# PS-6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other.

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1 PS-6.1 Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy, and thermal energy). It is essential for students to understand that The law of conservation of energy states that energy cannot be created or destroyed. Energy can be transformed from one form to another, but the total amount of energy never changes. Energy is the property of an object or a system that enables it to do work. o Work is done when a force is applied to an object, and the object moves some distance in response to the force in the direction of the force. o Work is the product of the force applied to an object and the distance the object is moved in the direction of the force (displacement) (PS-6.3) If you consider a system in its entirety, the total amount of energy never changes. There are many different kinds of o Mechanical energy is energy due to the position of something or the movement of something. Mechanical energy can be potential, kinetic, or the sum of the two. o Chemical energy is a type of energy associated with atoms, ions, and molecules and the bonds they form. Chemical energy will change to another form of energy when a chemical reaction occurs. o Electrical energy is energy associated with current and voltage. o Thermal energy is the energy associated with the random motion and arrangement of the particles of a material. o Light energy is energy that associated with electromagnetic waves. o Sound energy is energy associated longitudinal mechanical waves. These different kinds of energy can change from one form to another (energy transformation) without changing the total amount of Examples might include: Example 1 Explain conservation of energy in terms of energy transformation in an electric circuit with a battery and a light bulb burning. Chemical energy changes to electrical The electrical energy flows through the light bulb and turns electrical energy to light and thermal The total of the energy from the chemical reaction in the battery is equal to the total energy that it transforms into. Example 2 o Explain conservation of energy in terms of energy transformation when a baseball is thrown to another ball player. A ballplayer converts chemical energy from the food he/she has eaten to mechanical energy when he/she moves his/her arm to throw the ball. The work done on the ball converts the energy of the arm movement to kinetic mechanical energy of the moving ball. As the ball moves through the air, it has both kinetic and potential mechanical When a second player catches the ball, the ball does work on the player s hand and glove giving them some mechanical The ball also moves the molecules in the glove moving them faster and thus heating the glove. The player that catches the ball absorbs the energy of the ball, and this energy turns to heat. The total heat produced is equal to the energy used to throw the ball. 1 / 9

2 Most energy transformations are not 100% efficient. When energy changes from one form to another, some of the original energy dissipates in the form of energy that is not usable. Usually it dissipates as heat. PS-6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other. It is essential for students to understand Transformations of potential and kinetic mechanical o Mechanical energy is energy due to the position of an object or the movement of an object. o Mechanical energy can be potential or kinetic or the sum of the two. That potential energy is energy that is stored because of the arrangement of the system. Factors that affect gravitational potential energy are height and weight (mass times acceleration due to gravity, or F w =mg). o Gravitational potential energy is greater when the height of an object is greater. o Gravitational potential energy is greater when the weight of the object is greater. o Gravitational potential energy of an object at some height is equal to the work required to lift the object to that height. Work is equal to force times distance (PS-6.3, 4); W = Fd. That kinetic energy is energy of motion. Factors that affect kinetic energy are mass and speed. o Kinetic energy is greater when the speed of an object is greater. o Kinetic energy is greater when the mass of a moving object is greater. Transformations can occur between gravitational potential energy and kinetic Examples might include: Example 1 o Lifting an object and dropping it An object is on the ground. It has zero potential energy with respect to the ground. It is lifted to some height. It now has potential energy equal to the work it took to lift it to that height. Its potential energy depends on its weight and height above the ground. When the object is dropped, it is attracted by gravity and begins to speed up. Some of the energy turns to kinetic. On the way down some of the energy is kinetic and some is potential, but the total remains the same. Just before the object hits the ground most of the energy has turned to kinetic. It loses its potential energy because its height has gone to zero. When the object hits the ground some of the energy turns to sound and some turns to heat because it speeds up molecules when it hits the ground. Example 2 o A swinging pendulum When a mass on a pendulum swings, it has mechanical At the top of the swing all of its mechanical energy is potential energy that depends on its height and weight of the pendulum mass. The kinetic energy is greatest at the bottom of the swing because the speed of the mass is greatest. Potential energy is zero at the bottom of the swing because the height of the mass is zero. Between the top of the swing and the bottom of the swing the mass has both potential and kinetic energy because it has both height and movement (velocity). Eventually the pendulum will stop. It stops because of friction. The friction transforms the energy that was originally mechanical energy in the swinging pendulum into heat. 2 / 9

3 PS-6.3 Explain work in terms of the relationship among the force applied to an object, the displacement of the object, and the energy transferred to the object. It is essential for the student to understand that Work is the product of the force applied to an object and the distance the object is moved in the direction of the force (displacement). Force and displacement are quantities that have magnitude (an amount or size) and direction. In order to do work on an object these conditions must apply: o A force is applied to the object. o The object must move in the direction of the force. When work is done on an object, energy is transferred to that object. o Work is equal to change in o When a net force is applied to an object and the object moves, the work is transformed to kinetic If a greater force is added, or If the force is applied over a greater distance, then the kinetic energy will be greater. If an object is lifted to some height, it gains gravitational potential energy equal to the work done against gravity in lifting the object. o The work done against gravity is the same whether the object was lifted straight up or rolled up a ramp. o The greater the height, the more gravitational potential energy the object has. The unit of measure for work and energy is the joule. It is not essential for the student to solve problems involving kinetic energy change due to work. PS-6.4 Use the formula W = Fd to solve problems related to work done on an object. It is essential for students to Solve problems for any variables in the equation, W = Fd, (i.e. F=W/d or d=w/f) using data. Use dimensional analysis to determine the proper units using the SI system: o Force should be given in newtons; o Distance should be given in meters; o Work will be newton-meters or joules. The displacement should be in the direction of the force. PS-6.5 Explain how objects can acquire a static electric charge through friction, induction, and conduction. It is essential for students to understand that All matter is made up of atoms with three types of particles: protons, neutrons, and electrons. Two of the particles in atoms are electrically charged. o The protons, which are tightly held in the nucleus, are positively charged. o The electrons, which move around outside the nucleus, are negatively charged. o Atoms normally have the same number positive charges that they do negative charges. The effects of these charges cancel out and the object will have no net charge. Static electric charge is the result of transfer of electrons. The electrons in the atoms can be removed from the atom and moved onto something else. 3 / 9

4 When an object loses electrons, it will have more protons than electrons and will have a net positive charge. When an object gains electrons, it will have more electrons than protons and will have a net negative charge. Like charges repel each other. Positives charges repel other positives charges, and negative charges repel other negative charges. Opposite charges attract. Negative and positive charges exert an attractive force on each other. Objects can be charged by: Friction: When one object is rubbed against another, sometimes electrons leave one object and stick to the other leaving both objects charged. The object that loses electrons will get or have a net positive charge, and the object that gains electrons will get or have a net negative charge. Conduction: Electrons can be transferred from one object to another by touching. When a charged object touches another object some charge will transfer to the other object. If the charged object is negative, some of the electrons will leave the negatively charged object and travel to the neutral object leaving both objects with a negative charge. If the charged object is positive, some of the electrons will leave the neutral object and travel to the positively charged object leaving both objects with a positive charge. Only the electrons are transferred in solid objects. Objects charged by conduction will have the same charge as the object charging it and therefore will repel it. Induction: Objects can be charged by bringing a charged object near a neutral object. If a charged object is brought near a neutral object the charged object will attract unlike charges in the neutral object and repel like charges in the neutral object. Electrons will move in the neutral object and leave the side nearest the charged object charged with a charge that is opposite the charging object. (Only electrons can move in a solid object.) If the charged object is negative, the electrons in the neutral object will be repelled leaving the side nearest the charged object with a positive charge. If the neutral object is grounded, electrons are repelled into the ground. If the ground is removed the previously neutral object will be left with a residual positive charge. If the charged object is positive, the electrons in the neutral object will be attracted and move towards the positive charge leaving the side nearest the charged object with a negative charge. If the neutral object is grounded electrons are pulled from the ground. If the ground is removed, the previously neutral object will be left with a residual negative charge. After an object is charged by induction, it will have the opposite charge of the charging object and will attract it. 4 / 9

5 PS-6.6 Explain the relationships among voltage, resistance, and current in Ohm s law. It is essential for students to understand that Voltage is electric potential energy per charge. It provides the energy that pushes and pulls electrons through the circuit. o Voltage is measured in volts. The symbol is (V). o Voltage is created by: a chemical cell when it changes chemical energy to electrical energy, or by a generator when it changes mechanical energy to electrical energy, or by a solar cell when it changes light energy to electrical When a wire connects the terminals of a battery or generators, then the voltage will push and pull electrons through a conductor. o One terminal has extra electrons thus a negative charge. The other terminal has a deficit of electrons and thus a positive charge. o Electrons in the wire are pushed by the negative terminal and pulled by the positive terminal through the wire. Electric current is the flow of charge through a conductor. The electric current in a wire is the flow of electrons. Electric current is measured in amperes or amps. The symbol is (A). Electric resistance opposes the flow of charge through a conductor. All conductors have some resistance to an electric current with the exception of some superconducting materials at very low temperatures. o In wires, resistance occurs when the electrons flowing through the wire continually run into metal atoms and bounce around. These collisions impede the flow of the electric current and change some of the electrical energy to thermal and/or light o Resistance is measured in ohms. The symbol is ( ). o Resistance will reduce the flow of current because it is harder for the current to get through the conductor. When an electric current encounters resistance heat is produced. Wires that have a larger diameter have less resistance. Longer wires have greater resistance. In many materials an increase in temperature will increase resistance. Electric devices provide much of the resistance in a circuit. Ohms law describes the relationship between voltage, current, and resistance. The voltage (V) is the product of the current (I) and resistance (R). (V = I R) o One volt will pull one amp of current through one ohm of resistance. o If the voltage increases and the resistance remains the same, the current will increase. o If the voltage stays the same and the resistance increases, then the current will decrease. 5 / 9

6 PS-6.7 Use the formula V = IR to solve problems related to electric circuits. It is essential for students to understand That V stands for voltage, I stands for current, R stands for resistance. The components of an electric circuit: o Sources of voltage are chemical cells (a battery is a combinations of cells), solar cells, and generators. o Sources of resistance are resistors, light bulb filaments, and other electric devices. The units for: o Voltage is the volt (symbol is V). o Current is ampere or amp (symbol is A). o Resistance is ohm (symbol is ). It is also essential that students are able to Solve problems that involve simple circuits; Solve for any of the variables in the equation (V=IR or I=V/R or R=V/I). PS-6.8 Represent an electric circuit by drawing a circuit diagram that includes the symbols for a resistor, switch, and voltage source. It is essential for students to Understand the components that can be used in an electric circuit; Be able to represent the components of a complete circuit with symbols: Wires Resistors Light bulbs Switches Chemical cell Battery circuit with 2 cells wired in series Battery circuit with 2 cells wired in parallel. 6 / 9

7 AC source (generator) It is also essential for students to Represent a circuit with resistors or light bulbs wired in parallel. (See PS-6.9) Represent a circuit with resistors or light bulbs wired in series. (See PS-6.9) Represent circuits by drawing a circuit diagram from a circuit which is pictured or described. Interpret a circuit diagram. Draw an open and a closed circuit. Examples: Closed circuit with a battery and a resistor Open circuit with a battery and a resistor It is not essential for students to represent devices not listed above. 7 / 9

8 PS-6.9 Compare the functioning of simple series and parallel electrical circuits.. It is essential for students to recognize and understand Series Circuits: In a series circuit there is a single path for electrons. When another resistor is wired in series with the resistors in a circuit, the total resistance increases because all of the current must go through each resistor and encounters the resistance of each. The current in the circuit decreases when additional resistors are added. o When another light bulb is added to lights wired in series, the lights will dim. o The current will be the same in each resistor. When light bulbs are wired in series and one is removed or burns out all of the lights in the circuit go out. When the light bulb is removed from the circuit, it opens the circuit and current cannot flow. Parallel circuits: When resistors are wired in parallel, there is more than one path that the electrons can travel. The voltage in each path is the same. When another resistor is wired in parallel, then the total resistance is reduced. The total current in the circuit will increase when another path is added. If light bulbs are wired in parallel and one bulb burns out or is removed, the other bulbs keep burning because the circuit is still complete. Chemical cells in series and parallel: Chemical cells can be wired in series to make a battery. o Cells wired in series will increase the voltage of the battery. Chemical cells can be wired in parallel to make a battery. o Cells wired in parallel do not change the voltage of the battery. o Cells are wired in parallel to make the battery last longer. PS-6.10 Compare alternating current (AC) and direct current (DC) in terms of the production of electricity and the direction of current flow. Taxonomy Level: 2.6-B Understand Conceptual Knowledge It is essential for students to understand That electric current in a wire is the flow of electrons. Direct current (DC): DC current or direct current flows in one direction. DC current can be produced using a solar cell or a chemical cell. A battery is a combination of chemical cells. (Strictly speaking a battery is a combination of more than one cell. Sometimes a D cell is referred to as a battery. This causes confusion with students.) Electrons are repelled by the negative terminal of a battery and attracted to the positive terminal of a battery. When a circuit is connected to the terminals the electrons will move from the negative terminal to the positive terminal. Alternating current (AC): AC current or alternating current moves back and forth. The electric current that comes out of the outlets in our homes and schools is AC current. 8 / 9

9 AC current can be produced by a generator using the principle of electromagnetic induction. The current is produced when a magnet moves relative to a coil of wire. In a generator the magnet (or coil) spins causing the terminals of the generator to alternate between positive and negative. Electrons are repelled by the negative terminal and attracted to the positive terminal just as in DC currents. Since the terminals are continually changing from positive to negative the current continually changes direction. PS-6.11 Explain the relationship of magnetism to the movement of electric charges in electromagnets, simple motors, and generators. It is essential for students to understand Electromagnets: Electric currents in wires produce magnetic fields around the wire. The magnetic field can be concentrated and thus strengthened in several ways: Wrapping the wire in a coil will strengthen the electromagnet. The greater the number of turns in the coil, the greater the increase in strength. Adding a core (like iron) will concentrate the magnetic field and strengthen the electromagnet. Increasing the current in the coil will strengthen the electromagnet. Motors: Electric motors change electrical energy to mechanical Motors contain an electromagnet called an armature. When an electric current runs through the wire in the armature it becomes magnetized. The armature spins because other magnets in the motor push and pull the armature and cause it to spin. Motors use the magnetic force from magnets to spin an armature (magnetized by an electric current) and thus change electric energy to mechanical Generators: A generator changes mechanical energy into electric Generators use electromagnetic induction to produce an electric current. When a wire or a coil of wire moves relative to a magnetic field an electric current can be produced. This process is called electromagnetic induction. In a generator at a power plant some other type of energy such as the energy in stream is used to turn a turbine which spins a magnet in a generator. The magnet spins past a coil of wire. This moving magnetic field pushes electrons through the wire. A generator is similar to an electric motor. (A generator is an electric motor working in reverse.) Generators produce AC current. 9 / 9

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