Kingdom Plantae Plant Diversity II

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Kingdom Plantae Plant Diversity II"

Transcription

1 Kingdom Plantae Plant Diversity II Professor Andrea Garrison Biology 3A Illustrations 2014 Cengage Learning unless otherwise noted Text 2014 Andrea Garrison

2 Plant Diversity II 2

3 Plant Classification Bryophytes nonvascular plants Phylum Hepatophyta liverworts Phylum Anthocerophyta hornworts Phylum Bryophyta mosses Seedless vascular plants Phylum Lycophyta club mosses Phylum Pterophyta ferns Phylum Psilotophyta whisk ferns (text incl in Pterophyta) Phylum Sphenophyta horsetails (text incl in Pterophyta) Now we move into seed plants Plant Diversity II 3

4 Plant Diversity II 4

5 Gymnosperms Seed not enclosed inside fruit (gymn=naked; sperm=seed) Seeds inside cone or similar structure Conifers, Ginkgos, Cycads (sego palms) Sizeable trees, shrubs Plant Diversity II 5

6 Gymnosperm Trends in Plant Evolution New adaptations allowed gymnosperms to be successful in a variety of new environments Increased size Major changes in methods of reproduction Plant Diversity II 6

7 Further Trends in Plant Evolution Increased size Apical meristem allowed increase in height Evolution of lateral meristem allowed secondary growth Increase in diameter as plant ages Plant Diversity II 7

8 Further Trends in Plant Evolution Reproductive adaptations Heterospory Sporophyte produces: Microspores male gametophyte Megaspores female gametophyte Retained inside sporangium and covered with integument Over time Microspores male gametophyte pollen» Many fossilized pollen grains from this period (Devonian) Megaspores developed integument» Retained inside reproductive structure» Similar to modern ovule which develops into seed Plant Diversity II 8

9 Modern Gymnosperms Spores sheltered inside parent plants Different than seedless plants which disperse spores Sporophyte produce haploid spores Retained inside reproductive structures Grow into multicellular gametophytes Male gametophyte = pollen grain» 2 non-motile sperm develop inside each pollen grain Female gametophyte with egg develops inside ovule Protected gametophytes more likely to survive Hidden inside parent sporophyte Plant Diversity II 9

10 Modern Gymnosperms Pollination = transfer of pollen to female reproductive parts of plant Accomplished by air, insects, birds Pollen grain grows into ovule and releases sperm Reproduction no longer requires water A few gymnosperms still have motile sperm that swim to egg Cycads & Ginkgoes Not very successful (few species) Plant Diversity II 10

11 Modern Gymnosperms Pollination leads to fertilization Fertilization produces sporophyte embryo Seed = embryo + food reserves for embryo + tough outer coat Much tougher than spores and small gametophytes, so seed species very successful Gymnosperm seed food reserves come from tissues of female gametophyte Embryo (in seed) grows in reproductive structure Same place where female gametophyte produced the egg Plant Diversity II 11

12 Phylum Coniferophyta Most common gymnosperms Pines trees Sequoias > 80 m tall Redwoods >112m tall Bristlecone pine One specimen >5000 yrs Most evergreens Shed some old leaves, but keep most of them Plant Diversity II 12

13 Phylum Coniferophyta Needle-like or scale-like leaves Adapted to dry habitats Thick cuticle Sunken stomata Fibrous epidermis Plant Diversity II; photos: top & bottom left by A. Garrison; bottom right by Walter Sigmund, 13

14 Phylum Coniferophyta Seeds inside cones (strobili) Plant Diversity II; photos by Didier Descouens, 14

15 Phylum Coniferophyta Seeds inside cones (strobili) Plant Diversity II; photo by A. Garrison 15

16 Phylum Coniferophyta Male and female cones dimorphic Male cones smaller, fragile Scales = sporophylls 2 microsporangia develop on underside of each scale Produce microspores Develop into pollen Plant Diversity II; photo by Menchi, 16

17 Phylum Coniferophyta Male and female cones dimorphic Females larger, longer lived Develop higher in tree Scales = sporophylls 2 ovules develop on each scale Megasporocyte in each ovule Meiosis 4 megaspores Only 1 megaspore survives Matures into female gametophyte slowly ( 1 yr in pine trees)» Completed during pollination» Several archegonia w/1 egg each Plant Diversity II; photo by A. Garrison 17

18 Phylum Coniferophyta Single tree may produce billions of pollen grains Female cone structure channels air currents to deposit pollen grains Once pollinated, scales close up Seed development can take up to 2 yrs Pollen grain grows tube into ovule Sperm released and fertilize egg Seed forms Scales open up and seeds released Some cones require fire for scales to open Plant Diversity II 18

19 Phylum Coniferophyta Seeds have wings that catch wind and help with dispersal of species Plant Diversity II; phots by Didier Descouens, 19

20 Coniferophyta Life Cycle Plant Diversity II 20

21 Phylum Cycadophyta Sego palms Strobilus in center Clusters of sporophylls Bear pollen or ovules Pollinated by air or beetles Some tissues toxic Seeds and flour edible if toxins rinsed away Plant Diversity II 21

22 Phylum Ginkgophyta Fan-shaped leaves Only found in wild in China Grown in nurseries Male is popular for landscaping Female has fleshy seeds with foul odor Plant Diversity II; photo by A. Garrison 22

23 Angiosperms Flowering plants Seeds enclosed in carpel (angi = enclosed; sperm = seed) Carpel later produces fruit Most diverse plants on earth Duckweed (1mm); Eucalyptus (100m) All angiospserms assigned to phylum Anthophyta (antho = flower; phyt = plant) Plant Diversity II; photo by A. Garrison 23

24 Phylum Anthophyta Very abrupt appearance in fossil record Evolutionary history not well understood Several clades Basal angiosperms Not monophyletic Magnolias, avocados Most monocots or eudicots Based on plant structure Plant Diversity II; photo by A. Garrison 24

25 Further Evolutionary Trends Modification of vascular tissue Allow more rapid transport of water up from roots and P/S products down from leaves Flower = reproductive structure Contribute to reproductive success of plants that bear them Enhanced nutrition and protection for embryos Double fertilization forms diploid zygote and nutritive tissue (endosperm) Ovule enclosed in ovary Protects against desiccation and predation Develops into fruit Protects and disperses seeds Plant Diversity II 25

26 Further Evolutionary Trends Most angiosperms require pollinators Internal flower structure complex Plants coevolved with specific types of pollinators Hereditary change in one species puts selective pressure on species that use it as a resource Nectar food source for many animal species As flowers changed, animal species changed with it Plant Diversity II 26

27 Further Evolutionary Trends Most angiosperms require pollinators Most flowers structured so pollen rubs off onto animals that feed from it Birds, bats, insects, rodents, etc. Flowers with deep calyx pollinated by hummingbirds or moths with long mouthparts Sweet scent attracts ants, bees Foul scent attracts flies, beetles Some flowers have target in center of plant only seen in UV light Bees see with UV light Plant Diversity II 27

28 Anthophyte Life Cycle Plant Diversity II 28

29 THE END

30 Modern Gymnosperms Coniferophyta Needle-like or scale-like leaves Adapted to dry habitats Thick cuticle Sunken stomata Fibrous epidermis Plant Diversity II 30

Biology 172L General Biology Lab II Lab 03: Plant Life Cycles and Adaptations II: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms

Biology 172L General Biology Lab II Lab 03: Plant Life Cycles and Adaptations II: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Biology 172L General Biology Lab II Lab 03: Plant Life Cycles and Adaptations II: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Introduction Vascular seed-bearing plants, such as gymnosperms (cone-bearing plants) and angiosperms

More information

Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616)

Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616) Chapter 24 Reproduction of Seed Plants Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616) Key Concepts What are the reproductive structures of gymnosperms and angiosperms? How does pollination

More information

And the Green Grass Grew All Around and Around, the Green Grass Grew All. Evolution of Plants

And the Green Grass Grew All Around and Around, the Green Grass Grew All. Evolution of Plants And the Green Grass Grew All Around and Around, the Green Grass Grew All Around Evolution of Plants Adapting to Terrestrial Living Plants are complex multicellular organisms that are autotrophs they feed

More information

PLANT EVOLUTION DISPLAY Handout

PLANT EVOLUTION DISPLAY Handout PLANT EVOLUTION DISPLAY Handout Name: TA and Section time Welcome to UCSC Greenhouses. This sheet explains a few botanical facts about plant reproduction that will help you through the display and handout.

More information

Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616)

Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616) Chapter 24 Reproduction of Seed Plants Section 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers (pages 609 616) This section describes the reproductive structures of gymnosperms and angiosperms. It also explains

More information

Plant Reproduction. 2. Evolutionarily, floral parts are modified A. stems B. leaves C. roots D. stolons E. suberins

Plant Reproduction. 2. Evolutionarily, floral parts are modified A. stems B. leaves C. roots D. stolons E. suberins Plant Reproduction 1. Angiosperms use temporary reproductive structures that are not present in any other group of plants. These structures are called A. cones B. carpels C. receptacles D. flowers E. seeds

More information

PLANT DIVERSITY. EVOLUTION OF LAND PLANTS KINGDOM: Plantae

PLANT DIVERSITY. EVOLUTION OF LAND PLANTS KINGDOM: Plantae PLANT DIVERSITY 1 EVOLUTION OF LAND PLANTS KINGDOM: Plantae Spores Leaf Ancestral green algae Flagellated sperm for reproduction Plenty of water Nutrients and CO 2 diffuse into tissues Holdfast Flagellated

More information

Unit 10- Plants /Study Guide KEY

Unit 10- Plants /Study Guide KEY Plant Diversity Unit 10- Plants /Study Guide KEY Answer Key SECTION 20.1. ORIGINS OF PLANT LIFE 1. eukaryotic, photosynthetic, same types of chlorophyll, starch as storage product, cellulose in cell walls

More information

Chapter 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology

Chapter 38: Angiosperm Reproduction and Biotechnology Name Period Concept 38.1 Flowers, double fertilization, and fruits are unique features of the angiosperm life cycle This may be a good time for you to go back to Chapter 29 and review alternation of generation

More information

Biology 213 Angiosperms. Introduction

Biology 213 Angiosperms. Introduction Biology 213 Angiosperms Introduction The flowering plants, the angiosperms, are the most recent plants to evolve and quickly became the dominant plant life on this planet. They are also the most diverse

More information

The Nonvascular Plants & Seedless Vascular Plants

The Nonvascular Plants & Seedless Vascular Plants The Nonvascular Plants & Seedless Vascular Plants Laboratory 4 Introduction Members of kingdom Plantae are all multicellular organisms exhibiting cellulose cell walls, an alternation of generations life

More information

Fungi and plants practice

Fungi and plants practice Name: Period: Date: Fungi and plants practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Indicate your answer choice with an UPPER CASE letter in the

More information

BIOL 1030 TOPIC 5 LECTURE NOTES TOPIC 5: SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS (CH. 29)

BIOL 1030 TOPIC 5 LECTURE NOTES TOPIC 5: SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS (CH. 29) TOPIC 5: SEEDLESS VASCULAR PLANTS (CH. 29) I. Vascular Plants (overview) plants with xylem and phloem 7 or 9 living phyla, depending on who you talk to able to dominate most terrestrial habitats because

More information

8. Study the cladogram underline the derived characteristics and circle the organisms that developed from them.

8. Study the cladogram underline the derived characteristics and circle the organisms that developed from them. Seed Plants: Gymnosperms and Angiosperms Answer the questions as you go through the power point, there are also paragraphs to read where you will need to hi-lite or underline as you read. 1. What are the

More information

Flowers; Seeds enclosed in fruit

Flowers; Seeds enclosed in fruit Name Class Date Chapter 22 Plant Diversity Section Review 22-1 Reviewing Key Concepts Short Answer On the lines provided, answer the following questions. 1. Describe the main characteristics of plants.

More information

Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists,

Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, Unit 1: What is Biology? Unit 2: Ecology Unit 3: The Life of a Cell Unit 4: Genetics Unit 5: Change Through Time Unit 6: Viruses, Bacteria, Protists, and Fungi Unit 7: Plants Unit 8: Invertebrates Unit

More information

Introduction to Plants

Introduction to Plants Introduction to Plants Unity and Diversity of Life Q: What are the five main groups of plants, and how have four of these groups adapted to life on land? 22.1 What are of plants? WHAT I KNOW SAMPLE ANSWER:

More information

Expt. How do flowering plants do it without flagella? The journey to find an egg. What causes pollen grain germination and tube growth?

Expt. How do flowering plants do it without flagella? The journey to find an egg. What causes pollen grain germination and tube growth? 1 Expt. How do flowering plants do it without flagella? The journey to find an egg. What causes pollen grain germination and tube growth? File: F12-07_pollen Modified from E. Moctezuma & others for BSCI

More information

10B Plant Systems Guided Practice

10B Plant Systems Guided Practice 10B Plant Systems Guided Practice Reproduction Station 1 1. Observe Plant A. Locate the following parts of the flower: stamen, stigma, style, ovary. 2. Draw and label the parts of a flower (listed above)

More information

Chapter 3. Biology of Flowering Plants: Reproduction. Gametophytes, Fruits, Seeds, and Embryos

Chapter 3. Biology of Flowering Plants: Reproduction. Gametophytes, Fruits, Seeds, and Embryos BOT 3015L (Sherdan/Outlaw/Aghoram); Page 1 of 13 Chapter 3 Biology of Flowering Plants: Reproduction Gametophytes, Fruits, Seeds, and Embryos Objectives Angiosperms. Understand alternation of generations.

More information

Vascular Plants Bryophytes. Seedless Plants

Vascular Plants Bryophytes. Seedless Plants plant reproduction The Plants Vascular Plants Bryophytes Liverworts, Hornworts, Mosses lack roots and specialized tissues grow in moist, shady areas All have sieve cells and tracheids Seedless Plants Ferns

More information

Angiosperm Reproduction: Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds Overview Objectives bold Part I Floral Anatomy . calyx sepals corolla, petals, stamens, filament

Angiosperm Reproduction: Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds Overview Objectives bold Part I Floral Anatomy . calyx sepals corolla, petals, stamens, filament Angiosperm Reproduction: Flowers, Fruits, and Seeds Overview In this lab you will observe assorted flowers, fruits, and seeds to better understand the unique adaptations of and the life cycle of angiosperms.

More information

Plant Form and Function

Plant Form and Function Part X Plant Form and Function Part Opener Title Text to come. Part opener figure 1 title. Figure legend. 733 Part opener figure 2 title. Figure legend. 734 Part X Plant Form and Function 37 Evolutionary

More information

The Seed Plants. We have now reached the bottom of our key to the plant kingdom:

The Seed Plants. We have now reached the bottom of our key to the plant kingdom: The Seed Plants Final Review of the Kingdom Plantae. We have now reached the bottom of our key to the plant kingdom: A Plant is nonvascular Mosses, liverworts, hornworts A' Plant has vascular tissue B

More information

Seed plants are well adapted to the demands of life on land,

Seed plants are well adapted to the demands of life on land, 24 1 Reproduction With Cones and Flowers Seed plants are well adapted to the demands of life on land, especially in how they reproduce. The gametes of seedless plants, such as ferns and mosses, need water

More information

COWLEY COLLEGE & Area Vocational Technical School

COWLEY COLLEGE & Area Vocational Technical School COWLEY COLLEGE & Area Vocational Technical School COURSE PROCEDURE FOR GENERAL BIOLOGY II BIO4135 5 Credit Hours Student Level: This course is open to students on the college level in either the freshman

More information

Dissect a Flower. Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens

Dissect a Flower. Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Dissect a Flower Overview Students dissect an Alstroemeria or similar flower to familiarize themselves with the basic parts of a flower. They

More information

Pinus Life Cycle. Name

Pinus Life Cycle. Name Name Pinus Life Cycle You have observed some gymnosperm diversity last week; today you will observe the details of the life cycle of Pinus, one of the most common conifers (Coniferophyta). This life history

More information

Pre-lab homework Lab 2: Reproduction in Protists, Fungi, Moss and Ferns

Pre-lab homework Lab 2: Reproduction in Protists, Fungi, Moss and Ferns Pre-lab homework Lab 2: Reproduction in Protists, Fungi, Moss and Ferns Lab Section: Name: 1. Last week in lab you looked at the reproductive cycle of the animals. This week s lab examines the cycles of

More information

Plantae: Bryophytes & Vascular Plants

Plantae: Bryophytes & Vascular Plants EXERCISE 9 Plantae: Bryophytes & Vascular Plants The Kingdom Plantae represents an extremely large group of mostly terrestrial organisms that are photosynthetic. Hence they provide the base of the food

More information

4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS-NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 11: PLANTS

4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS-NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 11: PLANTS PLANT BITS 4th GRADE MINIMUM CONTENTS-NATURAL SCIENCE UNIT 11: PLANTS There are four main parts to a plant. They are the root, stem, leaf and flower. Each part has an important task to do in the life of

More information

Angiosperms or Flowering Plants the phylum Magnoliophyta. Angiosperms - Flowering Plants. Land Plant Evolution: Algae to Angiosperms. Fungi?

Angiosperms or Flowering Plants the phylum Magnoliophyta. Angiosperms - Flowering Plants. Land Plant Evolution: Algae to Angiosperms. Fungi? Angiosperms or Flowering Plants the phylum Magnoliophyta The Importance of Plant Collections Land Plant Evolution: Algae to Angiosperms The greatest adaptive radiation... is the largest radiation of plants

More information

most modern cladograms have Amborella and water lilies as a sister group (or groups) to the rest of the angiosperms

most modern cladograms have Amborella and water lilies as a sister group (or groups) to the rest of the angiosperms Topic 7: Angiosperms, Flowers and Pollination Syndromes Phylum Anthophyta (Chs. 30, 38) Ι. Phylum Anthophyta flowering plants (antho flower) A. also known as angiosperms (angeion vessel or enclosure; sperma

More information

Flower Model: Teacher Instructions Sepals Anther Stamens (male) Filament Stigma Pistil Style (female) Ovary Petals sepals petals stamens pistil

Flower Model: Teacher Instructions Sepals Anther Stamens (male) Filament Stigma Pistil Style (female) Ovary Petals sepals petals stamens pistil Flower Model: Teacher Instructions In order to better understand the reproductive cycle of a flower, take a look at some flowers and note the male and female parts. Most flowers are different; some have

More information

Plant Classification, Structure, Growth and Hormones

Plant Classification, Structure, Growth and Hormones Biology SAT II Review Sheet Plants Plant Classification, Structure, Growth and Hormones Multicellular autotrophs (organisms that use the energy of inorganic materials to produce organic materials) Utilize

More information

Plant Structure, Growth, and Development. Chapter 35

Plant Structure, Growth, and Development. Chapter 35 Plant Structure, Growth, and Development Chapter 35 PLANTS developmental plasticity = ability of plant to alter form to respond to environment Biological heirarchy Cell basic unit of life Tissue group

More information

IGCSE and GCSE Biology. Answers to questions. Section 2. Flowering Plants. Chapters 6-9. Chapter 6 Plant structure and function

IGCSE and GCSE Biology. Answers to questions. Section 2. Flowering Plants. Chapters 6-9. Chapter 6 Plant structure and function 1 IGCSE and GCSE Biology. Answers to questions Section 2. Flowering Plants. Chapters 6-9 Chapter 6 Plant structure and function Page 54 1. a Epidermis. Helps maintain shape, reduces evaporation, resists

More information

Biology Module 1 Diversity of Algae and Plants

Biology Module 1 Diversity of Algae and Plants Biology Module 1 Biology Module 1 Diversity of Algae and Plants Prepared by Dr. Memory Tekere African Virtual university Université Virtuelle Africaine Universidade Virtual Africana African Virtual University

More information

Plant Growth & Development. Growth Stages. Differences in the Developmental Mechanisms of Plants and Animals. Development

Plant Growth & Development. Growth Stages. Differences in the Developmental Mechanisms of Plants and Animals. Development Plant Growth & Development Plant body is unable to move. To survive and grow, plants must be able to alter its growth, development and physiology. Plants are able to produce complex, yet variable forms

More information

nucleus cytoplasm membrane wall A cell is the smallest unit that makes up living and nonliving things.

nucleus cytoplasm membrane wall A cell is the smallest unit that makes up living and nonliving things. 1 In nature there are living things and nonliving things. Living things depend on three basic life processes: nutrition, sensitivity and reproduction. Living things are made up of cells. 1. Match the two

More information

SECOND GRADE PLANT LIFE

SECOND GRADE PLANT LIFE SECOND GRADE PLANT LIFE 2 weeks LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES LIFE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SECOND GRADE ORGANISMS WEEK 1. PRE: Distinguishing characteristics of vertebrates. LAB: Discovering characteristics of

More information

The Simple Truth: We Can t Live Without Them

The Simple Truth: We Can t Live Without Them The Great Pollinator Partnership poster has been reproduced as part of a cooperative effort of the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign to raise awareness of the importance of pollinators to our

More information

Parts of a Flower and Pollination

Parts of a Flower and Pollination Science Unit: Lesson 3: Soils, Plants, and First Nations Parts of a Flower and Pollination School year: 2007/2008 Developed for: Britannia Elementary School, Vancouver School District Developed by: Catriona

More information

Science 10-Biology Activity 14 Worksheet on Sexual Reproduction

Science 10-Biology Activity 14 Worksheet on Sexual Reproduction Science 10-Biology Activity 14 Worksheet on Sexual Reproduction 10 Name Due Date Show Me NOTE: This worksheet is based on material from pages 367-372 in Science Probe. 1. Sexual reproduction requires parents,

More information

Lab 9: The Reproduction of Angiosperms and the Role of the Pollinator

Lab 9: The Reproduction of Angiosperms and the Role of the Pollinator Lab 9: The Reproduction of Angiosperms and the Role of the Pollinator Understanding the role and structure of a flower Flowers are the reproductive organs of angiosperms. They are not simple structures,

More information

2. Fill in the blank. The of a cell is like a leader, directing and telling the different parts of the cell what to do.

2. Fill in the blank. The of a cell is like a leader, directing and telling the different parts of the cell what to do. 1. Plant and animal cells have some similarities as well as differences. What is one thing that plant and animal cells have in common? A. cell wall B. chlorophyll C. nucleus D. chloroplasts 2. Fill in

More information

The remarkable evolutionary success of flowering plants

The remarkable evolutionary success of flowering plants 42 Plant Reproduction Concept Outline 42.1 Angiosperms have been incredibly successful, in part, because of their reproductive strategies. Rise of the Flowering Plants. Animal and wind dispersal of pollen

More information

Topic 26. The Angiosperms

Topic 26. The Angiosperms 1 Topic 26. The Angiosperms Domain Eukarya Kingdom Plantae The Flowering Plants (Angiosperms) Angiosperms were the last major clade of plants to appear in the geologic record, and are the most abundant

More information

Plant Parts and Their Function

Plant Parts and Their Function Science Unit: Lesson 6: Plants Plant Parts and Their Function School year: 2004/2005 Developed for: Developed by: Grade level: Duration of lesson: Queen Alexandra Elementary School, Vancouver School District

More information

Plants Scavenger Hunt Activity

Plants Scavenger Hunt Activity Name: Plants Activity Materials: Question worksheet (pages 2-3) 16 Fact Cards (pages 4-8) Tape, Scissors, Classroom Preparation: Print the fact cards on card stock or brightly-colored paper and cut them

More information

Question Bank Five Kingdom Classification

Question Bank Five Kingdom Classification Question Bank Five Kingdom Classification 1. Who proposed Five Kingdom Classification? Give the bases of classification. Ans. Whittaker in 1969 proposed five kingdom classification based on :- (i) Cell

More information

Plants have organs composed of different tissues, which in turn are composed of different cell types

Plants have organs composed of different tissues, which in turn are composed of different cell types Plant Structure, Growth, & Development Ch. 35 Plants have organs composed of different tissues, which in turn are composed of different cell types A tissue is a group of cells consisting of one or more

More information

Plant Parts. Background Information

Plant Parts. Background Information Purpose The purpose of this lesson is for students to learn the six basic plant parts and their functions. Time Teacher Preparation: 30 minutes Student Activity: 60 minutes Materials For the teacher demonstration:

More information

Plant Anatomy Lab 2: Flowers, Fruits and Seeds

Plant Anatomy Lab 2: Flowers, Fruits and Seeds Plant Anatomy Lab 2: Flowers, Fruits and Seeds Objectives of the Lab: 1) Explore the structure and function of flowering plant reproductive organs from flower development through fruit maturation. 2) Examine

More information

Class Insecta - The insects

Class Insecta - The insects A Introduction 1. Very species rich 2. Characteristics a. 3 pairs of legs b. 2 pairs of wings (most) except flies (1 pair of wings - Diptera) B. Distribution 1. All habitats except saltwater - replaced

More information

Plant Structure and Function Notes

Plant Structure and Function Notes For plants, when they made the transition from water to land, they had to make adaptations for obtaining water and prevent loss by desiccation (drying out) -water also needed for fertilization of eggs

More information

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles

Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Name Period Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles Concept 13.1 Offspring acquire genes from parents by inheriting chromosomes 1. Let s begin with a review of several terms that you may already know.

More information

Problem Set 5 BILD10 / Winter 2014 Chapters 8, 10-12

Problem Set 5 BILD10 / Winter 2014 Chapters 8, 10-12 Chapter 8: Evolution and Natural Selection 1) A population is: a) a group of species that shares the same habitat. b) a group of individuals of the same species that lives in the same general location

More information

honey bee By Henry Touray

honey bee By Henry Touray honey bee By Henry Touray Introduction For my project I have chosen to research Bees. I chose to find out about the bee because bees have been in the news lately. Lots of hives have died out and scientists

More information

Chapter 14: Page 181

Chapter 14: Page 181 Chapter 14: Page 181 Chapter 14: Page 182 The plant kingdom contains organisms that can be divided into two separate groups: nonvascular plants (like mosses) that absorb water through their entire body

More information

Double Fertilization and Post - Fertilization Events: Measuring

Double Fertilization and Post - Fertilization Events: Measuring WFP062298 Double Fertilization and Post - Fertilization Events: Measuring Concepts In plants fertilization is the event in sexual reproduction which follows pollination. In higher plants, two sperm are

More information

Table 1: Kingdom Worksheet

Table 1: Kingdom Worksheet KINGDOM WORKSHEET Table 1: Kingdom Worksheet Kingdom Bacteria Archaea Protista Fungi Plantae Animalia Cell Type prokaryotic prokaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic eukaryotic Cell Wall often present,

More information

Kindergarten Science Unit B: Life Science Chapter 4: Plant and Animal Parts Lesson 1: What do plant parts do?

Kindergarten Science Unit B: Life Science Chapter 4: Plant and Animal Parts Lesson 1: What do plant parts do? Insert Photo or Graphic for Unit or Lesson Theme Kindergarten Science Unit B: Life Science Chapter 4: Plant and Animal Parts Lesson 1: What do plant parts do? Insert Photo/Graphic parts Insert Photo/Graphic

More information

Plant Leaves: Holly Spines vs. Height

Plant Leaves: Holly Spines vs. Height Plant Leaves: Holly Spines vs. Height SC Academic Standards: 4.L.5A; 5.L.4A- B; 6.L.4A; 6.L.5B; 7.L.3B; 7.EC.5B; H.B.2B; H.B.6A NGSS DCI: 4- LS1.A; 5- LS2.A- B; MS- LS1- A- C; MS- LS2.A- C; MS- PS3.D;

More information

Question Bank Seed : Structure, Types and Germination

Question Bank Seed : Structure, Types and Germination Question Bank Seed : Structure, Types and Germination 1. Describe the structure of a seed. Ans. A mature seed consists of two essential parts : (i) the seed coat, and (ii) the embryo The Seed coat : A

More information

Page 1. 1. The production of monoploid cells by spermatogenesis occurs in (1) zygotes (3) ovaries (2) testes (4) meristems

Page 1. 1. The production of monoploid cells by spermatogenesis occurs in (1) zygotes (3) ovaries (2) testes (4) meristems 1. The production of monoploid cells by spermatogenesis occurs in (1) zygotes (3) ovaries (2) testes (4) meristems Base your answers to questions 2 and 3 on the diagram below of the female reproductive

More information

Name Class Date. Adapting to the Environment Adaptations and Survival

Name Class Date. Adapting to the Environment Adaptations and Survival CHAPTER 3 4 SECTIN Adapting to the Environment Adaptations and Survival EFRE YU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What adaptations help animals survive? What

More information

Life Cycle - Butterflies & Moths

Life Cycle - Butterflies & Moths Life Cycle - Butterflies & Moths butterfly goes through four stages in its life. All animals A change as they grow and mature but butterflies and moths undergo the biggest change of all. Butterfly Pupa

More information

Sexual Reproduction. The specialized cells that are required for sexual reproduction are known as. And come from the process of: GAMETES

Sexual Reproduction. The specialized cells that are required for sexual reproduction are known as. And come from the process of: GAMETES Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction We know all about asexual reproduction 1. Only one parent required. 2. Offspring are identical to parents. 3. The cells that produce the offspring are not usually

More information

What's in a Flower. Ages: 8 to 12. Contributor: Susan Jaquette, Cornell Plantations volunteer

What's in a Flower. Ages: 8 to 12. Contributor: Susan Jaquette, Cornell Plantations volunteer Ages: 8 to 12 What's in a Flower Contributor: Susan Jauette, Cornell Plantations volunteer Main idea: Flowers are composed of several distinct parts, each of which plays an important role in nature. Objective:

More information

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science GRADE 7 DICHOTOMOUS KEYS AND CLASSIFICATION

Georgia Performance Standards Framework for Science GRADE 7 DICHOTOMOUS KEYS AND CLASSIFICATION The following instructional plan is part of a GaDOE collection of Unit Frameworks, Performance Tasks, examples of Student Work, and Teacher Commentary. Many more GaDOE approved instructional plans are

More information

Can you see the difference between wind pollinated and insect pollinated flowers?

Can you see the difference between wind pollinated and insect pollinated flowers? Can you see the difference between wind pollinated and insect pollinated flowers? Age of Students 10 14 years Duration 1 hour Summary Pollination is a very effective factor in the evolution of plants and

More information

DID YOU KNOW that the plants most important to

DID YOU KNOW that the plants most important to Flower Anatomy DID YOU KNOW that the plants most important to agriculture all produce flowers? Every major food crop is a flowering plant. We do not think about the flowers of wheat, rice, corn, and soybeans.

More information

Sexual Reproduction. and Meiosis. Sexual Reproduction

Sexual Reproduction. and Meiosis. Sexual Reproduction Sexual Reproduction and Meiosis Describe the stages of meiosis and how sex cells are produced. Explain why meiosis is needed for sexual reproduction. Name the cells that are involved in fertilization.

More information

Germination is the process in which a

Germination is the process in which a The Germination Of a Bean Photographs and article By Lily C. Gerhardt LCG1603@rit.edu Germination is the process in which a seed, spore, or fungi sprouts, or begins growth. Seed germination can occur after

More information

Meiosis is a special form of cell division.

Meiosis is a special form of cell division. Page 1 of 6 KEY CONCEPT Meiosis is a special form of cell division. BEFORE, you learned Mitosis produces two genetically identical cells In sexual reproduction, offspring inherit traits from both parents

More information

Lecture 7: Plant Structure and Function. I. Background

Lecture 7: Plant Structure and Function. I. Background Lecture 7: Plant Structure and Function I. Background A. Challenges for terrestrial plants 1. Habitat is divided a. Air is the source of CO2 for photosynthesis i. Sunlight cannot penetrate soil b. Soil

More information

version if desired, and Teacher Preparation Notes are available at http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/sci_edu/waldron/.

version if desired, and Teacher Preparation Notes are available at http://serendip.brynmawr.edu/sci_edu/waldron/. Using a Dichotomous Key to Identify Flowers (and the murderer) Adapted and Excerpted from Constructing a Dichotomous Key by Margaret Bankhead of Robert A. Black Magnet School, Making a Dichotomous Key

More information

2 nd Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Plants and Animals in Their Environment Lesson 1: How are plants and animals like their parents?

2 nd Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Plants and Animals in Their Environment Lesson 1: How are plants and animals like their parents? 2 nd Grade Science Unit B: Life Sciences Chapter 3: Plants and Animals in Their Environment Lesson 1: How are plants and animals like their parents? offspring Offspring are young plants and animals. Offspring

More information

Life Science Study Guide. Environment Everything that surrounds and influences (has an effect on) an organism.

Life Science Study Guide. Environment Everything that surrounds and influences (has an effect on) an organism. Life Science Study Guide Environment Everything that surrounds and influences (has an effect on) an organism. Organism Any living thing, including plants and animals. Environmental Factor An environmental

More information

IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANISMS

IDENTIFICATION OF ORGANISMS reflect Take a look at the pictures on the right. Think about what the two organisms have in common. They both need food and water to survive. They both grow and reproduce. They both have similar body

More information

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE FUNDAMENTALS AND SYSTEMATICS Vol. I Cell and Tissue Structure in Animals and Plants - M.K. Richardson, L.

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE FUNDAMENTALS AND SYSTEMATICS Vol. I Cell and Tissue Structure in Animals and Plants - M.K. Richardson, L. CELL AND TISSUE STRUCTURE IN ANIMALS AND PLANTS M.K. Richardson Institute of Evolutionary and Ecological Sciences, Leiden University, Kaiserstraat 63, Postbus 9516, 2300 RA Leiden, The Netherlands L. Goosen-de

More information

Worksheets. (Caterpillars of Singapore s Butterflies) Worksheet Title Recommended level. Adaptations of the caterpillar defence mechanism

Worksheets. (Caterpillars of Singapore s Butterflies) Worksheet Title Recommended level. Adaptations of the caterpillar defence mechanism Worksheets (Caterpillars of Singapore s Butterflies) Worksheet Title Recommended level 1 Life cycle of a butterfly P3 2 Am I an insect? P3 3 4 Adaptations of the caterpillar defence mechanism The butterfly

More information

Taxonomy and Classification

Taxonomy and Classification Taxonomy and Classification Taxonomy = the science of naming and describing species Wisdom begins with calling things by their right names -Chinese Proverb museums contain ~ 2 Billion specimens worldwide

More information

Functional Biology of Plants

Functional Biology of Plants Brochure More information from http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/2252012/ Functional Biology of Plants Description: Functional Biology of Plants provides students and researchers with a clearly

More information

1. Why is mitosis alone insufficient for the life cycle of sexually reproducing eukaryotes?

1. Why is mitosis alone insufficient for the life cycle of sexually reproducing eukaryotes? Chapter 13: Meiosis and Sexual Life Cycles 1. Why is mitosis alone insufficient for the life cycle of sexually reproducing eukaryotes? 2. Define: gamete zygote meiosis homologous chromosomes diploid haploid

More information

PLANET EARTH: Seasonal Forests

PLANET EARTH: Seasonal Forests PLANET EARTH: Seasonal Forests Teacher s Guide Grade Level: 6-8 Running Time: 42 minutes Program Description Investigate temperate forests and find some of the most elusive creatures and welladapted plant

More information

SIXTH GRADE PLANT LIFE

SIXTH GRADE PLANT LIFE SIXTH GRADE PLANT LIFE 2 weeks LESSON PLANS AND ACTIVITIES LIFE CYCLE OVERVIEW OF SIXTH GRADE ORGANISMS WEEK 1. PRE: Defining classification. LAB: Exploring characteristics of the lower kingdoms POST:

More information

Practice Questions 1: Evolution

Practice Questions 1: Evolution Practice Questions 1: Evolution 1. Which concept is best illustrated in the flowchart below? A. natural selection B. genetic manipulation C. dynamic equilibrium D. material cycles 2. The diagram below

More information

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems

Matter and Energy in Ecosystems Matter and Energy in Ecosystems The interactions that take place among biotic and abiotic factors lead to transfers of energy and matter. Every species has a particular role, or niche, in an ecosystem.

More information

3.1. Succession, Recovery, and Renewal in Natural Communities. A35 Starting Point. What Happens to a Vacant Lot?

3.1. Succession, Recovery, and Renewal in Natural Communities. A35 Starting Point. What Happens to a Vacant Lot? 3.1 Succession, Recovery, and Renewal in Natural Communities Here is a summary of what you will learn in this section: Ecosystems change in predictable ways known as succession. Ecosystems can establish

More information

BIOLÓGIA ANGOL NYELVEN

BIOLÓGIA ANGOL NYELVEN Biológia angol nyelven középszint 1512 ÉRETTSÉGI VIZSGA 2015. május 13. BIOLÓGIA ANGOL NYELVEN KÖZÉPSZINTŰ ÍRÁSBELI ÉRETTSÉGI VIZSGA JAVÍTÁSI-ÉRTÉKELÉSI ÚTMUTATÓ EMBERI ERŐFORRÁSOK MINISZTÉRIUMA Instructions

More information

Panda bears can't do some things that other bears do including walking on their hind legs and roaring.

Panda bears can't do some things that other bears do including walking on their hind legs and roaring. Giant Pandas Research and Lessons Hopefully, you'll be able to find answers/information for the mini-books from books you check out from the library. However, if you aren't able to get any books about

More information

Gymnosperms. Abstract

Gymnosperms. Abstract Gymnosperms Susanne Renner Department of Biology, Menzingerstr. 67, University of Munich, Munich, Germany (renner@lrz.uni-muenchen.de) Abstract Gymnosperms (~1010 sp.) are grouped into four taxa: Coniferophyta,

More information

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens

The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens The Huntington Library, Art Collections, and Botanical Gardens Rooting for Mitosis Overview Students will fix, stain, and make slides of onion root tips. These slides will be examined for the presence

More information

PLANTS AND ANIMALS ON EARTH

PLANTS AND ANIMALS ON EARTH PLANTS AND ANIMALS ON EARTH It is estimated that there are around 7,7 million different species of animals on Earth and around 400,000 species of plants. There are many more plants and animal species still

More information

CHAPTER 20 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY

CHAPTER 20 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY CHAPTER 20 COMMUNITY ECOLOGY MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. The relationship between a predator and its prey is best illustrated by a. a snake eating a bird. c. a lion eating a zebra. b. a fox eating a mouse. d. a

More information

Promoting Pollination Farming for Native Bees

Promoting Pollination Farming for Native Bees Promoting Pollination Farming for Native Bees Overview Pollination, the transfer of pollen grains to fertilize the ovules of flowers to produce seeds and fruits, is essential to agriculture and natural

More information

Unique reproductive strategies have developed to ensure maximum reproductive success.

Unique reproductive strategies have developed to ensure maximum reproductive success. Animal Reproductive Strategies The ultimate goal of each species is to produce the maximum number of surviving offspring using the least amount of energy. This is called the reproductive effort. Asexual

More information

Chapter 1 Structure of Living Things... 1 Chapter 2 Plant Structures and Functions... 21 Chapter 3 Human Body Systems... 41

Chapter 1 Structure of Living Things... 1 Chapter 2 Plant Structures and Functions... 21 Chapter 3 Human Body Systems... 41 Contents Life Science Chapter 1 Structure of Living Things............................. 1 Chapter 2 Plant Structures and Functions........................ 21 Chapter 3 Human Body Systems................................

More information