White Paper. Calculate Reliable LED Lifetime Performance in Optocouplers. Introduction. LED Reliability Stress Tests.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "White Paper. Calculate Reliable LED Lifetime Performance in Optocouplers. Introduction. LED Reliability Stress Tests."

Transcription

2 Acceleration Factor Based on Black Model An Acceleration Factor (AF) based on the Black Model can be used to correlate the actual HTOL stress test data points, taken at elevated temperatures and stress levels in short periods of time, to the expected lifetime according to the actual application operating conditions of the optocoupler. N Jacc Ea 1 1 AF = exp Equation (1) Jnorm K Tnorm Tacc AF = Acceleration Factor J acc = Accelerated current density (HTOL stress input current) J 0 ma AF norm = Nominal operation current density (application operating input current at 10 duty cycle) = exp 5 ma 8.6 x Ea = Activation energy of ev K = Boltzmann s constant of 8.6 x 10-5 ev/k T norm = Nominal operating temperature (application ambient operating temperature) T acc = Accelerated operating temperature (HTOL stress temperature) N = Model parameter of For the same lifetime performance, the field lifetime of the LED can be projected according to following equation: LED projected field hours = AF x LED stress hours Equation () N J acc Ea 1 1 AF To = illustrate the exp AF as multiplier, consider Equation a numerical (1) example of an Avago optocoupler s stress data conditions: I F = 0 Jnorm ma, temperature K Tnorm Tacc = 15 C, and LED type AA. At a stress test length of 1000 hours, the is measured as 99.%. If that optocoupler is used with application conditions of I F = 5 ma (assume 10 duty cycle operation) and an ambient temperature of 60 C, the AF is calculated as: 0 ma AF = exp 5 ma 8.6 x Equation (1) The projected field lifetime for the LED = AF stress hours = ,000 = 184,767 hours (or 1 years). This is the projected field time of the LED type AA that will change to 99.%. With the AF value calculated, all data points of stress hours are able to map to the expected field lifetime time of the LED. The LEDs in Avago optocouplers are fabricated from either Aluminum Gallium Arsenide (AlGaAs) type 1, or Gallium Arsenide Phosphide (GaAsP). Type 1 AlGaAs LEDs are mainly used in optocoupler product families of widebody 400 mil DIP-8 and 500 mil DIP-10 packages that house digital optocouplers, isolation amplifiers, gate drivers and IPM drivers. Type AlGaAs LEDs are mainly used in Avago s optocoupler families that handle high-speed digital signals and low-power 10 Mbit/s digital optocouplers. Lastly, the GaAsP LEDs are used in a broad range of Avago optocouplers, from digital optocouplers, analog optocouplers, gate drivers for intelligent power management and many other applications. Tables 1, and 3 show the Avago optocoupler product families and part numbers LED type. Each LED type employs a different manufacturing process (diffusion type or epitaxial growth), and different doping content concentration. This allows the LED designer to customize the LED light output power vs current flow to address the different speed and power performance requirements of the optocoupler. Among the three different LED types, GaAsP-based LEDs are the most mature, but have the lowest light output power, while AlGaAs type 1 offers the highest light output power. This allows AlGaAs type 1 LEDs to be used in the more stringent isolation applications that require high creepage/clearance distances inside the optocoupler package. AlGaAs type LED has a performance level that falls between the other two LED types and can be used in a wide range of applications that require speed or power performance. All three LED types have similar characteristics, with < loss from the original value after 30 field years of typical operation conditions.

3 Table 1. Avago optocouplers with AlGaAs (type 1) LED 10 MBD LOGIC ACNV601, ACNW61L, ACPL-C61L 5 MBD LOGIC HCNW11 1 MBD TRANSISTOR ACPL-M50L/054L 100 KBD DARLINGTON HCNW138 ANALOG HCNR00/01, HCNW456 ISOLATION AMPLIFIER ACPL-796J/C784/785J, ACPL-7900/7970/C797/C790, HCPL-7840/7860 GATE DRIVER ACPL-331J/33J, ACNW3190, HCNW310, HCPL-316J/314J IPM DRIVER ACNV4506, ACPL-P484/W484,- HCNW4503/4506 Table. Avago optocouplers with AlGaAs (type ) LED 10 MBD LOGIC ACPL-M61L/064L/W61L/K64L 8 MBD LOGIC HCPL-0300/ KBD DARLINGTON HCPL-070A/4701 ANALOG ACPL-K376, HCPL-456 Table 3. Avago optocouplers with GaAsP LED HIGH SPEED CMOS HCPL-0708/ MBD CMOS ACPL-071L/074L 10 MBD LOGIC 6N137, HCPL-611/630/M611 5 MBD LOGIC HCPL-001/31 1 MBD TRANSISTOR 6N136, HCPL-050L/053L, HCPL-50L/53L 100 KBD DARLINGTON 4N45, 6N138, HCPL-070L/073L, HCPL-70L/73L/M700 GATE DRIVER ACPL-3130/W30/P314/H31, HCPL-310 IPM DRIVER ACPL-4800/P480/W454, HCPL-0453/0454/4504/ M456 In Figures 1,, and 3, the performance in is plotted for the different LED types over 30 field years of operation at an ambient temperature of 80 C. As the graphs show, the LED types change by no more than (the maintains greater than 9 of its initial value) typically at the end of 30 field years operation. Depending on the system design to expected lifespan usage, the calculations allow designers more flexibility in choosing the I F value. They can thus optimize their system designs to achieve the best combination reliable operating lifetime and power consumption. Figure 4 illustrates the trend of LED performance at different forward LED input current (I F ) for AlGaAs (type ) LED. As the graph shows, the LED has minimal change of less than across the optocoupler s recommended operating range for I F and for over a 0+ year lifetime. In general, there are three basic factors to consider to maximize the LED operating lifetime: 1. Operate the LED at a lower I F.. Operate at lower duty cycle (less than 10). 3. Operate at an ambient temperature of less than 15 C. In fact, Avago optocouplers with GaAsP LED can project a few centuries even into a millennium lifetime performance of drop. Figure 5 shows the centennial reliability performance of GaAsP LED at recommended driving current range (5 duty cycle) and operating temperate range. 3

4 AlGaAs (type 1) LED Performance vs. Figure 1. performance vs. field years for AlGaAs (Type 1) LED (operating I F = 16 ma, 5 duty cycle, T A = 80 C) AlGaAs (type ) LED Performance vs. Figure. performance vs. field years for AlGaAs (Type ) LED (operating I F = 5 ma, 10 duty cycle, T A = 80 C) GaAs LED Performance vs. Figure 3. performance vs. field years for GaAsP LED (operating I F = 16 ma, 5 duty cycle, T A = 80 C) AlGaAs (type ) LED Performance at different I F 0 ma 15 ma 10 ma 5 ma 3 ma Figure 4. performance vs. field years for AlGaAs (Type ) LED at different I F (5 duty cycle, T A = 80 C) Avago Optocouplers (GaAsP LED) Centennial Performance LED input current I F (ma) Operating temp 40 C 60 C 85 C 105 C Note: I F = 0 ma condition projects till.6 field years due to actual stress data collected up to 10K hrs. This does not mean LED fails at.6 projected field years. Longer >10K hrs stress data points will be needed for projecting longer field years. Figure 5. Centennial performance for GaAsP LED 4

5 Summary Avago optocouplers have been operating in harsh and hazardous applications, handling high voltages and transients with continued success for many years. The LED in Avago optocouplers, unlike inferior phototransistors, has excellent reliability performance (< drop) over 30 years of field operation. The long lifetime of the LEDs gives designers greater flexibility when selecting the optimal optocoupler for their application. Designers can make the most cost-effective tradeoff between the optimal level of reliable operating lifetime for their system and low power consumption. Reference 1. Reliability Prediction Methods for Electronic Products, Reliability EDGE volume 9, Issue 1, June Degradation and Ageing Problem of Optocouplers, Bajenesco, Electrotechnical Conference, For product information and a complete list of distributors, please go to our web site: Avago, Avago Technologies, and the A logo are trademarks of Avago Technologies in the United States and other countries. Data subject to change. Copyright Avago Technologies. All rights reserved. AV0-3401EN - July 4, 014

Optocouplers. Designer s Guide. About This Designer s Guide. How to Use This Guide. How to Order

Optocouplers Designer s Guide About This Designer s Guide Avago Technologies optocouplers can be used in an array of isolation applications ranging from power supply and motor control circuits to data

Design and Applications of HCPL-3020 and HCPL-0302 Gate Drive Optocouplers

Design and Applications of HCPL-00 and HCPL-00 Gate Drive Optocouplers Application Note 00 Introduction The HCPL-00 (DIP-) and HCPL-00 (SO-) consist of GaAsP LED optically coupled to an integrated circuit

Fiber Optic and Isolation Solutions for Renewable Energy Applications

and Isolation Solutions for Renewable Energy Applications Your Imagination, Our Innovation Sense Illuminate Connect Avago Technologies offers a wide range of fiber optic transmitters, receivers, and transceivers,

HLCP-J100, HDSP-4820, HDSP-4830 & HDSP-4832 10-Element Bar Graph Array. Features

HLCP-J, HDSP-, HDSP- & HDSP- -Element Bar Graph Array Data Sheet Description These -element LED arrays are designed to display information in easily recognizable bar graph form. The packages are end stackable

Data Sheet. HFBR-0600Z Series SERCOS Fiber Optic Transmitters and Receivers

HFBR-0600Z Series SERCOS Fiber Optic Transmitters and Receivers Data Sheet SERCOS SERCOS is a SErial Realtime COmmunication System, a standard digital interface for communication between controls and drives

Time to upgrade your current sensing technology!

Your Imagination. Our Innovation. Time to upgrade your current sensing technology! Second Edition Avago Technologies Optocoupler Current and Voltage Sensing Leading edge current sensing solutions for industrial

Features. Applications. Truth Table. Close

ASSR-8, ASSR-9 and ASSR-8 Form A, Solid State Relay (Photo MOSFET) (0V/0.A/0Ω) Data Sheet Description The ASSR-XX Series consists of an AlGaAs infrared light-emitting diode (LED) input stage optically

# 33. Estimating Laser Diode Lifetimes and Activation Energy

# 33 Estimating Laser Diode Lifetimes and Activation Energy Estimating Laser Diode Lifetimes and Activation Energy By: Patrick Gale Introduction The estimation of laser diode lifetime is important to both

White Paper. Fiber Optics in Solar Energy Applications. By Alek Indra. Introduction. Solar Power Generation

s in Solar Energy Applications White Paper By Alek Indra Introduction Solar energy has recently become a popular alternative energy source to meet demands around the world due to the fluctuation of oil/coal

4N25 Phototransistor Optocoupler General Purpose Type

4N Phototransistor Optocoupler General Purpose Type Data Sheet Lead (Pb) Free RoHS 6 fully compliant RoHS 6 fully compliant options available; -xxxe denotes a lead-free product Description The 4N is an

Data Sheet. ACPL-077L Low Power 3.3 V / 5 V High Speed CMOS Optocoupler Design for System Level Reliability. Description. Features. Functional Diagram

ACPL-077L Low Power 3.3 V / 5 V High Speed CMOS Optocoupler Design for System Level Reliability Data Sheet Lead (Pb) Free RoHS 6 fully compliant RoHS 6 fully compliant options available; -xxxe denotes

Data Sheet. HLCP-A100 LED Light Bars

HLCP-A100 LED Light Bars Data Sheet HLCP-A100/-B100/-C100/D100/-E100/-F100/-G100/-H100 HLMP-2300/-2350/-2400/-2450/-2500/-2550 HLMP-2600/-2620/-2635/-2655/-2670/-2685 HLMP-2700/-2720/-2735/-2755/-2770/-2785

HCPL-2201, HCPL-2202, HCPL-2211, HCPL-2212, HCPL-2231, HCPL-2232, HCPL-0201, HCPL-0211, HCNW2201, HCNW2211. Logic Gate Optocouplers.

HCPL-, HCPL-, HCPL-, HCPL-, HCPL-, HCPL-, HCPL-, HCPL-, HCNW, HCNW Very High CMR, Wide Logic Gate Optocouplers Data Sheet Lead (Pb) Free RoHS fully compliant RoHS fully compliant options available; -xxxe

HLMP-1600, HLMP-1601, HLMP-1620, HLMP-1621 HLMP-1640, HLMP-1641, HLMP-3600, HLMP-3601 HLMP-3650, HLMP-3651, HLMP-3680, HLMP-3681

HLMP-16, HLMP-161, HLMP-162, HLMP-1621 HLMP-16, HLMP-161, HLMP-36, HLMP-361 HLMP-365, HLMP-3651, HLMP-368, HLMP-3681 T 1 3 / (5 mm), T-1 (3 mm), 5 Volt, 12 Volt, Integrated Resistor LED Lamps Data Sheet

Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output, AC Input

Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output, AC Input DESCRIPTION The SFH62A (DIP) and SFH626 (SMD) feature a high current transfer ratio, low coupling capacitance and high isolation voltage. These couplers have

ACPL-061L, ACPL-C61L and ACNW261L Ultra Low Power 10 MBd Digital CMOS Optocoupler. Features. Applications TRUTH TABLE (POSITIVE LOGIC)

ACPL-6L, ACPL-C6L and ACNW26L Ultra Low Power MBd Digital CMOS Optocoupler Data Sheet Description The ACPL-6L/ACPL-C6L/ACNW26L is an optically coupled optocoupler that combines an AlGaAs light emitting

Data Sheet. ACPL-M21L, ACPL-021L, ACPL-024L, ACPL-W21L and ACPL-K24L Low Power, 5 MBd Digital CMOS Optocoupler. Description.

ACPL-ML, ACPL-L, ACPL-L, ACPL-WL and ACPL-KL Low Power, MBd Digital CMOS Optocoupler Data Sheet Lead (Pb) Free RoHS fully compliant RoHS fully compliant options available; -xxxe denotes a lead-free product

"Reliability and MTBF Overview"

"Reliability and MTBF Overview" Prepared by Scott Speaks Vicor Reliability Engineering Introduction Reliability is defined as the probability that a device will perform its required function under stated

AS2815. 1.5A Low Dropout Voltage Regulator Adjustable & Fixed Output, Fast Response

1.5A Low Dropout oltage Regulator Adjustable & Fixed Output, Fast Response FEATURES Adjustable Output Down To 1.2 Fixed Output oltages 1.5, 2.5, 3.3, 5.0 Output Current of 1.5A Low Dropout oltage 1.1 Typ.

Avoiding AC Capacitor Failures in Large UPS Systems

Avoiding AC Capacitor Failures in Large UPS Systems White Paper #60 Revision 0 Executive Summary Most AC power capacitor failures experienced in large UPS systems are avoidable. Capacitor failures can

Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output, with Base Connection

4N25, 4N26, 4N27, 4N28 Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output, FEATURES A 6 B Isolation test voltage 5000 V RMS Interfaces with common logic families C 2 5 C Input-output coupling capacitance < pf NC 3 4

Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output, with Base Connection

CNY7 Optocoupler, Phototransistor FEATURES Isolation test voltage 5 V RMS A 6 B Long term stability i79 C NC 5 C E Industry standard dual-in-line package Lead (Pb-free component Component in accordance

HIGH SPEED-10 MBit/s LOGIC GATE OPTOCOUPLERS

DESCRIPTION The, /6 single-channel and /6 dual-channel optocouplers consist of a 5 nm AlGaAS LED, optically coupled to a very high speed integrated photodetector logic gate with a strobable output. This

Diodes and Transistors

Diodes What do we use diodes for? Diodes and Transistors protect circuits by limiting the voltage (clipping and clamping) turn AC into DC (voltage rectifier) voltage multipliers (e.g. double input voltage)

Low Voltage, Resistor Programmable Thermostatic Switch AD22105

a Low Voltage, Resistor Programmable Thermostatic Switch AD22105 FEATURES User-Programmable Temperature Setpoint 2.0 C Setpoint Accuracy 4.0 C Preset Hysteresis Wide Supply Range (+2.7 V dc to +7.0 V dc)

Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output, with Base Connection

HA/HA2/HA3/HA4/HA5 FEATURES Interfaces with common logic families Input-output coupling capacitance < pf Industry standard dual-in line 6-pin package A C NC 2 3 6 5 4 B C E Isolation test voltage: 5300

Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output, Dual Channel, SOIC-8 Package

ILD25T, ILD26T, ILD27T, ILD211T, ILD213T Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output, Dual Channel, SOIC-8 Package i17925 A1 C2 A3 C4 i17918-2 8C 7E 6C 5E DESCRIPTION The ILD25T, ILD26T, ILD27T, ILD211T, and ILD213T

Solid State Detectors = Semi-Conductor based Detectors

Solid State Detectors = Semi-Conductor based Detectors Materials and their properties Energy bands and electronic structure Charge transport and conductivity Boundaries: the p-n junction Charge collection

CS4525 Power Calculator

1. OVERVIEW CS4525 Power Calculator The CS4525 Power Calculator provides many important application-specific performance numbers for the CS4525 based on user-supplied design parameters. The Power Calculator

Temperature Sensors. Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) Thermistors IC Temperature Sensors

Temperature Sensors Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTDs) Thermistors IC Temperature Sensors Drew Gilliam GE/MfgE 330: Introduction to Mechatronics 03.19.2003 Introduction There are a wide variety of

Digital Isolator Evolution Drives Optocoupler Replacement

Digital Isolator Evolution Drives Optocoupler Replacement Introduction Optocouplers have existed in various forms since the late 1960s and find use in many different applications. Because optocouplers

Small Optical Encoder Modules 480lpi Digital Output. Features. Applications VCC 3 CHANNEL A 2 CHANNEL B 4 GND 1

HEDS-9730, HEDS-9731 Small Optical Encoder Modules 480lpi Digital Output Data Sheet Description The HEDS-973X is a high performance incremental encoder module. When operated in conjunction with either

Conversion Between Analog and Digital Signals

ELET 3156 DL - Laboratory #6 Conversion Between Analog and Digital Signals There is no pre-lab work required for this experiment. However, be sure to read through the assignment completely prior to starting

Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output, with Base Connection

Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output, with Base Connection FEATURES i794-4 DESCRIPTION This datasheet presents five families of Vishay industry standard single channel phototransistor couplers. These families

EVALUATION KIT AVAILABLE Broadband, Two-Output, Low-Noise Amplifier for TV Tuner Applications MAX2130. Maxim Integrated Products 1

9-86; Rev ; 8/ EVALUATION KIT AVAILABLE Broadband, Two-Output, Low-Noise General Description The broadband, low-distortion, low-noise, two-output amplifier performs preamp, loop-out, and buffer functions

ASSR-1410, ASSR-1411 and ASSR-1420 General Purpose, Form A, Solid State Relay (Photo MOSFET) (60V/0.6A/1Ω) Features. Applications. Truth Table.

ASSR-, ASSR- and ASSR- General Purpose, Form A, Solid State Relay (Photo MOSFET) (V/.A/Ω) Data Sheet Lead (Pb) Free RoHS fully compliant RoHS fully compliant options available; -xxxe denotes a lead-free

Cold-Junction-Compensated K-Thermocoupleto-Digital Converter (0 C to +1024 C)

19-2235; Rev 1; 3/02 Cold-Junction-Compensated K-Thermocoupleto-Digital General Description The performs cold-junction compensation and digitizes the signal from a type-k thermocouple. The data is output

R&D Engineer. equipment. the power

Application Note APT0406 Using NTC Temperature sensor integrated into power module Pierre-Laurent Doumergue R&D Engineer Microsemi Power Module Products 26 rue de Campilleau 33 520 Bruges, France Introduction:

Application Examples

ISHAY SEMICONDUCTORS www.vishay.com Optocouplers and Solid-State Relays Application Note 2 INTRODUCTION Optocouplers are used to isolate signals for protection and safety between a safe and a potentially

Application Note Noise Frequently Asked Questions

: What is? is a random signal inherent in all physical components. It directly limits the detection and processing of all information. The common form of noise is white Gaussian due to the many random

JD(Doug) Rooks Western Area Applications Manager

AC vs DC LED Design/Benefits JD(Doug) Rooks Western Area Applications Manager Seoul Semiconductor Product Summary Acriche Side View LED Dot Matrix Z-Power LED Chip LED Lamp LED Custom Display Deep UV Top

AT-41486 Up to 6 GHz Low Noise Silicon Bipolar Transistor

AT- Up to 6 GHz Low Noise Silicon Bipolar Transistor Data Sheet Description Avago s AT- is a general purpose NPN bipolar transistor that offers excellent high frequency performance. The AT- is housed in

K817P/ K827PH/ K847PH. Optocoupler with Phototransistor Output. Vishay Semiconductors. Description. Applications. Features.

Optocoupler with Phototransistor Output Description The K817P/ K827PH/ K847PH consist of a phototransistor optically coupled to a gallium arsenide infrared-emitting diode in an 4-lead up to 16 lead plastic

Understanding Low Drop Out (LDO) Regulators

Understanding Low Drop Out (LDO) Regulators Michael Day, Texas Instruments ABSTRACT This paper provides a basic understanding of the dropout performance of a low dropout linear regulator (LDO). It shows

Hello and Welcome to this presentation on LED Basics. In this presentation we will look at a few topics in semiconductor lighting such as light

Hello and Welcome to this presentation on LED Basics. In this presentation we will look at a few topics in semiconductor lighting such as light generation from a semiconductor material, LED chip technology,

Errors Due to Shared Leadwires in Parallel Strain Gage Circuits

Micro-Measurements Strain Gages and Instruments Errors Due to Shared Leadwires in Parallel Strain Gage Circuits TN-516 1. Introduction The usual, and preferred, practice with multiple quarterbridge strain

LM337. Three-terminal adjustable negative voltage regulators. Features. Description

Three-terminal adjustable negative voltage regulators Datasheet - production data current limit, thermal overload protection and safe area protection. All overload protection circuitry remains fully functional

Analog Optical Isolators VACTROLS

Analog Optical Isolators VACTROLS What Are Analog Optical Isolators? PerkinElmer Optoelectronics has been a leading manufacturer of analog optical isolators for over twenty years and makes a broad range

www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242

Distributed by: www.jameco.com 1-800-831-4242 The content and copyrights of the attached material are the property of its owner. LF411 Low Offset, Low Drift JFET Input Operational Amplifier General Description

White Paper. Safety Considerations When Using Optocouplers and Alternative Isolators for Providing Protection Against Electrical Hazards.

Safety Considerations When Using Optocouplers and Alternative Isolators for Providing Protection Against Electrical Hazards White Paper Introduction Optocouplers and alternative isolation technologies

High-Reliability Diode Lasers for Gesture Recognition. Applying Telecommunications Reliability Design to Consumer Electronics

High-Reliability Diode Lasers for Gesture Recognition Applying Telecommunications Reliability Design to Consumer Electronics www.lumentum.com Application Note A wide range of consumer-electronics applications

P2N LED. High Power LED PRODUCT DATASHEET. Introduction. RoHS Compliant

PRODUCT DATASHEET P2N LED High Power LED Introduction The P2N LED brings industry leading technology to the solid state lighting market with its high quality and performance. With a silicone lens, P2N

LDO03C/LDO06C/LDO10C

NEW LDO03C/LDO06C/LDO10C A p p l i c a t i o n N o t e 1 8 6 1. Introduction 2 2. Models Features 2 3. General Description Electrical Description 2 Physical Construction 2 4. Features and Functions Wide

1.5A L.D.O. VOLTAGE REGULATOR (Adjustable & Fixed) LM1086

FEATURES Output Current of 1.5A Fast Transient Response 0.04% Line Regulation 0.2% Load Regulation Internal Thermal and Current Limiting Adjustable or Fixed Output oltage(1.5, 1.8, 2.5, 3.3, 5.0) Surface

SLC vs MLC: Which is best for high-reliability apps?

SLC vs MLC: Which is best for high-reliability apps? Here's an examination of trade-offs, with an emphasis on how they affect the reliability of storage targeted at industrial, military and avionic applications.

Welcome to this presentation on Driving LEDs Resistors and Linear Drivers, part of OSRAM Opto Semiconductors LED Fundamentals series.

Welcome to this presentation on Driving LEDs Resistors and Linear Drivers, part of OSRAM Opto Semiconductors LED Fundamentals series. In this presentation we will look at: - Simple resistor based current

Data Sheet. AEDR-8000 Series Reflective Surface Mount Optical Encoder. Description. Features. Applications

AEDR-8000 Series Reflective Surface Mount Optical Encoder Data Sheet Description By introducing an additional PCB top-up thickness attached to the encoder, the AEDR-8000 Encoder series could easily solve

Developments in Point of Load Regulation

Developments in Point of Load Regulation By Paul Greenland VP of Marketing, Power Management Group, Point of load regulation has been used in electronic systems for many years especially when the load

High Resolution Spatial Electroluminescence Imaging of Photovoltaic Modules

High Resolution Spatial Electroluminescence Imaging of Photovoltaic Modules Abstract J.L. Crozier, E.E. van Dyk, F.J. Vorster Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University Electroluminescence (EL) is a useful

Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output, With Base Connection

IL/ IL2/ IL5 Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output, With Base Connection Features Current Transfer Ratio (see order information) Isolation Test Voltage 5300 V RMS Lead-free component Component in accordance

Application Notes FREQUENCY LINEAR TUNING VARACTORS FREQUENCY LINEAR TUNING VARACTORS THE DEFINITION OF S (RELATIVE SENSITIVITY)

FREQUENY LINEAR TUNING VARATORS FREQUENY LINEAR TUNING VARATORS For several decades variable capacitance diodes (varactors) have been used as tuning capacitors in high frequency circuits. Most of these

THE CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN LED AND A MEASUREMENT OF PLANCK S CONSTANT Physics 258/259

DSH 2004 THE CURRENT-VOLTAGE CHARACTERISTICS OF AN LED AND A MEASUREMENT OF PLANCK S CONSTANT Physics 258/259 I. INTRODUCTION Max Planck (1858-1947) was an early pioneer in the field of quantum physics.

Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz

Author: Don LaFontaine Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz Abstract Making accurate voltage and current noise measurements on op amps in

ILX Lightwave Corporation www.ilxlightwave.com

# 14 Optimizing TEC Current Optimizing TEC Drive Current This Application Note discusses methods for optimizing the TEC drive current for optimum operation in heating and cooling applications. BACKGROUND

Technical Note Uprating Semiconductors for High-Temperature Applications

Introduction Technical Note Uprating Semiconductors for High-Temperature Applications Introduction Uprating is used to evaluate a part s ability to function and perform when it is used outside of the manufacturer

Temperature Sensor Circuit. Report by: Steve Bedford Laboratory Partner: Jaime Lightfoot

Temperature Sensor Circuit Report by: Steve Bedford Laboratory Partner: Jaime Lightfoot EGR 214-905 April 13 th, 2012 Abstract In this paper, the design and implementation of a temperature sensor with

Chapter 8: Reliability and Availability

1 Chapter 8: Reliability is critical to many modern electronic systems. Applications such as routers and wireless base stations generate revenue for the ISP or carrier for only as long as they are available.

Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output, with Base Connection in SOIC-8 Package

Optocoupler, Phototransistor Output, FEATURES High BV CEO, 70 V Vishay Semiconductors i79002 A K NC NC 2 3 4 8 7 6 5 NC B C E Isolation test voltage, 4000 V RMS Industry standard SOIC-8A surface mountable

LM138 LM338 5-Amp Adjustable Regulators

LM138 LM338 5-Amp Adjustable Regulators General Description The LM138 series of adjustable 3-terminal positive voltage regulators is capable of supplying in excess of 5A over a 1 2V to 32V output range

P2O LED. High Power LED PRODUCT DATASHEET. Introduction. RoHS Compliant

P2O LED High Power LED Introduction The P2O LEDs from SemiLEDs utilize innovative MvpLED technology which delivers superior levels of optical performance and reliability. Use of state of the art silicone

Reliability Test Station. David Cheney Electrical & Computing Engineering

Reliability Test Station David Cheney Electrical & Computing Engineering Overview Turnkey vs. In-house Electrical Stress Protocols System Specifications & Features UF Semiconductor Reliability System Development

Understanding the Terms and Definitions of LDO Voltage Regulators

Application Report SLVA79 - October 1999 Understanding the Terms and Definitions of ltage Regulators Bang S. Lee Mixed Signal Products ABSTRACT This report provides an understanding of the terms and definitions

Using NTC Temperature Sensors Integrated into Power Modules

Using NTC Temperature Sensors Integrated into Power Modules Pierre-Laurent Doumergue R&D Engineer Advanced Power Technology Europe Chemin de Magret 33700 Mérignac, France Introduction Most APTE (Advanced

50-900 MHz High Dynamic Range Amplifier

Features 50 to 900 MHz Frequency Range +41 dbm Output IP3-71 dbc CTB -48 dbc CSO 1.6 db Noise Figure (@ 450 MHz) 17 db Gain 22 dbm P1dB RoHS Compliant SOT-89 SMT Package Single Power Supply +3V to +5V

XFP Optical Receiver, 80km Reach

Features Supports 9.95Gb/s to 11.1Gb/s bit rates Hot-pluggable XFP footprint Maximum link length of 80km with SMF APD ROSA receiver XFP MSA package with duplex LC connector No reference clock required

Data Sheet. HDSP-Fxxx Series 10 mm (0.40 inch) Seven Segment Displays. Features (Cont.) Description. Features

Fxxx Series 1 mm (.4 inch) Seven Segment Displays Data Sheet F15x/F16x Series F2x/F3x/F4x/F5x Series Description The 1 mm (.4 inch) LED seven segment displays are Avago s most space-efficient character

XX1007-QT-EV1. Doubler 13.5-17.0/27.0-34.0 GHz. Features. Functional Block Diagram. Description. Pin Configuration. Absolute Maximum Ratings

XX17-QT 13.-17./27.-34. GHz Features Integrated Gain, and Driver Stages Single Positive Supply, +V Integrated Bypassing Capacitor +2. dbm Output Saturated Power 3. dbc Fundamental Suppression On-Chip ESD

Measuring temperature with Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD) (e.g., Pt100) and thermocouples

Measuring temperature with Resistance Temperature Detectors (RTD) (e.g., Pt100) and thermocouples White Paper By Prof. Dr.-Ing. Klaus Metzger In the area of physical measurement technology, temperature

Solid-State Physics: The Theory of Semiconductors (Ch. 10.6-10.8) SteveSekula, 30 March 2010 (created 29 March 2010)

Modern Physics (PHY 3305) Lecture Notes Modern Physics (PHY 3305) Lecture Notes Solid-State Physics: The Theory of Semiconductors (Ch. 10.6-10.8) SteveSekula, 30 March 2010 (created 29 March 2010) Review

Applied Reliability Page 1 APPLIED RELIABILITY. Techniques for Reliability Analysis

Applied Reliability Page 1 APPLIED RELIABILITY Techniques for Reliability Analysis with Applied Reliability Tools (ART) (an EXCEL Add-In) and JMP Software AM216 Class 4 Notes Santa Clara University Copyright

Guidance for upgrading to GB4943.1-2011 (IEC 60950-1: 2005, MOD)

Guidance for upgrading to GB4943.1-2011 (IEC 60950-1: 2005, MOD) Note: This guidance document is a translation of official Chinese document which is issued by CQC (China Quality Certification Center) on

Field-Effect (FET) transistors

Field-Effect (FET) transistors References: Hayes & Horowitz (pp 142-162 and 244-266), Rizzoni (chapters 8 & 9) In a field-effect transistor (FET), the width of a conducting channel in a semiconductor and,

University of California at Santa Cruz Electrical Engineering Department EE-145L: Properties of Materials Laboratory

University of California at Santa Cruz Electrical Engineering Department EE-145L: Properties of Materials Laboratory Lab 8: Optical Absorption Spring 2002 Yan Zhang and Ali Shakouri, 05/22/2002 (Based

The VSS3605, a 13-kW S-Band GaN Power Amplifier

The VSS3605, a 13-kW S-Band GaN Power Amplifier George Solomon, Dave Riffelmacher, Steve Evans, Todd Treado Communications and Power Industries, LLC Beverly Microwave Division Abstract The introduction

ICS514 LOCO PLL CLOCK GENERATOR. Description. Features. Block Diagram DATASHEET

DATASHEET ICS514 Description The ICS514 LOCO TM is the most cost effective way to generate a high-quality, high-frequency clock output from a 14.31818 MHz crystal or clock input. The name LOCO stands for

Implementation of Short Reach (SR) and Very Short Reach (VSR) data links using POET DOES (Digital Opto- electronic Switch)

Implementation of Short Reach (SR) and Very Short Reach (VSR) data links using POET DOES (Digital Opto- electronic Switch) Summary POET s implementation of monolithic opto- electronic devices enables the

Advanced Digital Isolation Technologies Boost Solar Power Inverter Reliability

Advanced Isolation Technologies Boost Solar Power Inverter Reliability Fossil-fueled electric power facilities have proven to be robust and reliable sources of energy for more than a century, but these

New GaN FETs, Amplifiers and Switches Offer System Engineers a Way to Reduce RF Board Space and System Prime Power

New GaN FETs, Amplifiers and Switches Offer System Engineers a Way to Reduce RF Board Space and System Prime Power By: TriQuint Semiconductor, Inc. Dean White, Defense Products & Foundry Services, Business

AC Transport constant current vs. low impedance modes

Application Note 184-42 AC Transport constant current vs. low impedance modes The AC Transport option offers the user the ability to put the current source in a low output impedance mode. This mode is

HEDS-9000/9100 Two Channel Optical Incremental Encoder Modules. Features. Applications

HEDS-9000/9100 Two Channel Optical Incremental Encoder Modules Data Sheet Description The HEDS-9000 and the HEDS-9100 series are high performance, low cost, optical incremental encoder modules. When used

BIASING OF CONSTANT CURRENT MMIC AMPLIFIERS (e.g., ERA SERIES) (AN-60-010)

BIASING OF CONSTANT CURRENT MMIC AMPLIFIERS (e.g., ERA SERIES) (AN-60-010) Introduction The Mini-Circuits family of microwave monolithic integrated circuit (MMIC) Darlington amplifiers offers the RF designer

ULN2801A, ULN2802A, ULN2803A, ULN2804A

ULN2801A, ULN2802A, ULN2803A, ULN2804A Eight Darlington array Datasheet production data Features Eight Darlington transistors with common emitters Output current to 500 ma Output voltage to 50 V Integral

TL783C, TL783Y HIGH-VOLTAGE ADJUSTABLE REGULATOR

HIGH-VOLTAGE USTABLE REGULATOR SLVS36C SEPTEMBER 1981 REVISED APRIL 1997 Output Adjustable From 1.25 V to 125 V When Used With an External Resistor Divider 7-mA Output Current Full Short-Circuit, Safe-Operating-Area,

OLF500: High CMR, High-Speed Logic Gate Hermetic Surface Mount Optocoupler

TM DATA SHEET OLF500: High CMR, High-Speed Logic Gate Hermetic Surface Mount Optocoupler Features Hermetic SMT flat-pack package Electrical parameters guaranteed over 55 C to +125 C ambient temperature

Implementing Energy Harvesting in Embedded System Designs

Implementing Energy Harvesting in Embedded System Designs Energy harvesting technology is rapidly emerging as a viable power supply option for embedded system designers, enabling wireless sensors to be

LM386 Low Voltage Audio Power Amplifier

Low Voltage Audio Power Amplifier General Description The LM386 is a power amplifier designed for use in low voltage consumer applications. The gain is internally set to 20 to keep external part count

Low Cost, Precision IC Temperature Transducer AD592*

a FEATURES High Precalibrated Accuracy:.5 C max @ +25 C Excellent Linearity:.15 C max ( C to +7 C) Wide Operating Temperature Range: 25 C to +15 C Single Supply Operation: +4 V to +3 V Excellent Repeatability

MRF175GU MRF175GV The RF MOSFET Line 200/150W, 500MHz, 28V

Designed for broadband commercial and military applications using push pull circuits at frequencies to 500 MHz. The high power, high gain and broadband performance of these devices makes possible solid