Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007

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3 Kirchhoff's loop law defines voltages only in terms of fields produced by charges (like ), not those produced by changing magnetic fields (like ). So if we wish to continue to use Kirchhoff's loop law, we must continue to use this definition consistently. That is, we must define the voltage alone (note that the integral is from A to B rather than from B to A, hence the positive sign). So finally,, where we have used and the definition of. Part E Which of the following statements is true about the inductor in the figure in the problem introduction, where is the current through the wire? Hint E.1 A fundamental inductance formula If is positive, the voltage at end A will necessarily be greater than that at end B. If is positive, the voltage at end A will necessarily be greater than that at end B. If is positive, the voltage at end A will necessarily be less than that at end B. If is positive, the voltage at end A will necessarily be less than that at end B. Part F Now consider the effect that applying an additional voltage to the inductor will have on the current grounded). Which one of the following statements is true? already flowing through it (imagine that the voltage is applied to end A, while end B is Hint F.1 A fundamental inductance formula If is positive, then will necessarily be positive and will be negative. If is positive, then will necessarily be negative and will be negative. If is positive, then could be positive or negative, while will necessarily be negative. If is positive, then will necessarily be positive and will be positive. If is positive, then could be positive or negative while will necessarily be positive. If is positive, then will necessarily be negative and will be positive. Note that when you apply Kirchhoff's rules and traverse the inductor in the direction of current flow, you are interested in gives a term., just as traversing a resistor In sum: when an inductor is in a circuit and the current is changing, the changing magnetic field in the inductor produces an electric field. This field opposes the change in current, but at the same time deposits charge, producing yet another electric field. The net effect of these electric fields is that the current changes, but not abruptly. The "direction of the EMF" refers to the direction of the first, induced, electric field. Mutual Inductance of a Tesla Coil A long solenoid with cross-sectional area and length is wound with turns of wire. A shorter coil with turns of wire surrounds it. Find the value of the mutual inductance. Hint A.1.2 Mutuality Find the magnetic field of the solenoid. Hint A.3 The flux in coil 2 Hint A.4 Finding the mutual inductance Express your answer in terms of,,,, and. = Answer not displayed Energy in Inductors and B-Fields Energy Stored in an Inductor The electric-power industry is interested in finding a way to store electric energy during times of low demand for use during peak-demand times. One way of achieving this goal is to use large Page 3 of 15

4 inductors. What inductance would be needed to store energy (kilowatt-hours) in a coil carrying current? Hint A.1 The formula for the energy stored in a current-carrying inductor Recall the formula for energy stored in an inductor:..2 Express the energy in joules What is the energy expressed in joules? Express your answer numerically, to three significant figures. = joules = 240 H This is probably not the best way to store energy: unless the coil is a superconductor, the amount of heat dissipated in the coil would be enormous. At this point, there is no way to produce large superconducting coils. Think of this problem as a practice exercise rather than a realistic example. The L-R Circuit A Parallel and Series LR Circuit Conceptual Question In the circuit shown in the figure, the two resistors are identical and the inductor is ideal (i.e., it has no resistance). Is the current through greater than, less than, or equal to the current through immediately after the switch is first closed? Hint A.1 Ideal inductors in circuits Inductors have time-dependent effects on the behavior of electric circuits. When a potential difference is first applied to an ideal inductor, the inductor generates a back emf equal in magnitude to the potential difference applied, but opposite in direction. After a long time, the emf generated by the inductor falls to zero and an ideal inductor acts like a simple resistance-free wire. Hint A.2 Replacing the inductor with an "open" When the switch is first closed, the inductor generates a back emf equal in magnitude to the potential difference applied. This means that no net potential difference exists across the inductor, so no current can flow through the inductor. Thus, the inductor acts like an "open" in the circuit. Imagine simply removing the inductor from the circuit, leaving the circuit open at the location occupied by the inductor. Analyze the remaining circuit using ideas developed earlier. greater than less than equal to cannot be determined Is the current through greater than, less than, or equal to the current through a very long time after the switch is closed? Hint B.1 Replacing the inductor with a "short" Long after the switch is closed, the inductor generates no emf and acts like a zero-resistance wire. Thus, the inductor acts like a "short" in the circuit. Imagine simply replacing the inductor with a bare wire. Analyze the remaining circuit using ideas developed earlier. greater than less than equal to cannot be determined Is the current through greater than, less than, or equal to the current through immediately after the switch is opened (after being closed for a very long time)? Hint C.1 Current without a battery By opening the switch, the battery is removed from the circuit. If any current still flows in the circuit, it must be due to electromagnetic induction. Hint C.2 Inductor as a battery Since current flows through the inductor before the switch is opened, current will be induced in the inductor immediately after the switch is opened in an "attempt" to oppose the reduction in the magnetic flux due to the removal of the current. This current will flow from the inductor through any components that form a closed circuit with the inductor. Page 4 of 15

5 greater than less than equal to cannot be determined Decay of Current in an L-R Circuit Learning Goal: To understand the mathematics of current decay in an L-R circuit A DC voltage source is connected to a resistor of resistance and an inductor with inductance, forming the circuit shown in the figure. For a long time before, the switch has been in the position shown, so that a current has been built up in the circuit by the voltage source. At the switch is thrown to remove the voltage source from the circuit. This problem concerns the behavior of the current through the inductor and the voltage across the inductor at time after. After, what happens to the voltage across the inductor and the current through the inductor relative to their values prior to?.1 What is the relation between current and voltage for the inductor? Answer not displayed What is the differential equation satisfied by the current after time?.1 Kirchhoff's loop law Express in terms of,, and. = Answer not displayed What is the expression for obtained by solving the differential equation that satisfies after?.1 Hint C.2 Separation of variables Integrating Express your answer in terms of the initial current, as well as,, and. = Answer not displayed Part D What is the time constant of this circuit? Hint D.1 Hint D.2 Definition of time constant The time constant for this circuit Express your answer in terms of and? = Answer not displayed Growth of Current in an L-R Circuit Page 5 of 15

6 Learning Goal: To review the procedure for setting up and solving equations for determining current growth in an L-R circuit connected to a battery Consider an L-R circuit as shown in the figure. The battery provides a voltage. The inductor has inductance, and the resistor has resistance. The switch is initially open as shown. At time, the switch is closed. What is the differential equation governing the growth of current in the circuit as a function of time after? Find the voltage change across the resistor Find the voltage drop across the inductor Use Kirchhoff's loop law to sum the voltages Express the right-hand side of the differential equation for in terms of,,, and. = We know that the current in the circuit is growing. It will approach a steady state after a long time (as tends to infinity), which implies that the differential term in our circuit equation will tend to zero, hence simplifying our equation. The current around the circuit will tend to an asymptotic value. What is? Express your answer in terms of and and other constants and variables given in the introduction. = Solve the differential equation obtained in for the current as a function of time after the switch is closed at..1 Hint C.2.3 Hint C.4 Substituting into the differential equation A helpful integral Solving the differential equation 1: a substitution Solving the differential equation 2: new limits Express your answer in terms of,, and. Use the notation exp(x) for. = The current approaches its asymptotic/steady-state value exponentially, i.e., usually very fast. However, the time constant depends on the actual values of the inductance and resistance. Determining Inductance from the Decay in an L-R Circuit In this problem you will calculate the inductance of an inductor from a current measurement taken at a particular time. Consider the L-R circuit shown in the figure. Initially, the switch connects a resistor of resistance and an inductor to a battery, and a current flows through the circuit. At time, the switch is thrown open, removing the battery from the circuit. Suppose you measure that the current decays to at time. Page 6 of 15

7 Determine the time constant of the circuit. Hint A Hint A.4 How to approach the problem What is the definition of time constant? Match the condition at Solve for the time constant Express your answer in terms of,, and. Recall that natural logarithms are entered as ln(x). = Answer not displayed What is the inductance of the inductor?.1 What is the time constant of an L-R circuit? Express your answer in terms of,,, and. = Answer not displayed Power in a Decaying R-L Circuit Consider an R-L circuit with a DC voltage source, as shown in the figure. This circuit has a current when. At the switch is thrown removing the DC voltage source from the circuit. The current decays to at time. What is the power,, flowing into the resistor,, at time?.1.2 Ohm's Law Power Dissipated Express your answer in terms of and. = Answer not displayed What is the power flowing into the inductor? Page 7 of 15

8 .1.2 Hint B.3 Energy in an Inductor Equation for Power into the Inductor Express your answer as a function of and. = Answer not displayed Learning Goal: To understand the behavior of an inductor in a series R-L circuit. The R-L Circuit: Responding to Changes In a circuit containing only resistors, the basic (though not necessarily explicit) assumption is that the current reaches its steady-state value instantly. This is not the case for a circuit containing inductors. Due to a fundamental property of an inductor to mitigate any "externally imposed" change in current, the current in such a circuit changes gradually when a switch is closed or opened. Consider a series circuit containing a resistor of resistance and an inductor of inductance connected to a source of emf and negligible internal resistance. The wires (including the ones that make up the inductor) are also assumed to have negligible resistance. Let us start by analyzing the process that takes place after switch is closed (switch remains open). In our further analysis, lowercase letters will denote the instantaneous values of various quantities, whereas capital letters will denote the maximum values of the respective quantities. Note that at any time during the process, Kirchhoff's loop rule holds and is, indeed, helpful:. Immediately after the switch is closed, what is the current in the circuit? Hint A.1 How to approach the problem zero Immediately after the switch is closed, what is the voltage across the resistor? Hint B.1 Ohm's law zero Immediately after the switch is closed, what is the voltage across the inductor? Hint C.1 A formula for voltage across an inductor zero Part D Shortly after the switch is closed, what is the direction of the current in the circuit? Page 8 of 15

9 There is no current because the inductor does not allow the current to increase from its initial zero value. Part E Shortly after the switch is closed, what is the direction of the induced EMF in the inductor? There is no induced EMF because the initial value of the current is zero. The induced EMF does not oppose the current; it opposes the change in current. In this case, the current is directed and is increasing; in other words, the time derivative of the current is positive, which is why the induced EMF is directed. Part F Eventually, the process approaches a steady state. What is the current in the circuit in the steady state? Part G What is the voltage Hint G.1 across the inductor in the steady state? Induced EMF and current zero Part H What is the voltage across the resistor in the steady state? zero Part I Now that we have a feel for the state of the circuit in its steady state, let us obtain the expression for the current in the circuit as a function of time. Note that we can use the loop rule (going around ):. Note as well that and. Using these equations, we can get, after some rearranging of the variables and making the subsitution,. Integrating both sides of this equation yields. Use this last expression to obtain an expression for. Remember that and that. Page 9 of 15

11 Part O What is the direction of the current in the circuit? The current is zero because there is no EMF in the circuit. Part P What is happening to the magnitude of the current? The current is increasing. The current is decreasing. The current remains constant. Part Q What is the direction of the EMF in the inductor? The EMF is zero because the current is zero. The EMF is zero because the current is constant. Part R Which end of the inductor has higher voltage (i.e., to which end of the inductor should the positive terminal of a voltmeter be connected in order to yield a positive reading)? Hint R.1 How to approach the problem left right The potentials of both ends are the same. The answer depends on the magnitude of the time constant. Part S For this circuit, Kirchhoff's loop rule gives. Note that, since the current is decreasing. Use this equation to obtain an expression for. Hint S.1 Hint S.2 Initial and final conditions Let us cheat a bit Express your answer in terms of,, and. Use exp(x) for. = The L-C Circuit Oscillations in an LC circuit. Learning Goal: To understand the processes in a series circuit containing only an inductor and a capacitor. Consider the circuit shown in the figure. This circuit contains a capacitor of capacitance and an inductor of inductance. The resistance of all wires is considered negligible. Page 11 of 15

12 Initially, the switch is open, and the capacitor has a charge. The switch is then closed, and the changes in the system are observed. It turns out that the equation describing the subsequent changes in charge, current, and voltage is very similar to that of simple harmonic motion, studied in mechanics. To obtain this equation, we will use the law of conservation of energy. Initially, the entire energy of the system is stored in the capacitor. When the circuit is closed, the capacitor begins to discharge through the inductor. As the charge of the capacitor decreases, so does its energy. On the other hand, as the current through the inductor increases, so does the energy stored in the inductor. Assuming no heat loss and no emission of electromagnetic waves, energy is conserved, and at any point in time, the sum of the energy stored in the capacitor and the energy stored in the inductor is a constant :, where is the charge on the capacitor and is the current through the inductor ( and are functions of time, of course). For this problem, take current to be positive. Using the expression for the total energy of this system, it is possible to show that after the switch is closed,, where is a constant. Find the value of the constant..1 The derivative of the total energy Hint A.2 The current in a series circuit Hint A.3 Charge and current Express your answer in terms of and. = This expression can also be obtained by substituting into the equation obtained from Kirchhoff's loop rule. It is always good to solve a problem in more than one way! From mechanics, you may recall that when the acceleration of an object is proportional to its coordinate,, such motion is called simple harmonic motion, and the coordinate depends on time as, where, the argument of the harmonic function at, is called the phase constant. Find a similar expression for the charge on the capacitor in this circuit. Do not forget to determine the correct value of based on the initial conditions described in the problem. Hint B.1 The phase constant.2 Find the period of the oscillations Express your answer in terms of,, and. Use the cosine function in your answer. = What is the current in the circuit at time after the switch is closed? Hint C.1 Current as a derivative of the charge Express your answer in terms of,,, and other variables given in the introduction. = Page 12 of 15

13 Part D Recall that the top plate of the capacitor is positively charged at. In what direction does the current in the circuit begin to flow immediately after the switch is closed? There is no current because there cannot be any current through the capacitor. Part E Immediately after the switch is closed, what is the direction of the EMF in the inductor? (Recall that the direction of the EMF refers to the direction of the back-current or the induced electric field in the inductor.) There is no EMF until the current reaches its maximum. In the remaining parts, assume that the period of oscillations is 8.0 milliseconds. Also, keep in mind that the top plate of the capacitor is positively charged at. Part F At what time does the current reach its maximum value for the first time? Hint F.1 Hint F.2 How to approach the problem Graph of 0.0 ms 2.0 ms 4.0 ms 6.0 ms 8.0 ms Part G At what moment does the EMF become zero for the first time? Hint G.1 Hint G.2 Relationship between the induced EMF and the current. Graph of Part H At what moment does the current reverse direction for the first time? Hint H.1 Hint H.2 How to approach the problem Graph of 0.0 ms 2.0 ms 4.0 ms 6.0 ms 8.0 ms Part I At what moment does the EMF reverse direction for the first time? Hint I.1 Hint I.2 Relationship between the induced EMF and the current. Graph of 0.0 ms 2.0 ms 4.0 ms 6.0 ms 8.0 ms Part J At what moment does the energy stored in the inductor reach its maximum for the first time? Hint J.1 Formula for the energy in an inductor Page 13 of 15

14 Hint J.2 Graph of Hint J.3 Conservation of energy 0.0 ms 2.0 ms 4.0 ms 6.0 ms 8.0 ms Part K At what time do the capacitor and the inductor possess the same amount of energy for the first time? Hint K.1 Hint K.2 Hint K.3 Use conservation of energy Energy and charge A useful trigonometric result Express your answer in milliseconds. = 1.0 Part L What is the direction of the current in the circuit 22.0 milliseconds after the switch is closed? Hint L.1 Hint L.2 Use the periodic nature of the process Graph of The current is zero. Part M What is the direction of the EMF in the circuit 42.0 milliseconds after the switch is closed? Hint M.1 Graph of The EMF is zero Energy within an L-C Circuit Consider an L-C circuit with capacitance, inductance, and no voltage source, as shown in the figure. As a function of time, the charge on the capacitor is and the current through the inductor is. Assume that the circuit has no resistance and that at one time the capacitor was charged. As a function of time, what is the energy stored in the inductor? Express your answer in terms of and. Page 14 of 15

15 = Answer not displayed As a function of time, what is the energy stored within the capacitor? Express your answer in terms of and. = Answer not displayed What is the total energy stored in the circuit?.1.2 Hint C.3 Charge and current as functions of time Find the resonance frequency Summing the contributions Express your answer in terms of the maximum current and inductance. = Answer not displayed Summary 6 of 12 problems complete (50.29% avg. score) of 27 points Page 15 of 15

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