# Impedance Matching and Matching Networks. Valentin Todorow, December, 2009

Size: px
Start display at page:

Transcription

1 Impedance Matching and Matching Networks Valentin Todorow, December, 2009

2 RF for Plasma Processing - Definition of RF What is RF? The IEEE Standard Dictionary of Electrical and Electronics Terms defines RF as: Radio frequency is the frequency in the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is between the audio frequency and infrared portion. Typically between 20 khz and 300 GHz. Band designation: HF 3 30 MHz VHF MHz UHF MHz Microwave above 1 GHz 2

3 RF for Plasma Processing Why RF for Plasma Processing? 1. To sustain plasma a closed loop circuit is needed. Current need to flow from generator through the wafer, plasma, chamber wall back to the generator. DC would be perfect for PVD sputtering because the target is conductive and DC current can flow through it. In the case of a semiconductor wafer which is under normal conditions dielectric DC current can not flow through it and plasma can not be sustained. From basic electrical science we know that AC current can flow through dielectrics. So an AC energy is needed drive current through a dielectric wafer for plasma processing. 2. Plasma properties: Different frequencies create different plasmas densities and sheath voltages. 3

4 Impedance Matching Why? Impedance matching is needed to provide maximum power transfer between the source or RF energy and its load. This is especially important if you deal with low amplitude signals. Imagine a radio or TV antenna. To get a good reception every bit of this signal needs to be used and the designer can not afford any signal loss a perfect match is desired. So the first reason for matching is just power efficiency. The second reason is device protection If RF circuit is not matched we get reflected power. This reflected power builds standing waves on the transmission line between the source and load. Depending on the phase between the forward and reflected both waves can either subtract or add. Because of that on the line we can get places where the voltage is the sum of both voltages or eventually places where the voltage equals zero (maximum current). If the standing wave is positioned in such a way on the transmission line so that the maximum voltage or current is applied to the power FET s they can be destroyed. 4

5 Impedance matching Definition What do we mean by impedance matching? For DC it is well known theorem that maximum power transfer can be achieved if source resistance is equal to the load resistance. For RF we consider impedances. The condition for impedance matching is that real part of the impedance should be equal to the real part of the load and reactance's should be equal and opposite in character. For example if our source impedance is R + jx to achieve matching our load should be R jx. If we assume that we have a chamber with capacitive discharge the impedance in general will be R jx. Generator typical output impedance is 50 Ohms. Then the matching network has to make 50 = Rl and jx = 0. 5

6 Impedance Matching Let us match a 50 ohm generator to a 2 Ohm load. One of the ways to match is to put a resistor in parallel to the output of the generator. 50 Ohm 2.09 Ohms 2 OHm MHz Z= R1xR2 R1+R2 = 2 Ohm Matching will be achieved, however not a desirable solution because most of the power will be lost in the resistor we added. I have chosen here to make 50 Ohm side look as 2 Ohm because it is easier to correlate to the L circuit which we will derive later. 6

7 Impedance Matching Now lets see what will happen if we replace the resistor with a capacitor of 1150 pf which has impedance X=1/2ΠfC =-j MHz 50 Ohm Ohms 2 OHm MHz Z= R.(-jX) R+(-jX) = 2 j 9.8 Ohms One can see that by adding the capacitor we were able to transform 50 ohm in to a complex impedance with a real part of 2 Ohms. 7

8 Impedance Matching One can see that by adding the capacitor we were able to transform 50 ohm in to a complex impedance with a real part of 2 Ohms. So half of the job is done. -j Ohm Ohms 2 Ohm MHz MHz Z= R.(-jX) R+(-jX) = 2 j 9.8 Ohms If we find a way to make the imaginary part equal to zero then the match will be complete. 8

9 Impedance Matching From electrical science we know that inductors and capacitors have impedances with opposite signs. Inductors have positive sign and capacitors negative. 9.8 Ohm 50 Ohm Ohm 2 Ohm MHz MHz So if we add an inductor which impedance MHz is 9.8 Ohm Inductor and capacitance will cancel each other and our match will be complete. L=115 MHz 9

10 Basic L Matching Network This way we arrived to the basic and most used L shape matching network. By using capacitors and inductances we can achieve impedance matching without power loss assuming the components are ideal. Real capacitors and inductors exhibit losses which need to be minimized during the match design. The most critical component is the inductor. At high frequencies the skin effect and inter winding capacitance decrease the quality of the coil. X1 Rs X2 Rp X1 := X2 ( Rs Rp) Rp 2 := Rs Rp X1 Rs>Rp 10

11 Basic L Matching Network Two types L matching networks Until now we matched real load to real load. What to do when we have reactance? High - Low Low - High Parallel, also known as shunt or load capacitor is always on the high R side. Called load capacitor because it adjusts the real part of the load. Series sometimes called tune because it tunes out the reactive part of the load. 11

12 RF for Plasma Processing Matching Networks There are three basic matching networks used in RF designs - they are L, Π and T configuration. Each of them has advantages and disadvantages. Most commonly used matching network in plasma processing is the L circuit. The reasons are: Simplicity - Easy to build auto matching networks. It has only two components to be controlled for adjusting the real and imaginary part of the impedance. Practical component values - some of configurations require either very low inductance values or very high capacitance values which is impossible to make especially when you have to design auto matching network with a wide tuning range. The quality factor Q of the circuit is determined only from the source (generator) and load (plasma impedance) and does not depend on the external components - this is may be the most important property of the circuit. What this means is that for certain load impedance there is only one combination of L and C to match that load. Q := Rsource Rload 1 12

13 Basic L Matching Networks T and Pi network require more complex control algorithm for automatic matching network design. Need to control three components which makes it more expensive. The disadvantage of the L circuit - it can match loads equal or less than 50 Ohm. If the L circuit is reversed it can match loads equal or higher than 50 Ohm. It can not match on both sides. For example If the load is changing from 35 to 100 Ohms a reversed L network will match only from 50 up to 100 Ohms and will not match from 35 to 50 Ohm. 13

14 Pi Network X2 Rs X3 X1 Rl Q := Rs Rx 1 Rs>Rl X1 := Rl Rs Rl Q Rs Rl X3 X21 Rx X22 X1 X2 := ( Q Rs) Rl Rs X1 Q Rs X3 := Rx < Rl < Rs Q Can be represented as two L circuits connected together matching in to an Imaginary load Rx which has to be smaller than Rs and Rl and is used to calculate Q of the circuit. 14

15 T Network Rs X1 X2 X3 Rl Q := X3 := Rx Rl Rl Q 1 Rx > Rs > Rl X2 := Rl Q + ( 1 + Q 2 ) Rl ( 1 + Q 2 ) Rs 1 X1 := Rs Rl ( 1 + Q 2 ) Rs 1 Could be represented as two L circuits connected together through their shunt Component. The imaginary resistor Rx this time has to be larger than both Rs and Rl. Q is defined as the ratio between Rx and the smallest load resistance. 15

16 Smith Chart 16

17 Using Smith Chart to Design Matching Networks Lets match a Z=2-j35 to 50 ohm which is representative of capacitive plasmas. We will be using an L circuit and will be moving from the load to the generator. The first step will be to add the series inductor. The value of the inductor should be increased untill the trace crosses the 50 Ohm circle. 17

18 Using Smith Chart to Design Matching Networks The next step will be to add the shunt capacitor. The value is increased until the trace crosses the 50 Ohm point. The design is ready. Component values can be red from the chart. 18

19 Using Smith Chart to Design Matching Networks Lets match a Z=2+j35, which is representative of inductive plasmas. Will be also using L circuit and will be moving from the load thoward the generator. Normally a L circuit consists of series inductor. Here the inductor is part of the load and it is larger than what we need. Because of that our series component will be a capacitor to compensate for the excessive inductance. Cap Value will decrease untill we cross 50 Ohm circle. 19

20 Using Smith Chart to Design Matching Networks Second step will be to add the shunt component and the impedance transformation is completed. 20

21 Matching Networks Design Considerations Match range determined by plasma impedance range. Usually determined empirically. One can use existing matches or design its own box with variable components. Use this matches to manually tune in to plasma condition. Plasma impedance can be determined two ways: Load the input of your box with a 50 ohm load and measure the impedance on the match output. Measure the values of the series and shunt component and calculate the impedance. Why chamber impedance is important? Determine range of values for the series and shunt component. Determine current and voltage capabilities of the components 21

22 Matching Networks Design Considerations Determining RF current through the match We will use the already known equation for the quality factor: Q := Rsource Rload Use the lowest value for Rload you have measured and calculate Q. From resonant circuit theory we also know that the current within the circuit = outside current x Q. outside current can be calculated from Ohms law using the maximum power which the match will handle and 50 Ohms as source impedance. For example for 3 kw Current will be: 1 R := 50 P := 3000 I := P R I = For Rload= 1 ohm Q will be 7. Then match current will be 54A. 22

23 Matching Networks Design Considerations Series leg design If you have a look at the L matching network topography you will see that series leg is an inductor. In auto matches we use variable components and it is hard to design variable inductors. Because of that a series combination of L and a variable C is used. From the equation below one can see that if we vary Xc and Xc<Xl the impedance of the series leg remains inductive. This way we can have a variable inductor. X := Xl Xc Inductor design consideration coil is the major loss component in the match. Because of the high current and skin effect real losses in the coil can be significant if it is not sized properly. Coil temperatures can reach more that 150 degree C if the cross section is not selected taking in to consideration the skin dept at the frequency of operation, 23

24 Matching Networks Design Considerations Shunt leg design In many cases a large value for the shunt capacitor is required. In this case the designer has two options Use fixed capacitance in parallel with the variable cap. The back draw of such design is that it shifts the impedance. It expands the range at higher end, however it limits you at the lower end. A better solution is a series combination of variable capacitor C and a small inductor. When Xc is at its max value and Xl<<Xc the total X is almost unchanged. So there is no limiting at the upper end of the tuning range. If Xc is at its lower end and Xc is comparable but higher to Xl the value of X will be drastically changed. For example if Xc is 2 Ohms and Xl=1 Ohm, the total impedance will be 1 ohm which is like doubling the capacitance in value. With such design one needs to make sure that you are not operating at series resonance (Xl=Xc) at the operating frequency because currents in the leg will be enormous. X := Xl Xc 24

25 Matching Networks Design Considerations Parasitic reactance every piece of wire will exhibit inductance and capacitance to ground. Previous circuits we analyzed do not include any of this stray inductance or capacitance. In real world design all this should be considered, especially at high frequencies. The rule is keep wires as short as possible and as far as possible from ground. If not possible every parasitic should be analyzed and included in your schematic. 25

26 Matching Networks Design Considerations- Grounding Straight wire inductor L = 0.002l[2.3 log(4l/d 0.75)] uh l = wire length in cm d= wire diameter in cm Lets assume a 2mm diameter wire with 30 cm and 100 cm length L30 = 0.38 uh L100 = 1.5 Hz impedance will be: X30 = Ohm X100 = MHz the impedance will be: X30 = 32 Ohm X100 = 128 Ohms From the above example we can see that what is considered ground for AC is not a ground for RF. Higher the frequency higher the impedance of a wire. 26

27 27

### IFI5481: RF Circuits, Theory and Design

IFI5481: RF Circuits, Theory and Design Lecturer: Prof. Tor A. Fjeldly, UiO og NTNU/UNIK [torfj@unik.no] Assistant: Malihe Zarre Dooghabadi [malihezd@ifi.uio.no] Syllabus: Lectured material and examples,

### EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5 - ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4 - ALTERNATING CURRENT

EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5 - ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4 - ALTERNATING CURRENT 4 Understand single-phase alternating current (ac) theory Single phase AC

### Critical thin-film processes such as deposition and etching take place in a vacuum

WHITEPAPER INTRODUCING POWER SUPPLIES AND PLASMA Critical thin-film processes such as deposition and etching take place in a vacuum SYSTEMS chamber in the presence of a plasma. A plasma is an electrically

### Inductors in AC Circuits

Inductors in AC Circuits Name Section Resistors, inductors, and capacitors all have the effect of modifying the size of the current in an AC circuit and the time at which the current reaches its maximum

### RLC Resonant Circuits

C esonant Circuits Andrew McHutchon April 20, 203 Capacitors and Inductors There is a lot of inconsistency when it comes to dealing with reactances of complex components. The format followed in this document

### S-Band Low Noise Amplifier Using the ATF-10136. Application Note G004

S-Band Low Noise Amplifier Using the ATF-10136 Application Note G004 Introduction This application note documents the results of using the ATF-10136 in low noise amplifier applications at S band. The ATF-10136

### An equivalent circuit of a loop antenna.

3.2.1. Circuit Modeling: Loop Impedance A loop antenna can be represented by a lumped circuit when its dimension is small with respect to a wavelength. In this representation, the circuit parameters (generally

### Since any real component also has loss due to the resistive component, the average power dissipated is 2 2R

Quality factor, Q Reactive components such as capacitors and inductors are often described with a figure of merit called Q. While it can be defined in many ways, it s most fundamental description is: Q

### Application Note. So You Need to Measure Some Inductors?

So You Need to Measure Some nductors? Take a look at the 1910 nductance Analyzer. Although specifically designed for production testing of inductors and coils, in addition to measuring inductance (L),

### Impedance Matching. Using transformers Using matching networks

Impedance Matching The plasma industry uses process power over a wide range of frequencies: from DC to several gigahertz. A variety of methods are used to couple the process power into the plasma load,

### Changes PN532_Breakout board

Changes PN532_Breakout board Document: Changes PN532_Breakout board Department / Faculty : TechnoCentrum - Radboud University Nijmegen Contact: René Habraken Date: 17 May 2011 Doc. Version: 1.0 Contents

### Nano Stepping Notch Filter Jim Hagerman 02 01 12

Nano Stepping Notch Filter Jim Hagerman 02 01 12 INTRODUCTION I worked out equations for the von Newman style high power notch filter. This design is tunable over a fairly wide range, but less than an

With a mobile installation and most base locations, the HF seems to pose problems especially using the top band. 160 meters is also known as the top band. It is the only frequency group in the MF band

### Line Reactors and AC Drives

Line Reactors and AC Drives Rockwell Automation Mequon Wisconsin Quite often, line and load reactors are installed on AC drives without a solid understanding of why or what the positive and negative consequences

### Circuits with inductors and alternating currents. Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49

Circuits with inductors and alternating currents Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49 RL circuits Ch. 20 (last section) Symbol for inductor looks like a spring. An inductor is a circuit element that has a large

### LR Phono Preamps. Pete Millett ETF.13. pmillett@hotmail.com

LR Phono Preamps Pete Millett ETF.13 pmillett@hotmail.com Agenda A bit about me Part 1: What is, and why use, RIAA? Grooves on records The RIAA standard Implementations of RIAA EQ networks and preamps

### BASIC ELECTRONICS AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS. December 2011

AM 5-202 BASIC ELECTRONICS AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS December 2011 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for Pubic Release. Distribution is unlimited. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY AUXILIARY RADIO SYSTEM FORT

### Measurement of Capacitance

Measurement of Capacitance Pre-Lab Questions Page Name: Class: Roster Number: Instructor:. A capacitor is used to store. 2. What is the SI unit for capacitance? 3. A capacitor basically consists of two

### Measuring Impedance and Frequency Response of Guitar Pickups

Measuring Impedance and Frequency Response of Guitar Pickups Peter D. Hiscocks Syscomp Electronic Design Limited phiscock@ee.ryerson.ca www.syscompdesign.com April 30, 2011 Introduction The CircuitGear

### Understanding Power Impedance Supply for Optimum Decoupling

Introduction Noise in power supplies is not only caused by the power supply itself, but also the load s interaction with the power supply (i.e. dynamic loads, switching, etc.). To lower load induced noise,

### DRAFT. University of Pennsylvania Moore School of Electrical Engineering ESE319 Electronic Circuits - Modeling and Measurement Techniques

University of Pennsylvania Moore School of Electrical Engineering ESE319 Electronic Circuits - Modeling and Measurement Techniques 1. Introduction. Students are often frustrated in their attempts to execute

Germanium Diode AM Radio LAB 3 3.1 Introduction In this laboratory exercise you will build a germanium diode based AM (Medium Wave) radio. Earliest radios used simple diode detector circuits. The diodes

### UNDERSTANDING AND CONTROLLING COMMON-MODE EMISSIONS IN HIGH-POWER ELECTRONICS

Page 1 UNDERSTANDING AND CONTROLLING COMMON-MODE EMISSIONS IN HIGH-POWER ELECTRONICS By Henry Ott Consultants Livingston, NJ 07039 (973) 992-1793 www.hottconsultants.com hott@ieee.org Page 2 THE BASIC

### Introduction to the Smith Chart for the MSA Sam Wetterlin 10/12/09 Z +

Introduction to the Smith Chart for the MSA Sam Wetterlin 10/12/09 Quick Review of Reflection Coefficient The Smith chart is a method of graphing reflection coefficients and impedance, and is often useful

### Rectifier circuits & DC power supplies

Rectifier circuits & DC power supplies Goal: Generate the DC voltages needed for most electronics starting with the AC power that comes through the power line? 120 V RMS f = 60 Hz T = 1667 ms) = )sin How

### EMC STANDARDS STANDARDS AND STANDARD MAKING BODIES. International. International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) http://www.iec.

EMC STANDARDS The EMC standards that a particular electronic product must meet depend on the product application (commercial or military) and the country in which the product is to be used. These EMC regulatory

### Understanding SWR by Example

Understanding SWR by Example Take the mystery and mystique out of standing wave ratio. Darrin Walraven, K5DVW It sometimes seems that one of the most mysterious creatures in the world of Amateur Radio

### RLC Series Resonance

RLC Series Resonance 11EM Object: The purpose of this laboratory activity is to study resonance in a resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) circuit by examining the current through the circuit as a function

### RFID Receiver Antenna Project for 13.56 Mhz Band

RFID Receiver Antenna Project for 13.56 Mhz Band Fatih Eken TE 401 Microwave Course Term Project, Fall 2004 Supervised by Asst. Prof. İbrahim Tekin Telecommunication Program in Faculty of Engineering and

### Standex-Meder Electronics. Custom Engineered Solutions for Tomorrow

Standex-Meder Electronics Custom Engineered Solutions for Tomorrow RF Reed Relays Part II Product Training Copyright 2013 Standex-Meder Electronics. All rights reserved. Introduction Purpose Designing

### 45. The peak value of an alternating current in a 1500-W device is 5.4 A. What is the rms voltage across?

PHYS Practice Problems hapters 8- hapter 8. 45. The peak value of an alternating current in a 5-W device is 5.4 A. What is the rms voltage across? The power and current can be used to find the peak voltage,

### RigExpert AA-30 Antenna Analyzer (0.1 to 30 MHz) AA-54 Antenna Analyzer (0.1 to 54 MHz) User s manual

RigExpert AA-30 Antenna Analyzer (0.1 to 30 MHz) AA-54 Antenna Analyzer (0.1 to 54 MHz) User s manual Table of contents 1. Description... 3 2. Specifications... 4 3. Precautions... 5 4. Operation... 6

### MEASUREMENT SET-UP FOR TRAPS

Completed on 26th of June, 2012 MEASUREMENT SET-UP FOR TRAPS AUTHOR: IW2FND Attolini Lucio Via XXV Aprile, 52/B 26037 San Giovanni in Croce (CR) - Italy iw2fnd@gmail.com Trappole_01_EN 1 1 DESCRIPTION...3

### L and C connected together. To be able: To analyse some basic circuits.

circuits: Sinusoidal Voltages and urrents Aims: To appreciate: Similarities between oscillation in circuit and mechanical pendulum. Role of energy loss mechanisms in damping. Why we study sinusoidal signals

### Sinusoidal. Oscillators

364 4 Principles of Electronics Sinusoidal Oscillators 4. Sinusoidal Oscillator 4.2 Types of Sinusoidal Oscillations 4.3 Oscillatory Circuit 4.4 Undamped Oscillations from Tank Circuit 4.5 Positive Feedback

### VJ 6040 Mobile Digital TV UHF Antenna Evaluation Board

VISHAY VITRAMON Multilayer Chip Capacitors Application Note GENERAL is a multilayer ceramic chip antenna designed for receiving mobile digital TV transmissions in the UHF band. The target application for

### ε: Voltage output of Signal Generator (also called the Source voltage or Applied

Experiment #10: LR & RC Circuits Frequency Response EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage Sensor graph paper (optional) (3) Patch Cords Decade resistor, capacitor, and

### 12. Transformers, Impedance Matching and Maximum Power Transfer

1 1. Transformers, Impedance Matching and Maximum Power Transfer Introduction The transformer is a device that takes AC at one voltage and transforms it into another voltage either higher or lower than

### Lecture - 4 Diode Rectifier Circuits

Basic Electronics (Module 1 Semiconductor Diodes) Dr. Chitralekha Mahanta Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Lecture - 4 Diode Rectifier Circuits

### 2. A conductor of length 2m moves at 4m/s at 30 to a uniform magnetic field of 0.1T. Which one of the following gives the e.m.f. generated?

Extra Questions - 2 1. A straight length of wire moves through a uniform magnetic field. The e.m.f. produced across the ends of the wire will be maximum if it moves: a) along the lines of magnetic flux

### Single Transistor FM Transmitter Design

Single Transistor FM Transmitter Design In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. FM is commonly used at VHF radio frequencies for

### An Overview of Practical Capacitance Bridge Functioning. by Paul Moses

An Overview of Practical Capacitance Bridge Functioning by Paul Moses INTRODUCTION The laboratory has a variety of bridges, both automatic and manual which can be used to measure the capacitance and dielectric

### LS RS. Figure 1: Assumed inductor model

Characterizing Inductors at HF and VHF Inductors are a key component in RF circuits. Their performance makes a great difference in the operation of amplifiers, oscillators, and other circuit blocks --

### Constructing a precision SWR meter and antenna analyzer. Mike Brink HNF, Design Technologist.

Constructing a precision SWR meter and antenna analyzer. Mike Brink HNF, Design Technologist. Abstract. I have been asked to put together a detailed article on a SWR meter. In this article I will deal

### Experiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor)

Experiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor) Concept: circuits Time: 30 m SW Interface: 750 Windows file: RLC.SWS EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage

### Chapter 11. Inductors ISU EE. C.Y. Lee

Chapter 11 Inductors Objectives Describe the basic structure and characteristics of an inductor Discuss various types of inductors Analyze series inductors Analyze parallel inductors Analyze inductive

### Oscillators. 2.0 RF Sine Wave Oscillators. www.learnabout-electronics.org. Module. RF Oscillators

Module 2 www.learnabout-electronics.org Oscillators 2.0 RF Sine Wave Oscillators What you ll Learn in Module 2 Section 2.0 High Frequency Sine Wave Oscillators. Frequency Control in RF Oscillators. LC

### Apprentice Telecommunications Technician Test (CTT) Study Guide

Apprentice Telecommunications Technician Test (CTT) Study Guide 1 05/2014 Study Guide for Pacific Gas & Electric Company Apprentice Telecommunications Technician Qualifying Test (CTT) About the Test The

### Measurement of Inductor Q with the MSA Sam Wetterlin 3/31/11. Equation 1 Determining Resonant Q from Inductor Q and Capacitor Q

Measurement of Inductor with the MSA Sam Wetterlin 3/31/11 The of an inductor, which is its reactance divided by its internal series resistance, is used as an indication of how well it will perform at

### S-Parameters and Related Quantities Sam Wetterlin 10/20/09

S-Parameters and Related Quantities Sam Wetterlin 10/20/09 Basic Concept of S-Parameters S-Parameters are a type of network parameter, based on the concept of scattering. The more familiar network parameters

### The Critical Length of a Transmission Line

Page 1 of 9 The Critical Length of a Transmission Line Dr. Eric Bogatin President, Bogatin Enterprises Oct 1, 2004 Abstract A transmission line is always a transmission line. However, if it is physically

### IF Transformer. V2 is 2Vp-p sinusoidal

V2 is 2Vp-p sinusoidal Purpose and Function These transformers are specially designed tuned circuit in RFI-tight groundable metal packages for narrow bandwith IF application. 1 Theory and Design C30 and

### Current Probes, More Useful Than You Think

Current Probes, More Useful Than You Think Training and design help in most areas of Electrical Engineering Copyright 1998 Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. Reprinted from the IEEE 1998

### Effect of Frequency on Inductive Reactance

TUNED CIRCUITS Effect of Frequency on Inductive Reactance Resonance The ideal series-resonant circuit How the Parallel-LC Circuit Stores Energy Parallel resonance Resonant circuits as filter circuits Pulsed

### Common Mode Choke Filtering Improves CMRR in Ethernet Transformer Applications. Application Note. June 2011

Common Mode Choke Filtering Improves CMRR in Ethernet Transformer Applications June 2011 Application Note Common mode chokes provide an effective EMI filtering solution for Ethernet transformer applications.

### PROCEDURE: 1. Measure and record the actual values of the four resistors listed in Table 10-1.

The answer to two questions will help you identify a series or parallel connection: (1) Will the identical current go through both components? f the answer is yes, the components are in series. (2) Are

### Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz

Author: Don LaFontaine Making Accurate Voltage Noise and Current Noise Measurements on Operational Amplifiers Down to 0.1Hz Abstract Making accurate voltage and current noise measurements on op amps in

### GenTech Practice Questions

GenTech Practice Questions Basic Electronics Test: This test will assess your knowledge of and ability to apply the principles of Basic Electronics. This test is comprised of 90 questions in the following

### AND8200/D. Design Considerations for ESD/EMI Filters: I (Almost Everything You Wanted to Know About EMI Filters and Were Afraid to Ask)

Design Considerations for ESD/EMI Filters: I (Almost Everything You Wanted to Know About EMI Filters and Were Afraid to Ask) Prepared by: Ryan Hurley Applications Engineer ON Semiconductor APPLICATION

### Unit/Standard Number. High School Graduation Years 2010, 2011 and 2012

1 Secondary Task List 100 SAFETY 101 Demonstrate an understanding of State and School safety regulations. 102 Practice safety techniques for electronics work. 103 Demonstrate an understanding of proper

### The W5JCK Guide to the Mathematic Equations Required for the Amateur Extra Class Exam

The W5JCK Guide to the Mathematic Equations Required for the Amateur Extra Class Exam This document contains every question from the Extra Class (Element 4) Question Pool* that requires one or more mathematical

### Application Notes FREQUENCY LINEAR TUNING VARACTORS FREQUENCY LINEAR TUNING VARACTORS THE DEFINITION OF S (RELATIVE SENSITIVITY)

FREQUENY LINEAR TUNING VARATORS FREQUENY LINEAR TUNING VARATORS For several decades variable capacitance diodes (varactors) have been used as tuning capacitors in high frequency circuits. Most of these

### RF-Microwaves formulas - 1-port systems

RF-Microwaves formulas - -port systems s-parameters: Considering a voltage source feeding into the DUT with a source impedance of. E i E r DUT The voltage into the DUT is composed of 2 parts, an incident

### The full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure

The Full-Wave Rectifier The full wave rectifier consists of two diodes and a resister as shown in Figure The transformer has a centre-tapped secondary winding. This secondary winding has a lead attached

### ATE-A1 Testing Without Relays - Using Inductors to Compensate for Parasitic Capacitance

Introduction (Why Get Rid of Relays?) Due to their size, cost and relatively slow (millisecond) operating speeds, minimizing the number of mechanical relays is a significant goal of any ATE design. This

### Crosstalk effects of shielded twisted pairs

This article deals with the modeling and simulation of shielded twisted pairs with CST CABLE STUDIO. The quality of braided shields is investigated with respect to perfect solid shields. Crosstalk effects

### Application Note AN- 1095

Application Note AN- 1095 Design of the Inverter Output Filter for Motor Drives with IRAMS Power Modules Cesare Bocchiola Table of Contents Page Section 1: Introduction...2 Section 2 : Output Filter Design

### EE302 Lesson 14: Antennas

EE302 Lesson 14: Antennas Loaded antennas /4 antennas are desirable because their impedance is purely resistive. At low frequencies, full /4 antennas are sometime impractical (especially in mobile applications).

### Inductors. AC Theory. Module 3

Module 3 AC Theory What you ll learn in Module 3. Section 3.1 Electromagnetic Induction. Magnetic Fields around Conductors. The Solenoid. Section 3.2 Inductance & Back e.m.f. The Unit of Inductance. Factors

### Impedance Matching of Filters with the MSA Sam Wetterlin 2/11/11

Impedance Matching of Filters with the MSA Sam Wetterlin 2/11/11 Introduction The purpose of this document is to illustrate the process for impedance matching of filters using the MSA software. For example,

### Amplifier for Small Magnetic and Electric Wideband Receiving Antennas (model AAA-1B)

Amplifier for Small Magnetic and Electric Wideband Receiving Antennas (model AAA-1B) 1. Description and Specifications Contents 1.1 Description 1.2 1.2 Specifications 1.3 1.3 Tested parameters in production

### RF measurements, tools and equipment E. B. Boskamp, A. Nabetani, J. Tropp (eddy.boskamp@med.ge.com)

RF measurements, tools and equipment E. B. Boskamp, A. Nabetani, J. Tropp (eddy.boskamp@med.ge.com) INTRODUCTION I am often asked by researchers what kind of equipment is needed to set up an RF lab. The

### Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007

[ Assignment View ] [ Print ] Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007 30. Inductance Assignment is due at 2:00am on Wednesday, March 14, 2007 Credit for problems submitted late will decrease to 0% after the deadline has

### Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill. Presented by Scott Peele PE

Understanding Power Factor and How it Affects Your Electric Bill Presented by Scott Peele PE Understanding Power Factor Definitions kva, kvar, kw, Apparent Power vs. True Power Calculations Measurements

### Capacitor Self-Resonance

Capacitor Self-Resonance By: Dr. Mike Blewett University of Surrey United Kingdom Objective This Experiment will demonstrate some of the limitations of capacitors when used in Radio Frequency circuits.

### Transmission Line Transformers

Radio Frequency Circuit Design. W. Alan Davis, Krishna Agarwal Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. Print ISBN 0-471-35052-4 Electronic ISBN 0-471-20068-9 CHAPTER SIX Transmission Line Transformers 6.1

### APN1001: Circuit Models for Plastic Packaged Microwave Diodes

APPLICATION NOTE APN11: Circuit Models for Plastic Packaged Microwave Diodes Abstract This paper reports on the measurement and establishment of circuit models for SOT-23 and SOD-323 packaged diodes. Results

### Power Supplies. 1.0 Power Supply Basics. www.learnabout-electronics.org. Module

Module 1 www.learnabout-electronics.org Power Supplies 1.0 Power Supply Basics What you ll learn in Module 1 Section 1.0 Power Supply Basics. Basic functions of a power supply. Safety aspects of working

### Transmission Lines. Smith Chart

Smith Chart The Smith chart is one of the most useful graphical tools for high frequency circuit applications. The chart provides a clever way to visualize complex functions and it continues to endure

### Diode Applications. by Kenneth A. Kuhn Sept. 1, 2008. This note illustrates some common applications of diodes.

by Kenneth A. Kuhn Sept. 1, 2008 This note illustrates some common applications of diodes. Power supply applications A common application for diodes is converting AC to DC. Although half-wave rectification

### Three phase circuits

Three phase circuits THREE PHASE CIRCUITS THREE-PHASE ADVANTAGES 1. The horsepower rating of three-phase motors and the kva rating of three-phase transformers are 150% greater than single-phase motors

### W03 Analysis of DC Circuits. Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören

W03 Analysis of DC Circuits Yrd. Doç. Dr. Aytaç Gören ELK 2018 - Contents W01 Basic Concepts in Electronics W02 AC to DC Conversion W03 Analysis of DC Circuits (self and condenser) W04 Transistors and

### Experiment 7: Familiarization with the Network Analyzer

Experiment 7: Familiarization with the Network Analyzer Measurements to characterize networks at high frequencies (RF and microwave frequencies) are usually done in terms of scattering parameters (S parameters).

### Technical Note #3. Error Amplifier Design and Applications. Introduction

Technical Note #3 Error Amplifier Design and Applications Introduction All regulating power supplies require some sort of closed-loop control to force the output to match the desired value. Both digital

### Digital Systems Ribbon Cables I CMPE 650. Ribbon Cables A ribbon cable is any cable having multiple conductors bound together in a flat, wide strip.

Ribbon Cables A ribbon cable is any cable having multiple conductors bound together in a flat, wide strip. Each dielectric configuration has different high-frequency characteristics. All configurations

### Slide 1 / 26. Inductance. 2011 by Bryan Pflueger

Slide 1 / 26 Inductance 2011 by Bryan Pflueger Slide 2 / 26 Mutual Inductance If two coils of wire are placed near each other and have a current passing through them, they will each induce an emf on one

### Output Ripple and Noise Measurement Methods for Ericsson Power Modules

Output Ripple and Noise Measurement Methods for Ericsson Power Modules Design Note 022 Ericsson Power Modules Ripple and Noise Abstract There is no industry-wide standard for measuring output ripple and

### " PCB Layout for Switching Regulators "

1 " PCB Layout for Switching Regulators " 2 Introduction Linear series pass regulator I L V IN V OUT GAIN REF R L Series pass device drops the necessary voltage to maintain V OUT at it s programmed value

### Chapter 4. LLC Resonant Converter

Chapter 4 LLC Resonant Converter 4.1 Introduction In previous chapters, the trends and technical challenges for front end DC/DC converter were discussed. High power density, high efficiency and high power

### Common-Emitter Amplifier

Common-Emitter Amplifier A. Before We Start As the title of this lab says, this lab is about designing a Common-Emitter Amplifier, and this in this stage of the lab course is premature, in my opinion,

### Laboratory #5: RF Filter Design

EEE 194 RF Laboratory Exercise 5 1 Laboratory #5: RF Filter Design I. OBJECTIVES A. Design a third order low-pass Chebyshev filter with a cutoff frequency of 330 MHz and 3 db ripple with equal terminations

### Capacitors in Circuits

apacitors in ircuits apacitors store energy in the electric field E field created by the stored charge In circuit apacitor may be absorbing energy Thus causes circuit current to be reduced Effectively

### Planar versus conventional transformer

Planar versus conventional transformer Majid Dadafshar, Principal Engineer Gerard Healy, Field Application Engineer Pulse, a Technitrol Company Power Division Usually the first step on any power supply

### Application Guide. Power Factor Correction (PFC) Basics

Power Factor Correction (PFC) Basics Introduction Power Factor, in simple terms, is a number between zero and one that represents the ratio of the real power to apparent power. Real power (P), measured

### Local Oscillator for FM broadcast band 88-108 MHz

Local Oscillator for FM broadcast band 88-108 MHz Wang Luhao Yan Shubo Supervisor: Göran Jönsson Department of Electrical and Information Technology Lund University 2012.05.15 Abstract In this project

### Series and Parallel Circuits

Series and Parallel Circuits Direct-Current Series Circuits A series circuit is a circuit in which the components are connected in a line, one after the other, like railroad cars on a single track. There