Reading assignment: All students should read the Appendix about using oscilloscopes.


 Todd Miller
 5 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 10. A ircuits* Objective: To learn how to analyze current and voltage relationships in alternating current (a.c.) circuits. You will use the method of phasors, or the vector addition of rotating vectors that represent the voltages or currents. This method does not require calculus. Reading assignment: All students should read the Appendix about using oscilloscopes. The learning objectives are the following: 1. To learn how alternating currents or voltages can be represented as the ycomponents of rotating vectors, or phasors. 2. To understand the amplitude and phase relationships amongst the different components (resistors, capacitors, inductors) of a.c. circuits. 3. To learn effective use of a typical oscilloscope. 4. To understand the phenomenon of resonance in series RL circuits. (This material is presented in your textbook iunder alternating current circuits.) Reading assignment Before you come to the lab study the sections on alternating current, capacitor circuits, inductors and inductor circuits, Read the following sections. (Section numbers may be slightly different depending on the edition of your textbook: heck the section titles.) Knight, Jones and Field : 26.1 Alternating urrent, capacitor circuits 26.4, inductors and inductor circuits 26.5, oscillation circuits 26.6 Serway and uille (212): 21.1 Resistors in an A ircuit, 21.2: apacitors in an A ircuit, 21.3 Inductors in an A ircuit, 21.4 The RL Series ircuit, 21.5: Power in an A ircuit, 21.6 Resonance in a Series RL ircuit Serway and Jewett (252): 33.1 A Sources, 33.2 Resistors in an A ircuit, 33.3: Inductors in an A ircuit, 33.4 apacitors in an A ircuit, 33.5 The RL Series ircuit, 33.6 Power in an A ircuit, 33.7 Resonance in a Series RL ircuit Prelab assignment: 1. The vector shown is rotating counterclockwise around the circle shown with an angular frequency of 2 f. At time t 0sec, the angle is. Write a formula for the x and y components of the vector (a phasor ) at general time t. The length of the vector is I o. I x = I y = * William A Schwalm
2 The idea behind a current phasor is that either I x or I y can be used to represent an alternating current as the phasor rotates, since these components vary 2. (Phys 252 only) At the right is a schematic circuit di sinusoidally. 3. Is t 2. (Phys 252 only) At the right is a schematic circuit diagram showing a resistor, capacitor, inductor and alternating voltage source. (a) Label these with R,, L and a.c. (b) At a given instant t in time, suppose is the current flowing out of the source, as shown. Let, and be the currents flowing through R, L and at this instant. Write the equations that hold between each pair currents. Explain why. (c) Suppose the capacitor starts out with zero charge. As the current flows in the direction shown, what happens to the right and to the left capacitor plate? (Two separate answers.) (d) As we have learned, the voltage drop across the coil, that is to say across the inductor L, is proportional to the rate of change of the current.. What is the relation between the current through the resistor and the voltage drop across the resistor? Give an equation. (e) The voltage across the capacitor is related to the charge Q on either of its plates by the definition of capacitance. Thus give a formula for the voltage drop across the capacitor. 102
3 (f) Write an equation (one equation) relating the voltage to the three voltage drops across the three other circuit components. s t of the alternating voltage source 3. (Phys 212 and 252) In the following figure you see the source current as a function of time. The other curves represent voltages across the resistor, capacitor and inductor, in some order. Based on your answers above, identify which curve represents which voltage drop. Then explain briefly each choice. (Don t just say that current leads voltage across the grob, (whatever) because you also have to explain why that is, based on how grob works.) source current time voltage A B time A = B = = 4. Below left is a current phasor, a vector rotating counterclockwise with angular frequency such that its vertical component (y component) gives the source current. At the right are three voltage phasors marked A, B, and. These relate to voltages. Based on your responses above, identify which of the three phasors corresponds to the voltage drop across each of R, L and? (The letters A, B, are not necessarily going to correspond to the curves in the previous question.) Explain your choices. For instance, which voltage phasor should line up with the current phasor because the voltage drop is proportional to current? I o A B A? B?? Phasor for source current Phasors for voltage drops 103
4 Exploring equipment: Read the Appendix on the use of oscilloscopes The hold introduces extra time delay between sweeps by missing some sweeps. Pulling the hold knob you can chop the input between H1 and H2. That means the input (not triggering) is sampled by rapidly alternating back and forth between the two inputs. This is handy for very low sweep rates and is used in place of alternate sweeps in this case. Equipment: The a.c. voltage source or signal generator (a) The same current flows at each instant through each circuit element. This means the current through the capacitor I c is the same at each instant as the current I R through the resistor. (b) The sum at each instant of the voltage drops around the circuit is zero. Thus if c is the voltage drop across the capacitor, R EMF provided at the same instant by the signal generator, then at each instant in time Resistor Resisto r apacitor apacitor apacito r Inductor The photo on the left shows the signal generator attached to a resistor and capacitor. The signal generator is in the rear and there is a resistor, capacitor and an inductor (not part of the circuit) each mounted on a Plexiglas box. The wires complete the circuit, so that during half the cycle current flows out one terminal of the signal generator, through the resistor, into the capacitor (charging the capacitor) and back into the generator. Then on the other half of the cycle it flows the other way. Therefore notice from the way the circuit is set up that.   R = 0. (Yes) But and here s the tricky part R0 0. (No! ) (c) The maximum voltages across each circuit element do not add up. This is because these maximum voltages occur at different times during the cycle. 104
5 The fact that the voltages across the different kinds of circuit elements do not reach maximum at the same time (i.e. they are out of phase with one another) and thus don t add up is the reason you have to use an oscilloscope rather than a volt meter and is also the reason we will analyze the circuits using phasors. Problem 1 omparing voltages across the capacitor and the resistor in a series R circuit. The ontrol Data orporation needs you to analyze a bunch of control circuits for an aircraft. In the midst of this, your supervisor is asking your group to demonstrate, using the oscilloscope, the relationship between the voltage across a capacitor and a resistor R in a particular series R circuit. You are supposed to show this to your supervisor as a display on the oscilloscope screen by having the H1 trace show the resistor voltage drop t and the H2 trace show the voltage drop is one tricky point. t across the capacitor. You will have to figure out how to do it, although there Inclass response question: The group should draw on the white board a circuit diagram for a series R circuit with a signal generator. Reproduce it here also. Then, answer the following both on the board and below: (a) Between which two points would you connect the oscilloscope input leads for H1 in order to measure Indicate on the diagram. t? R R (b) Between which points would you connect the leads of H2 in order to measure t? Now here s the tricky part. (a) You want to have the top of the oscilloscope screen represent a more positive voltage. (b) You also want to measure the voltages in the same direction relative to the instantaneous current flow (that is, both clockwise or both counter clockwise in the circuit.) However: (c) You cannot ground more than one point in a circuit or you have a short circuit. The problem comes about because one side of each input channel is already grounded. Notice the actual H1 and H2 inputs are BN connectors. The outer sleeve of a BN is a metal cylinder welded to the oscilloscope frame. This side of the input usually corresponds to the common on a voltmeter and to the negative or downward direction on the screen. Thus when the other input lead (central terminal of the BN) is more positive that the sleeve, the trace on the screen goes up, and when it is more negative than the sleeve the trace goes down. Therefore you have to connect the sleeve side (grounded side) of each input to the same point in the circuit. 105
6 Inclass group response: Go back to your circuit diagram and figure out which point you would like to connect the grounded sides of the H1 and H2 inputs (same point). Indicate this point on the diagram. Then explain why this makes H2 measure the capacitor voltage upside down! (Dang.) Thus it seems you will have to see t on the screen. This is not you t and R assignment. Explain here and on the white board. A diagram showing both the R circuit and the oscilloscope connections will be appropriate. Ok, here is a possible solution to the problem: If you look carefully on the control panel you may find a control (often a pushpull thing) that will reverse the sign of the display for H2. Thus it will flip the H2 trace on the screen vertically. This should allow you to show what your supervisor needs to see. Try to find such a control. Inclass response: Draw a picture of how you expect the two traces on the oscilloscope screen to look. Indicate clearly which trace is which. Inclass response: Draw a phasor diagram showing voltage drops across the resistor and across the capacitor as phasors of length R0 and 0 respectively. Draw them at a time when the current phasor points along the x axis. Measurement plan: Describe very briefly how you will set up the circuit and create the display the supervisor wants. Recall that an R circuit has a time constant, which is the product R of resistance and capacitance. Plan to observe the voltage signals in three cases, (a) when the angular frequency 2 f applied by the source is less than 1/R, (b) when it equals 1/R and (c) when it is greater than 1/R. Record your plan here. 106
7 Implementation: arry out your plan. Record the results as graphs of what you actually observe in each case. Include the actual numbers on the scales taking into account the time base and voltage per division. Graph at least two cycles for each. Be sure your supervisor sees the display for at least one of the three cases. Analysis: Write a summary of what you learned. In particular, describe the phase relation between the two voltage drops. In each of three experiments, did the capacitor or the resistor voltage reach a maximum first, and was this what you expected? an you say how much (what fraction of a cycle) one voltage leads the other by? Why or why not? Also, how do the voltage maxima (the amplitudes) compare in each of the three cases? an you explain this? 107
8 Problem 2 Now your group is asked to perform a similar study and to provide a similar demonstration for a series RL. You are to demonstrate to your supervisor using the oscilloscope how the voltages across the R, the inductor L and the capacitor vary in a series RL circuit as a function of the applied angular frequency. (Recall the prelab exercises.) Further, you should compare to predictions that you make using phasor pictures. Work assignment: You need first to be able to show on the screen: (a) both the resistor voltage drop (You have to rewire between a) and b)) (b) both the inductor voltage drop (Rewire again. This time it s a little different.) t in H1 and the capacitor voltage drop R L t in H1 and the capacitor voltage drop Measure the phase angle from the current to the source voltage in the cases (a) when 1/ L, (b) when.2/ L, (c) when 5./ L. t in H2. t in H2. Finally you need to produce a nice, professionallooking graph showing the ratio of the current amplitude I o divided by the source voltage amplitude o as a function of, where 2 f. That is, make a graph of I o o versus. The supervisor wants this written up, of course, so you will hand it in as part of your report, as follows. You should be aware from your reading that the length of the voltage phasors representing voltage drops across each of the circuit elements are Of course the phasor, which are rotating vectors, do not all point in the same direction. Inclass response: (a) The voltage phasor for which one of the circuit elements (R, L or ) is parallel to the current phasor at every instant in time? (b) Why? (c) Also, how are the directions of the other two voltage phasors related to the direction of the current phasor? Draw a picture of the three voltage phasors in this situation, representing phasors as arrows with proper labels, at an instant when the current phasor points directly along the positive x axis. R0 0 L0 0 0 I R, I L, I
9 Inclass response: The source voltage at any instant is the y component (in some textbooks, the x components are used) of the vector sum of the voltage phasors. Referring to your drawing and to the formulas for the phasor lengths, what are the components of the total voltage phasor at the instant shown in your figure? ox = oy = Inclass response: Thus what is the magnitude of the source voltage phasor as a function of frequency? (This gives the amplitude of the source voltage.) Inclass response: What is the phase angle between the source voltage and the source current? (Remember, the current phasor is along the x axis at the moment, so this asks the angle between the axis and the total voltage phasor. It s easy to get its tangent.) Measurement plan: Your group should agree on a measurement plan for performing the assigned work. You will turn in the graph as part of your report. Include a brief outline of the measurement plan here, devoting at least some space to each point. Be sure in particular to tell us how you will wire the circuits in each case. Implementation: arry out your plan. Record the necessary data and ancillary observations here and on additional sheets. Before leaving lab, you should also have a rough sketch of the curve representing data from your resonance experiment. Analysis: You have worked out a prediction of what to expect in each case using phasors. Thus, for each of the points above, the analysis may consist of comparing what you would expect to see (which of course you must state, basing it on the phasors) with what you actually did see. As usual, you should comment especially on things that didn t go as expected. In particular, your analysis should include some discussion of the form of the graph you have constructed, and how this relates to the phenomenon of resonance as described in the text. What is the resonance frequency? What happens to the current there? etc. 109
10 onclusion: Usually the last five minutes are devoted to discussing the lab activity and how the activities related to the learning objectives. Give here a brief discussion of how the objectives were addressed, noting anything of particular interest. Include the main points of the class discussion
Electrical Resonance
Electrical Resonance (RLC series circuit) APPARATUS 1. RLC Circuit board 2. Signal generator 3. Oscilloscope Tektronix TDS1002 with two sets of leads (see Introduction to the Oscilloscope ) INTRODUCTION
More informationInductors in AC Circuits
Inductors in AC Circuits Name Section Resistors, inductors, and capacitors all have the effect of modifying the size of the current in an AC circuit and the time at which the current reaches its maximum
More informationThe purposes of this experiment are to test Faraday's Law qualitatively and to test Lenz's Law.
260 171 I. THEORY EXPERIMENT 17 QUALITATIVE STUDY OF INDUCED EMF Along the extended central axis of a bar magnet, the magnetic field vector B r, on the side nearer the North pole, points away from this
More informationRC & RL Transient Response
EE 2006 University of Minnesota Duluth ab 8 1. Introduction R & R Transient Response The student will analyze series R and R circuits. A step input will excite these respective circuits, producing a transient
More informationEDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5  ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4  ALTERNATING CURRENT
EDEXCEL NATIONAL CERTIFICATE/DIPLOMA UNIT 5  ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONIC PRINCIPLES NQF LEVEL 3 OUTCOME 4  ALTERNATING CURRENT 4 Understand singlephase alternating current (ac) theory Single phase AC
More informationLab E1: Introduction to Circuits
E1.1 Lab E1: Introduction to Circuits The purpose of the this lab is to introduce you to some basic instrumentation used in electrical circuits. You will learn to use a DC power supply, a digital multimeter
More informationUsing an Oscilloscope
Using an Oscilloscope The oscilloscope is used to measure a voltage that changes in time. It has two probes, like a voltmeter. You put these probes on either side of the thing that you want to measure
More informationLab 3  DC Circuits and Ohm s Law
Lab 3 DC Circuits and Ohm s Law L31 Name Date Partners Lab 3  DC Circuits and Ohm s Law OBJECTIES To learn to apply the concept of potential difference (voltage) to explain the action of a battery in
More informationMagnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12
HB 112607 Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12 1 Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12 Equipment coil apparatus, BK Precision 2120B oscilloscope, Fluke multimeter, Wavetek FG3C function generator,
More informationExperiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor)
Experiment #11: LRC Circuit (Power Amplifier, Voltage Sensor) Concept: circuits Time: 30 m SW Interface: 750 Windows file: RLC.SWS EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage
More informationRLC Series Resonance
RLC Series Resonance 11EM Object: The purpose of this laboratory activity is to study resonance in a resistorinductorcapacitor (RLC) circuit by examining the current through the circuit as a function
More informationε: Voltage output of Signal Generator (also called the Source voltage or Applied
Experiment #10: LR & RC Circuits Frequency Response EQUIPMENT NEEDED Science Workshop Interface Power Amplifier (2) Voltage Sensor graph paper (optional) (3) Patch Cords Decade resistor, capacitor, and
More informationResistance, Ohm s Law, and the Temperature of a Light Bulb Filament
Resistance, Ohm s Law, and the Temperature of a Light Bulb Filament Name Partner Date Introduction Carbon resistors are the kind typically used in wiring circuits. They are made from a small cylinder of
More informationEE 1202 Experiment #4 Capacitors, Inductors, and Transient Circuits
EE 1202 Experiment #4 Capacitors, Inductors, and Transient Circuits 1. Introduction and Goal: Exploring transient behavior due to inductors and capacitors in DC circuits; gaining experience with lab instruments.
More informationBasic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. Lecture  33 3 phase System 4
Basic Electrical Technology Dr. L. Umanand Department of Electrical Engineering Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore Lecture  33 3 phase System 4 Hello everybody. So, in the last class we have been
More informationBASIC ELECTRONICS AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS. December 2011
AM 5202 BASIC ELECTRONICS AC CIRCUIT ANALYSIS December 2011 DISTRIBUTION RESTRICTION: Approved for Pubic Release. Distribution is unlimited. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY AUXILIARY RADIO SYSTEM FORT
More informationANALYTICAL METHODS FOR ENGINEERS
UNIT 1: Unit code: QCF Level: 4 Credit value: 15 ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR ENGINEERS A/601/1401 OUTCOME  TRIGONOMETRIC METHODS TUTORIAL 1 SINUSOIDAL FUNCTION Be able to analyse and model engineering situations
More informationAlternatingCurrent Circuits
hapter 1 Alternatingurrent ircuits 1.1 A Sources... 11. Simple A circuits... 13 1..1 Purely esistive load... 13 1.. Purely Inductive oad... 15 1..3 Purely apacitive oad... 17 1.3 The Series ircuit...
More informationEXPERIMENT NUMBER 8 CAPACITOR CURRENTVOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP
1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 8 CAPACITOR CURRENTVOLTAGE RELATIONSHIP Purpose: To demonstrate the relationship between the voltage and current of a capacitor. Theory: A capacitor is a linear circuit element whose
More informationChapter 12 Driven RLC Circuits
hapter Driven ircuits. A Sources... . A ircuits with a Source and One ircuit Element... 3.. Purely esistive oad... 3.. Purely Inductive oad... 6..3 Purely apacitive oad... 8.3 The Series ircuit...
More informationPHASOR DIAGRAMS HANDSON RELAY SCHOOL WSU PULLMAN, WA. RON ALEXANDER  BPA
PHASOR DIAGRAMS HANDSON RELAY SCHOOL WSU PULLMAN, WA. RON ALEXANDER  BPA What are phasors??? In normal practice, the phasor represents the rms maximum value of the positive half cycle of the sinusoid
More informationChapter 35 Alternating Current Circuits
hapter 35 Alternating urrent ircuits acircuits Phasor Diagrams Resistors, apacitors and nductors in acircuits R acircuits acircuit power. Resonance Transformers ac ircuits Alternating currents and
More informationEpisode 126: Capacitance and the equation C =Q/V
Episode 126: Capacitance and the equation C =Q/V Having established that there is charge on each capacitor plate, the next stage is to establish the relationship between charge and potential difference
More informationMeasuring Electric Phenomena: the Ammeter and Voltmeter
Measuring Electric Phenomena: the Ammeter and Voltmeter 1 Objectives 1. To understand the use and operation of the Ammeter and Voltmeter in a simple direct current circuit, and 2. To verify Ohm s Law for
More informationDIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY. Fig. 8.1a Fig 8.1b
DIODE CIRCUITS LABORATORY A solid state diode consists of a junction of either dissimilar semiconductors (pn junction diode) or a metal and a semiconductor (Schottky barrier diode). Regardless of the type,
More informationAC CIRCUITS  CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS
EXPRIMENT#8 AC CIRCUITS  CAPACITORS AND INDUCTORS NOTE: Two weeks are allocated for this experiment. Before performing this experiment, review the Proper Oscilloscope Use section of Experiment #7. Objective
More informationEðlisfræði 2, vor 2007
[ Assignment View ] [ Print ] Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007 30. Inductance Assignment is due at 2:00am on Wednesday, March 14, 2007 Credit for problems submitted late will decrease to 0% after the deadline has
More informationMeasurement of Capacitance
Measurement of Capacitance PreLab Questions Page Name: Class: Roster Number: Instructor:. A capacitor is used to store. 2. What is the SI unit for capacitance? 3. A capacitor basically consists of two
More informationCapacitors in Circuits
apacitors in ircuits apacitors store energy in the electric field E field created by the stored charge In circuit apacitor may be absorbing energy Thus causes circuit current to be reduced Effectively
More informationThe Time Constant of an RC Circuit
The Time Constant of an RC Circuit 1 Objectives 1. To determine the time constant of an RC Circuit, and 2. To determine the capacitance of an unknown capacitor. 2 Introduction What the heck is a capacitor?
More informationThree phase circuits
Three phase circuits THREE PHASE CIRCUITS THREEPHASE ADVANTAGES 1. The horsepower rating of threephase motors and the kva rating of threephase transformers are 150% greater than singlephase motors
More informationForce on Moving Charges in a Magnetic Field
[ Assignment View ] [ Eðlisfræði 2, vor 2007 27. Magnetic Field and Magnetic Forces Assignment is due at 2:00am on Wednesday, February 28, 2007 Credit for problems submitted late will decrease to 0% after
More informationThe DC Motor. Physics 1051 Laboratory #5 The DC Motor
The DC Motor Physics 1051 Laboratory #5 The DC Motor Contents Part I: Objective Part II: Introduction Magnetic Force Right Hand Rule Force on a Loop Magnetic Dipole Moment Torque Part II: Predictions Force
More informationFigure 1: Multiple unsynchronized snapshots of the same sinusoidal signal.
1 Oscilloscope Guide Introduction An oscilloscope is a device used to observe and measure timedependent electronic signals. It is essentially an enhanced voltmeter which displays a graph of potential
More information6. Block and Tackle* Block and tackle
6. Block and Tackle* A block and tackle is a combination of pulleys and ropes often used for lifting. Pulleys grouped together in a single frame make up what is called a pulley block. The tackle refers
More information12. Transformers, Impedance Matching and Maximum Power Transfer
1 1. Transformers, Impedance Matching and Maximum Power Transfer Introduction The transformer is a device that takes AC at one voltage and transforms it into another voltage either higher or lower than
More informationCircuits with inductors and alternating currents. Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49
Circuits with inductors and alternating currents Chapter 20 #45, 46, 47, 49 RL circuits Ch. 20 (last section) Symbol for inductor looks like a spring. An inductor is a circuit element that has a large
More informationExperiment 8: Undriven & Driven RLC Circuits
Experiment 8: Undriven & Driven RLC Circuits Answer these questions on a separate sheet of paper and turn them in before the lab 1. RLC Circuits Consider the circuit at left, consisting of an AC function
More informationTransistor Amplifiers
Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 1999 Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to develop a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must accept input
More informationMATERIALS. Multisim screen shots sent to TA.
Page 1/8 Revision 0 9Jun10 OBJECTIVES Learn new Multisim components and instruments. Conduct a Multisim transient analysis. Gain proficiency in the function generator and oscilloscope. MATERIALS Multisim
More informationELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES
ELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES The purpose of this lab session is to experimentally investigate the relation between electric field lines of force and equipotential surfaces in two dimensions.
More informationMagnetic Fields and Their Effects
Name Date Time to Complete h m Partner Course/ Section / Grade Magnetic Fields and Their Effects This experiment is intended to give you some handson experience with the effects of, and in some cases
More informationExperiment #5, Series and Parallel Circuits, Kirchhoff s Laws
Physics 182 Summer 2013 Experiment #5 1 Experiment #5, Series and Parallel Circuits, Kirchhoff s Laws 1 Purpose Our purpose is to explore and validate Kirchhoff s laws as a way to better understanding
More informationLab #9: AC Steady State Analysis
Theory & Introduction Lab #9: AC Steady State Analysis Goals for Lab #9 The main goal for lab 9 is to make the students familar with AC steady state analysis, db scale and the NI ELVIS frequency analyzer.
More informationLesson 3 DIRECT AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS. Task. The skills and knowledge taught in this lesson are common to all missile repairer tasks.
Lesson 3 DIRECT AND ALTERNATING CURRENTS Task. The skills and knowledge taught in this lesson are common to all missile repairer tasks. Objectives. When you have completed this lesson, you should be able
More informationEXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS
1 EXPERIMENT NUMBER 5 BASIC OSCILLOSCOPE OPERATIONS The oscilloscope is the most versatile and most important tool in this lab and is probably the best tool an electrical engineer uses. This outline guides
More informationCandidate Number. General Certificate of Education Advanced Level Examination June 2014
entre Number andidate Number Surname Other Names andidate Signature General ertificate of Education dvanced Level Examination June 214 Physics PHY4/1 Unit 4 Fields and Further Mechanics Section Wednesday
More informationMeasuring Impedance and Frequency Response of Guitar Pickups
Measuring Impedance and Frequency Response of Guitar Pickups Peter D. Hiscocks Syscomp Electronic Design Limited phiscock@ee.ryerson.ca www.syscompdesign.com April 30, 2011 Introduction The CircuitGear
More informationE. K. A. ADVANCED PHYSICS LABORATORY PHYSICS 3081, 4051 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE
E. K. A. ADVANCED PHYSICS LABORATORY PHYSICS 3081, 4051 NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE References for Nuclear Magnetic Resonance 1. Slichter, Principles of Magnetic Resonance, Harper and Row, 1963. chapter
More informationLAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS
LAB 7 MOSFET CHARACTERISTICS AND APPLICATIONS Objective In this experiment you will study the iv characteristics of an MOS transistor. You will use the MOSFET as a variable resistor and as a switch. BACKGROUND
More informationECEN 1400, Introduction to Analog and Digital Electronics
ECEN 1400, Introduction to Analog and Digital Electronics Lab 4: Power supply 1 INTRODUCTION This lab will span two lab periods. In this lab, you will create the power supply that transforms the AC wall
More informationFrequency Response of Filters
School of Engineering Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering 332:224 Principles of Electrical Engineering II Laboratory Experiment 2 Frequency Response of Filters 1 Introduction Objectives To
More informationSERIESPARALLEL DC CIRCUITS
Name: Date: Course and Section: Instructor: EXPERIMENT 1 SERIESPARALLEL DC CIRCUITS OBJECTIVES 1. Test the theoretical analysis of seriesparallel networks through direct measurements. 2. Improve skills
More informationINTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES
1/2016 Sound 1/8 INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES PURPOSE: To measure the wavelength, frequency, and propagation speed of ultrasonic sound waves and to observe interference phenomena with ultrasonic sound waves.
More informationAmpere's Law. Introduction. times the current enclosed in that loop: Ampere's Law states that the line integral of B and dl over a closed path is 0
1 Ampere's Law Purpose: To investigate Ampere's Law by measuring how magnetic field varies over a closed path; to examine how magnetic field depends upon current. Apparatus: Solenoid and path integral
More informationLab 1: The Digital Oscilloscope
PHYSICS 220 Physical Electronics Lab 1: The Digital Oscilloscope Object: To become familiar with the oscilloscope, a ubiquitous instrument for observing and measuring electronic signals. Apparatus: Tektronix
More informationHomework #11 20311721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering
Homework #11 20311721 Physics 2 for Students of Mechanical Engineering 2. A circular coil has a 10.3 cm radius and consists of 34 closely wound turns of wire. An externally produced magnetic field of
More informationFREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER
2014 Amplifier  1 FREQUENCY RESPONSE OF AN AUDIO AMPLIFIER The objectives of this experiment are: To understand the concept of HIFI audio equipment To generate a frequency response curve for an audio
More informationYour Comments. This was a very confusing prelecture. Do you think you could go over thoroughly how the LC circuits work qualitatively?
Your omments I am not feeling great about this mierm...some of this stuff is really confusing still and I don't know if I can shove everything into my brain in time, especially after spring break. an you
More information= V peak 2 = 0.707V peak
BASIC ELECTRONICS  RECTIFICATION AND FILTERING PURPOSE Suppose that you wanted to build a simple DC electronic power supply, which operated off of an AC input (e.g., something you might plug into a standard
More informationBasic Op Amp Circuits
Basic Op Amp ircuits Manuel Toledo INEL 5205 Instrumentation August 3, 2008 Introduction The operational amplifier (op amp or OA for short) is perhaps the most important building block for the design of
More informationIntroduction to the Smith Chart for the MSA Sam Wetterlin 10/12/09 Z +
Introduction to the Smith Chart for the MSA Sam Wetterlin 10/12/09 Quick Review of Reflection Coefficient The Smith chart is a method of graphing reflection coefficients and impedance, and is often useful
More informationScott Hughes 7 April 2005. Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Physics 8.022 Spring 2005. Lecture 15: Mutual and Self Inductance.
Scott Hughes 7 April 2005 151 Using induction Massachusetts nstitute of Technology Department of Physics 8022 Spring 2005 Lecture 15: Mutual and Self nductance nduction is a fantastic way to create EMF;
More informationSlide 1 / 26. Inductance. 2011 by Bryan Pflueger
Slide 1 / 26 Inductance 2011 by Bryan Pflueger Slide 2 / 26 Mutual Inductance If two coils of wire are placed near each other and have a current passing through them, they will each induce an emf on one
More information9. Momentum and Collisions in One Dimension*
9. Momentum and Collisions in One Dimension* The motion of objects in collision is difficult to analyze with force concepts or conservation of energy alone. When two objects collide, Newton s third law
More informationLock  in Amplifier and Applications
Lock  in Amplifier and Applications What is a Lock in Amplifier? In a nut shell, what a lockin amplifier does is measure the amplitude V o of a sinusoidal voltage, V in (t) = V o cos(ω o t) where ω o
More informationDirection of Induced Current
Direction of Induced Current Bar magnet moves through coil Current induced in coil A S N v Reverse pole Induced current changes sign B N S v v Coil moves past fixed bar magnet Current induced in coil as
More informationRC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X
Objective RC Circuits and The Oscilloscope Physics Lab X In this series of experiments, the time constant of an RC circuit will be measured experimentally and compared with the theoretical expression for
More informationLab 14: 3phase alternator.
Lab 14: 3phase alternator. Objective: to obtain the noload saturation curve of the alternator; to determine the voltage regulation characteristic of the alternator with resistive, capacitive, and inductive
More informationElectronic WorkBench tutorial
Electronic WorkBench tutorial Introduction Electronic WorkBench (EWB) is a simulation package for electronic circuits. It allows you to design and analyze circuits without using breadboards, real components
More informationFORCE ON A CURRENT IN A MAGNETIC FIELD
7/16 Force current 1/8 FORCE ON A CURRENT IN A MAGNETIC FIELD PURPOSE: To study the force exerted on an electric current by a magnetic field. BACKGROUND: When an electric charge moves with a velocity v
More informationUnit2: Resistor/CapacitorFilters
Unit2: Resistor/CapacitorFilters Physics335 Student October 3, 27 Physics 335Section Professor J. Hobbs Partner: Physics335 Student2 Abstract Basic RCfilters were constructed and properties such as
More informationBipolar Transistor Amplifiers
Physics 3330 Experiment #7 Fall 2005 Bipolar Transistor Amplifiers Purpose The aim of this experiment is to construct a bipolar transistor amplifier with a voltage gain of minus 25. The amplifier must
More informationPhysics 121 Sample Common Exam 3 NOTE: ANSWERS ARE ON PAGE 6. Instructions: 1. In the formula F = qvxb:
Physics 121 Sample Common Exam 3 NOTE: ANSWERS ARE ON PAGE 6 Signature Name (Print): 4 Digit ID: Section: Instructions: Answer all questions 24 multiple choice questions. You may need to do some calculation.
More informationExperiment 3: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and Helmholtz Coil
MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics 8.02 Spring 2006 Experiment 3: Magnetic Fields of a Bar Magnet and Helmholtz Coil OBJECTIVES 1. To learn how to visualize magnetic field lines
More informationScaling and Biasing Analog Signals
Scaling and Biasing Analog Signals November 2007 Introduction Scaling and biasing the range and offset of analog signals is a useful skill for working with a variety of electronics. Not only can it interface
More informationEXPERIMENT 7 OHM S LAW, RESISTORS IN SERIES AND PARALLEL
260 7 I. THEOY EXPEIMENT 7 OHM S LAW, ESISTOS IN SEIES AND PAALLEL The purposes of this experiment are to test Ohm's Law, to study resistors in series and parallel, and to learn the correct use of ammeters
More informationChapter 19 Operational Amplifiers
Chapter 19 Operational Amplifiers The operational amplifier, or opamp, is a basic building block of modern electronics. Opamps date back to the early days of vacuum tubes, but they only became common
More information1. Oscilloscope is basically a graphdisplaying deviceit draws a graph of an electrical signal.
CHAPTER 3: OSCILLOSCOPE AND SIGNAL GENERATOR 3.1 Introduction to oscilloscope 1. Oscilloscope is basically a graphdisplaying deviceit draws a graph of an electrical signal. 2. The graph show signal change
More informationINTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES
2011 Interference  1 INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES The objectives of this experiment are: To measure the wavelength, frequency, and propagation speed of ultrasonic sound waves. To observe interference phenomena
More informationElectromagnetic Induction: Faraday's Law
1 Electromagnetic Induction: Faraday's Law OBJECTIVE: To understand how changing magnetic fields can produce electric currents. To examine Lenz's Law and the derivative form of Faraday's Law. EQUIPMENT:
More informationChapter 7 DirectCurrent Circuits
Chapter 7 DirectCurrent Circuits 7. Introduction...77. Electromotive Force...73 7.3 Resistors in Series and in Parallel...75 7.4 Kirchhoff s Circuit Rules...77 7.5 VoltageCurrent Measurements...79
More informationPrelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs
59 Prelab Exercises: Hooke's Law and the Behavior of Springs Study the description of the experiment that follows and answer the following questions.. (3 marks) Explain why a mass suspended vertically
More informationInductors. Resources and methods for learning about these subjects (list a few here, in preparation for your research):
Inductors This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/1.0/,
More informationElectroMagnetic Induction. AP Physics B
ElectroMagnetic Induction AP Physics B What is E/M Induction? Electromagnetic Induction is the process of using magnetic fields to produce voltage, and in a complete circuit, a current. Michael Faraday
More informationSParameters and Related Quantities Sam Wetterlin 10/20/09
SParameters and Related Quantities Sam Wetterlin 10/20/09 Basic Concept of SParameters SParameters are a type of network parameter, based on the concept of scattering. The more familiar network parameters
More informationEquipment: Power Supply, DAI, Transformer (8341), Variable resistance (8311), Variable inductance (8321), Variable capacitance (8331)
Lab 5: Singlephase transformer operations. Objective: to examine the design of singlephase transformers; to study the voltage and current ratios of transformers; to study the voltage regulation of the
More informationPeople s Physics Book
The Big Ideas: The name electric current is given to the phenomenon that occurs when an electric field moves down a wire at close to the speed of light. Voltage is the electrical energy density (energy
More informationEET272 Worksheet Week 9
EET272 Worksheet Week 9 answer questions 15 in preparation for discussion for the quiz on Monday. Finish the rest of the questions for discussion in class on Wednesday. Question 1 Questions AC s are becoming
More informationNUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE. Advanced Laboratory, Physics 407, University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin 53706
(revised 4/21/03) NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE Advanced Laboratory, Physics 407, University of Wisconsin Madison, Wisconsin 53706 Abstract This experiment studies the Nuclear Magnetic Resonance of protons
More informationCircuit symbol. Each of the cells has a potential difference of 1.5 volts. Figure 1. Use the correct answer from the box to complete the sentence.
Q.(a) Draw one line from each circuit symbol to its correct name. Circuit symbol Name Diode Lightdependent resistor (LDR) Lamp Lightemitting diode (LED) (3) Figure shows three circuits. The resistors
More informationPower measurement in balanced 3 phase circuits and power factor improvement. 1 Power in Single Phase Circuits. Experiment no 1
Experiment no 1 Power measurement in balanced 3 phase circuits and power factor improvement 1 Power in Single Phase Circuits Let v = m cos(ωt) = cos(ωt) is the voltage applied to a RL circuit and i =
More informationInduced voltages and Inductance Faraday s Law
Induced voltages and Inductance Faraday s Law concept #1, 4, 5, 8, 13 Problem # 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 13, 15, 24, 23, 25, 31, 32a, 34, 37, 41, 43, 51, 61 Last chapter we saw that a current produces a magnetic
More informationExperiment 8 : Pulse Width Modulation
Name/NetID: Teammate/NetID: Experiment 8 : Pulse Width Modulation Laboratory Outline In experiment 5 we learned how to control the speed of a DC motor using a variable resistor. This week, we will learn
More informationPhysics 42 Lab 4 Fall 2012 Cathode Ray Tube (CRT)
Physics 42 Lab 4 Fall 202 Cathode Ray Tube (CRT) PRELAB Read the background information in the lab below and then derive this formula for the deflection. D = LPV defl 2 SV accel () Redraw the diagram
More information13. Diode Rectifiers, Filters, and Power Supplies
1 13. Diode Rectifiers, Filters, and Power Supplies Introduction A power supply takes Alternating Current or A.C. power from your electric utility (Con Edison) and converts the A.C. electrical current
More informationRLC Resonant Circuits
C esonant Circuits Andrew McHutchon April 20, 203 Capacitors and Inductors There is a lot of inconsistency when it comes to dealing with reactances of complex components. The format followed in this document
More information45. The peak value of an alternating current in a 1500W device is 5.4 A. What is the rms voltage across?
PHYS Practice Problems hapters 8 hapter 8. 45. The peak value of an alternating current in a 5W device is 5.4 A. What is the rms voltage across? The power and current can be used to find the peak voltage,
More informationMassachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. 6.002 Electronic Circuits Spring 2007
Massachusetts Institute of Technology Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science 6.002 Electronic Circuits Spring 2007 Lab 4: Audio Playback System Introduction In this lab, you will construct,
More informationPositive Feedback and Oscillators
Physics 3330 Experiment #6 Fall 1999 Positive Feedback and Oscillators Purpose In this experiment we will study how spontaneous oscillations may be caused by positive feedback. You will construct an active
More information