B T c (A T c ) B T c A B = φ. Hence (A T c ) B T c = φ. Similarly, A T c (B T c ) = φ. Now we claim that both A T c and B T c are nonempty. Suppose that B T c = φ. Thus A T c = S A (S S) c = S A (A B S) c = S A ((A B) S c ) c = S 16

17 A ((A c B c ) S) = S (A S) (A A c B c ) = S A S = S. Thus B is empty, a contradiction. Thus B T c is nonempty. Similarly, A T c nonempty. Therefore S is a union of two nonempty separated sets, a contradiction. Hence S is connected. 21. Let A and B be separated subsets of some R k, suppose a A, b B, and define p(t) = (1 t)a + tb for t R 1. Put A 0 = p 1 (A), B 0 = p 1 (B). [Thus t A 0 if and only if p(t) A.] (a) Prove that A 0 and B 0 are separated subsets of R 1. (b) Prove that there exists t 0 (0, 1) such that p(t 0 ) / A B. (c) Prove that every convex subset of R k is connected. Proof of (a): I claim that A 0 B0 is empty. (B 0 A0 is similar). If not, take x A 0 B0. x A 0 and x B 0. x B 0 or x is a limit point of B 0. x B 0 will make x A 0 B0, that is, p(x) A B, a contradiction since A and B are separated. Claim: x is a limit point of B 0 p(x) is a limit point of B. Take any neighborhood N r of p(x), and p(t) lies in B for small enough t. More precisely, x r b a < t < x + r b a. Since x is a limit point of B 0, and (x r/ b a, x + r/ b a ) is a neighborhood N of x, thus N contains a point y x such that y B 0, that is, p(y) B. Also, p(y) N r. Therefore, p(x) is a limit point of B. Hence p(x) A B, a contradiction since A and B are separated. 17

18 Hence A 0 B0 is empty, that is, A 0 and B 0 are separated subsets of R 1. Proof of (b): Suppose not. For every t 0 (0, 1), neither p(t 0 ) A nor p(t 0 ) B (since A and B are separated). Also, p(t 0 ) A B for all t 0 (0, 1). Hence (0, 1) = A 0 B0, a contradiction since (0, 1) is connected. I completed the proof. Proof of (c): Let S be a convex subset of R k. If S is not connected, then S is a union of two nonempty separated sets A and B. By (b), there exists t 0 (0, 1) such that p(t 0 ) / A B. But S is convex, p(t 0 ) must lie in A B, a contradiction. Hence S is connected. 22. A metric space is called separable if it contains a countable dense subset. Show that R k is separable. Hint: Consider the set of points which have only rational coordinates. Proof: Consider S = the set of points which have only rational coordinates. For any point x = (x 1, x 2,..., x k ) R k, we can find a rational sequence {r ij } x j for j = 1,..., k since Q is dense in R 1. Thus, r i = (r i1, r i2,..., r ik ) x and r i S for all i. Hence S is dense in R k. Also, S is countable, that is, S is a countable dense subset in R k, R k is separable. 23. A collection {V α } of open subsets of X is said to be a base for X if the following is true: For every x X and every open set G X such that x G, we have x V α G for some α. In other words, every open set in X is the union of a subcollection of {V α }. Prove that every separable metric space has a countable base. Hint: Take all neighborhoods with rational radius and center in some countable dense subset of X. 18

19 Proof: Let X be a separable metric space, and S be a countable dense subset of X. Let a collection {V α } = { all neighborhoods with rational radius and center in S }. We claim that {V α } is a base for X. For every x X and every open set G X such that x G, there exists a neighborhood N r (p) of p such that N r (p) G since x is an interior point of G. Since S is dense in X, there exists {s n } x. Take a rational number r n such that r n < r, and {V 2 α} N rn (s n ) N r (p) for enough large n. Hence we have x V α G for some α. Hence {V α } is a base for X. 24. Let X be a metric space in which every infinite subset has a limit point. Prove that X is separable. Hint: Fix δ > 0, and pick x 1 X. Having chosen x 1,..., x j X, choose x j+1, if possible, so that d(x i, x j+1 ) δ for i = 1,..., j. Show that this process must stop after finite number of steps, and that X can therefore be covered by finite many neighborhoods of radius δ. Take δ = 1/n(n = 1, 2, 3,...), and consider the centers of the corresponding neighborhoods. Proof: Fix δ > 0, and pick x 1 X. Having chosen x 1,..., x j X, choose x j+1, if possible, so that d(x i, x j+1 ) δ for i = 1,..., j. If this process cannot stop, then consider the set A = {x 1, x 2,..., x k }. If p is a limit point of A, then a neighborhood N δ/3 (p) of p contains a point q p such that q A. q = x k for only one k N. If not, d(x i, x j ) d(x i, p) + d(x j, p) δ/3 + δ/3 < δ, and it contradicts the fact that d(x i, x j ) δ for i j. Hence, this process must stop after finite number of steps. Suppose this process stop after k steps, and X is covered by N δ (x 1 ), N δ (x 2 ),..., N δ (x k ), that is, X can therefore be covered by finite many neighborhoods of radius δ. Take δ = 1/n(n = 1, 2, 3,...), and consider the set A of the centers of 19

20 the corresponding neighborhoods. Fix p X. Suppose that p is not in A, and every neighborhood N r (p). Note that N r/2 (p) can be covered by finite many neighborhoods N s (x 1 ),..., N s (x k ) of radius s = 1/n where n = [2/r] + 1 and x i A for i = 1,..., k. Hence, d(x 1, p) d(x 1, q) + d(q, p) r/2 + s < r where q N r/2 (p) N s (x 1 ). Therefore, x 1 N r (p) and x 1 p since p is not in A. Hence, p is a limit point of A if p is not in A, that is, A is a countable dense subset, that is, X is separable. 25. Prove that every compact metric space K has a countable base, and that K is therefore separable. Hint: For every positive integer n, there are finitely many neighborhood of radius 1/n whose union covers K. Proof: For every positive integer n, there are finitely many neighborhood of radius 1/n whose union covers K (since K is compact). Collect all of them, say {V α }, and it forms a countable collection. We claim {V α } is a base. For every x X and every open set G X, there exists N r (x) such that N r (x) G since x is an interior point of G. Hence x N m (p) {V α } for some p where m = [2/r] + 1. For every y N m (p), we have d(y, x) d(y, p) + d(p, x) < m + m = 2m < r. Hence N m (p) G, that is, V α G for some α, and therefore {V α } is a countable base of K. Next, collect all of the center of V α, say D, and we claim D is dense in K (D is countable since V α is countable). For all p K and any ɛ > 0 we can find N n (x n ) {V α } where n = [1/ɛ] + 1. Note that x n D for all n and d(p, x n ) 0 as n. Hence D is dense in K. 20

21 26. Let X be a metric space in which every infinite subsets has a limit point. Prove that X is compact. Hint: By Exercises 23 and 24, X has a countable base. It follows that every open cover of X has a countable subcover {G n }, n = 1, 2, 3,... If no finite subcollection of {G n } covers X, then the complement F n of G 1... Gn is nonempty for each n, but F n is empty. If E is a set contains a point from each F n, consider a limit point of E, and obtain a contradiction. Proof: By Exercises 23 and 24, X has a countable base. It follows that every open cover of X has a countable subcover {G n }, n = 1, 2, 3,... If no finite subcollection of {G n } covers X, then the complement F n of G 1... Gn is nonempty for each n, but F n is empty. If E is a set contains a point from each F n, consider a limit point of E. Note that F k F k+1... and F n is closed for all n, thus p lies in F k for all k. Hence p lies in F n, but F n is empty, a contradiction. 27. Define a point p in a metric space X to be a condensation point of a set E X if every neighborhood of p contains uncountably many points of E. Suppose E R k, E is uncountable, and let P be the set of all condensation points of E. Prove that P is perfect and that at most countably many points of E are not in P. In other words, show that P c E is at most countable. Hint: Let {V n } be a countable base of R k, let W be the union of those V n for which E V n is at most countable, and show that P = W c. Proof: Let {V n } be a countable base of R k, let W be the union of those V n for which E V n is at most countable, and we will show that P = W c. Suppose x P. (x is a condensation point of E). If x V n for some n, then E V n is uncountable since V n is open. Thus x W c. (If x W, then there exists V n such that x V n and E V n 21

22 is uncountable, a contradiction). Therefore P W c. Conversely, suppose x W c. x / V n for any n such that E V n is countable. Take any neighborhood N(x) of x. Take x V n N(x), and E V n is uncountable. Thus E N(x) is also uncountable, x is a condensation point of E. Thus W c P. Therefore P = W c. Note that W is countable, and thus W W E = P c E is at most countable. To show that P is perfect, it is enough to show that P contains no isolated point. (since P is closed). If p is an isolated point of P, then there exists a neighborhood N of p such that N E = φ. p is not a condensation point of E, a contradiction. Therefore P is perfect. 28. Prove that every closed set in a separable metric space is the union of a (possible empty) perfect set and a set which is at most countable. (Corollary: Every countable closed set in R k has isolated points.) Hint: Use Exercise 27. Proof: Let X be a separable metric space, let E be a closed set on X. Suppose E is uncountable. (If E is countable, there is nothing to prove.) Let P be the set of all condensation points of E. Since X has a countable base, P is perfect, and P c E is at most countable by Exercise 27. Since E is closed, P E. Also, P c E = E P. Hence E = P (E P ). For corollary: if there is no isolated point in E, then E is perfect. Thus E is uncountable, a contradiction. Note: It s also called Cauchy-Bendixon Theorem. 29. Prove that every open set in R 1 is the union of an at most countable collection of disjoint segments. Hint: Use Exercise

23 Proof: (due to H.L.Royden, Real Analysis) Since O is open, for each x in O, there is a y > x such that (x, y) O. Let b = sup{y : (x, y) O}. Let a = inf{z : (z, x) O}. Then a < x < b, and I x = (a, b) is an open interval containing x. Now I x O, for if w I x, say x < w < b, we have by the definition of b a number y > w such that (x, y) O, and so w O). Moreover, b / O, for if b O, then for some ɛ > 0 we have (b ɛ, b+ɛ) O, whence (x, b + ɛ) O, contradicting the definition of b. Similarly, a / O. Consider the collection of open intervals {I x }, x O. Since each x O is contained in I x, and each I x O, we have O = I x. Let (a, b) and (c, d) be two intervals in this collection with a point in common. Then we must have c < b and a < d. Since c / O, it does not belong to (a, b) and we have c a. Since a / O and hence not to (c, d), we have a c. Thus a = c. Similarly, b = d, and (a, b) = (c, d). Thus two different intervals in the collection {I x } must be disjoint. Thus O is the union of the disjoint collection {I x } of open intervals, and it remains only to show that this collection is countable. But each open interval contains a rational number since Q is dense in R. Since we have a collection of disjoint open intervals, each open interval contains a different rational number, and the collection can be put in one-to-one correspondence with a subset of the rationals. Thus it is a countable collection. 30. Imitate the proof of Theorem 2.43 to obtain the following result: If R k = 1 F n, where each F n is a closed subset of R k, then at least one F n has a nonempty interior. Equivalent statement: If G n is a dense open subset of R k, for 23

24 n = 1, 2, 3,..., then 1 in R k ). G n is not empty (in fact, it is dense (This is a special case of Baire s theorem; see Exercise 22, Chap. 3, for the general case.) Proof: I prove Baire s theorem directly. Let G n be a dense open subset of R k for n = 1, 2, 3,... I need to prove that 1 any nonempty open subset of R k is not empty. G n intersects Let G 0 is a nonempty open subset of R k. Since G 1 is dense and G 0 is nonempty, G 0 G1 φ. Suppose x 1 G 0 G1. Since G 0 and G 1 are open, G 0 G1 is also open, that is, there exist a neighborhood V 1 such that V 1 G 0 G1. Next, since G 2 is a dense open set and V 1 is a nonempty open set, V 1 G2 φ. Thus, I can find a nonempty open set V 2 such that V 2 V 1 G2. Suppose I have get n nonempty open sets V 1, V 2,..., V n such that V 1 G 0 G1 and V i+1 V i Gn+1 for all i = 1, 2,..., n 1. Since G n+1 is a dense open set and V n is a nonempty open set, V n Gn+1 is a nonempty open set. Thus I can find a nonempty open set V n+1 such that V n+1 V n Gn+1. By induction, I can form a sequence of open sets {V n : n Z + } such that V 1 G 0 G1 and V i+1 V i Gi+1 for all n Z +. Since V 1 is bounded and V 1 V 2... V n..., by Theorem 2.39 I know that V n φ. n=1 Since V 1 G 0 G1 and V n+1 G n+1, G 0 ( n=1 G n ) φ. Proved. Note: By Baire s theorem, I ve proved the equivalent statement. Next, F n has a empty interior if and only if G n = R k F n is dense in R k. Hence we completed all proof. 24

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