A Passivity Measure Of Systems In Cascade Based On Passivity Indices


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1 49th IEEE Conference on Decision and Control December 57, Hilton Atlanta Hotel, Atlanta, GA, USA A Passivity Measure Of Systems In Cascade Based On Passivity Indices Han Yu and Panos J Antsaklis Abstract Passivity indices are defined in terms of an excess or shortage of passivity, and they have been introduced in order to extend the passivitybased stability conditions to more general cases for both passive and nonpassive systems While most of the work on passivitybased stability results in the literature focuses on employing the feedback interconnection of passive or nonpassive systems, our results focus on a passivity measure for cascade interconnection In this paper, we revisit the results on secant criterion from the perspective of passivity indices and we show how to use the secant criterion to measure the excess/shortage of passivity for cascaded Input Strictly Passive/Output Strictly Passive systems; we also propose a method to measure passivity for cascaded dissipative systems, where each subsystem could be passive or nonpassive Furthermore, we study the conditions under which the cascade interconnection can be directly stabilized via output feedback I Introduction In the early 97 s, Willems[8] introduced passivity(and dissipativity) concepts using the notions of storage function and supply rate Passivity is the property that the rate of increase of the storage function is not higher than the supply rate A most important passivity result states that a negative feedback loop consisting of two passive systems is passive[],[5]; under an additional detectability condition this feedback loop is also stable[5][6] What can happen when one of the systems in the negative feedback interconnection is not passive? Can an excess of passivity assure that the interconnection is passive? The possibility of achieving passivity of interconnections which combine systems with excess and shortage of passivity led to the introduction of the passivity index It has been defined in terms of an excess or shortage of passivity in order to extend the passivitybased stability conditions to the feedback interconnection of dissipative systems, see[6],[9] and [], and note that they are related to Input Strict Passivity and Output Strict Passivity introduced by Hill and Moylan[5] In the recent paper of Arcak and Sontag[][], the secant criterion which has been used in the analysis of biological feedback loops [3][4], has been revisited and its advantages in the passivity based stability analysis for a class of output strictly passive (OSP) systems either with a cascade or with a cyclic interconnection structure has been shown The authors show that the secant criterion developed earlier in the literature is in fact a sufficient condition for diagonal stability of a class of dissipative matrices They use the secant criterion and the diagonal stability results as a The authors are with the Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN, 46556, USA, tool to construct a candidate Lyapunovlike function for the stabilization problem of a class of OSP systems with a cyclic interconnection The reason why diagonal stability of the corresponding dissipative matrices is of special interest is that it enables us to choose the proper weight for each subsystem s storage function and this contributes to the construction of the composite candidate Lyapunovlike function They have also shown the lack of input feedforward passivity for this particular class of cascaded OSP systems The results in [] and [] motivate us to revisit the secant criterion from the perspective of passivity indices We use passivity indices to measure the excess or shortage of passivity for each subsystem in the cascade interconnection and use the secant criterion to measure the degree of passivity for cascaded Output Strictly Passive/Input Strictly Passive systems We further propose a way to measure passivity for cascaded Input Feedforward Output Feedback Passive systems (which is a characterization of dissipative systems, see [6],[8] and [5]), and study how each subsystem s passivity indices affect the overall degree of passivity for the entire cascade interconnection; furthermore, we show the conditions under which the entire cascade interconnection could be stabilized by using output feedback The current paper not only provides a way to measure the degree of passivity for the cascade interconnection, it also suggests an alternative method to stabilize cascaded linear/nonlinear systems, in addition to the existing work in the literature by employing the negative feedback interconnection and by using passivation techniques, see [5][6], [3][4] and [7][8] The rest of this paper is organized as follows: we briefly introduce some background material on passivity and passivity indices in Section II, which is followed by a summary of the secant criterion and some facts on quasidominant matrices in Section III; the main results are presented in section IV followed by an example given in section V Finally, the conclusion is provided in Section VI II Background Material Consider the following nonlinear system: ẋ= f (x,u) H : () y=h(x,u) where x X R n, u U R m and y Y R m are the state, input and output variables, respectively, and X, U and Y are the state, input and output spaces, respectively The representation x(t)=φ(t,t, x,u) is used to denote the state at time t reached from the initial state x at t //$6 IEEE 86
2 Definition (Supply Rate [8]) The supply rate ω(t)= ω(u(t),y(t)) is a real valued function defined on U Y, such that for any u(t) U and x X and y(t)=h(φ(t,t, x,u)), ω(t) satisfies t t ω(τ) dτ< () Definition (Dissipative System [8]) System H with supply rateω(t) is said to be dissipative if there exists a nonnegative real function V(x):X R +, called the storage function, such that, for all t t, x X and u U, V(x ) V(x ) t t ω(τ)dτ (3) where x =φ(t,t, x,u), andr + is a set of nonnegative real numbers Definition 3(Passive System [8]) System H is said to be passive if there exists a storage function V(x) such that V(x ) V(x ) if V(x) isc, then we have t t u(τ) T y(τ)dτ, (4) V(x) u(t) T y(t), t (5) One can see that passive system is a special case of dissipative system with supply rateω(t)=u(t) T y(t) Definition 4(Excess/Shortage of Passivity [6]) System H is said to be: Input Feedforward Passive (IFP) if it is dissipative with respect to supply rateω(u,y)=u T y νu T uforsomeν R, denoted as IFP(ν) Output Feedback Passive (OFP) if it is dissipative with respect to the supply rateω(u,y)=u T y ρy T yforsome ρ R, denoted as OFP(ρ) Input Feedforward Output Feedback Passive (IFOFP) if it is dissipative with respect to the supply rateω(u,y)= u T y ρy T y νu T uforsomeρ R andν R, denoted as IFOFP(ν,ρ) A positiveνorρmeans that the system has an excess of passivity; otherwise, the system is lack of passivity In the case when ν> orρ>, the system is said to be input strictly passive(isp) or output strictly passive(osp) respectively Definition 5(ZeroState Observability and Detectability [6]) Consider the system H with zero input, that is ẋ= f (x,), y= h(x,), and let Z R n be its largest positively invariant set contained in{x R n y=h(x,)=} WesayH is zerostate detectable(zsd) if x = is asymptotically stable conditionally to Z if Z={}, we say that H is zerostate observable (ZSO) III Secant Criterion and Some Facts on Diagonally Stable Matrices and QuasiDominant Matrices The connection between diagonal stability and the secant criterion has been shown in [][] We briefly summarize these results here Definition 4 (Diagonal Stability [7]) AmatrixA:= (a ij ) is said to belong to the class of Hurwitz diagonally stable matrix if there exists a diagonal matrix D> such that A T D+ DA< (6) Definition 5 (Quasidominant matrix [7]) A square matrix is a quasidominant matrix, or in the class of diagonally rowsum or columnsum quasidominant matrices if there exists a positive diagonal matrix P=diag{p, p,,p n } such that a ii p i j i a ij p j, i, (respectively) a jj p j i j a ji p i, j If these inequalities are strict, the matrix is referred to as strictly rowsum (respectively columnsum) quasidominant If P can be chosen as the identity matrix, then the matrix is called row or column diagonally dominant Theorem (Secant Criterion []) A matrix of the form: α β n β α A= β α 3 α i >,β i >, (7) β n α n i=,,n, is diagonally stable, that is, it satisfies (5) for some diagonal matrix D>, if and only if the secant criterion β β n < sec(π/n) n = α α n cos( π (8) n )n holds; here we assume n> Corollary [9] Every symmetric quasidominant matrix is positive definite Lemma [7] If a matrix A is diagonally stable, then A T is also diagonally stable In the subsequent sections, we will show how we use the secant criterion and the properties of quasidominant matrix to measure the shortage/excess of passivity for cascade systems IV Main Results In this section, we show passivity measures for three classes of cascade systems, which include output strictly passive systems(ofp(ρ) with ρ>), input strictly passive systems(ifp(ν) with ν>) and input feedforward output feedback passive systems(ifofp(ν, ρ) with ρ, ν R) One should notice that while the first and the second classes assume that each interconnected subsystem is passive, the third class applies to the more general case of dissipative systems We also show sufficient conditions under which those cascade systems can be stabilized via output feedback A Passivity measure of a cascade of OSP systems Proposition Consider the cascade interconnection shown in Fig, where n Let each block be OFP(ρ i ) withρ i >, namely there existsc storage function V i for each subsystem, such that V i ρ i y T i y i+ u T i y i, (9) 87
3 where u i,y i R m Then for someν>, such that ν> cos( π n+ )n+ ρ ρ ρ n, () the cascade system admits a storage function of the form V= d i V i, d i >, () i= and the cascade interconnection is IFP(ν) Fig : Cascaded Interconnection Fig : Feedforward Passivation Proof To show that the cascaded interconnection is IFP(ν), we need to show that the storage function () satisfies: V νu T u+u T y n () for someν> Since V= n i= d i V i,and V i ρ i y T i y i+u T i y i, if we can show that d i ( ρ i y T i y i+ u T i y i) νu T u u T y n, (3) i= then () holds Define ν ρ A= ρ ρ i >, ν> (4) ρ n and D=diag{ν, d,d,,d n } Then it can be seen that the lefthand side of (3) is equal to [u T y T ]DA I m [u T y T ] T (5) where y=[y T,,yT n ]T According to Theorem, if ν> cos( π n+ )n+ ρ ρ ρ n, (6) then there exists a diagonal matrix D> such that then we have Since DA+ A T D<, (7) (DA+ A T D) I m < (8) [u T y T ]DA I m [u T y T ] T = [u T y T ](DA I m ) T [u T y T ] T (9) and we have (DA I m ) T = (DA) T I T m = AT D I m, () [u T y T ]DA I m [u T y T ] T = [ut y T ](A T D+ DA) I m [u T y T ] T so that and thus () [u T y T ]DA I m [u T y T ] T <, () V<νu T u+u T y n (3) This shows that the cascaded system is IFP(ν) Remark : Proposition shows the shortage of passivity in cascaded OSP systems and it also shows that the shortage of passivity could be compensated by input forwardνi as shown in Fig, whereνis determined by () B Passivity measure of a cascade of ISP systems Proposition Consider the cascade interconnection shown in Fig, where n Let each block be IFP(ν i ) withν i >, namely there exists ac storage function V i for each subsystem, such that V i ν i u T i u i+ u T i y i (4) where u i,y i R m Then for someρ>, such that ρ> cos( π n+ )n+ ν ν ν n, (5) the cascade system admits a storage function of the form given by () and the cascade interconnection is OFP(ρ) Fig 3: Output Feedback Passivation Proof The proof is very similar to the proof shown in Proposition, thus it is omitted here Remark : Proposition shows shortage of passivity in cascaded ISP systems and it also implies that the lack of passivity could be compensated by output feedbackρi as shown in fig3, whereρis determined by (5) C Stabilization of a cascade of OSP/ISP systems via output feedback Proposition 3 Consider the feedback interconnection shown in Fig4, where n> Let each block be OFP(ρ i )forsome Fig 4: Stabilized Via Output Feedback 88
4 ρ i > with the storage function V i such that (9) holds with u i,y i R m If ρ ρ ρ n < cos( π, (6) n )n and the input to the cascaded system r=, then the closedloop system admits a candidate Lyapunovlike function which is a weighted sum of each subsystem s storage function given by () and V= d i V i ε y (7) i= for someε>,wherey= [y T,yT,,yT n ]T Moreover, if{y= } is contained in the invariant set for which V=, and if each subsystem is ZSD, then the equilibrium x i = of each subsystem is asymptotically stable Proof Fig4 is a cyclic structure and since r=, we have u = y n, u = y,, u n = y n (8) Moreover, since each subsystem is OFP(ρ i )wehave V y T n y ρ y T y V y T y ρ y T y V n y T n y n ρ n y T n y n (9) If we take the time derivative of the candidate Lyapunovlike function V= n i= d i V i, we will get V d ( y T n y ρ y T y )+ d i (y T i y i ρ i y T i y i) (3) Define ρ ρ A= ρ i > (3) ρn ρ n and D=diag{d,d,,d n } Notice that the righthand side of (3) is equal to y T DA I m y According to Theorem, if < ρ ρ n cos( π (3) n )n then there exists some diagonal matrix D>suchthatmatrix A is diagonally stable, and we will have i= V y T DA I m y= yt (A T D+ DA) I m y ε y (33) for some ε> According to LaSalle s theorem [5], if {y=} is contained in the invariant set for which V=, then we have lim t y i (t)=, for i=,,n Moreover, if each subsystem H i is ZSD, then lim t y i (t)= implies lim t x i (t)=, so each subsystem s equilibrium x i = is asymptotically stable Remark 3: One can show that for the case when there are only two subsystems in the cascade interconnection as shown in Fig 5 ifρ > andρ >, which means both H and Fig 5: Special Case When n= H are OSP, then we can simply choose the sum of their storage function as the potential Lyapunovlike function for the closedloop system when we directly apply the unity output feedback to the cascade interconnection of H and H We have studied the conditions under which the cascade interconnection of a class of OSP systems can be directly stabilized via output feedback The following proposition shows similar results for a cascade of ISP systems Proposition 4 Consider the feedback interconnection shown in Fig 4, where n> Suppose that r= and let each block be IFP(ν i )forsomeν i > with the storage function V i such that (4) holds with u i,y i R m If ν ν ν n < cos( π (34) n )n, then the closedloop system admits a candidate Lyapunovlike function which is a weighted sum of each subsystem s storage function given by () and V= d i V i ε y (35) i= for someε>, wherey= [y T,yT,,yT n ] T Moreover, if{y= } is contained in the invariant set for which V=, and if each subsystem is ZSD, then the equilibrium x i = of each subsystem is asymptotically stable Proof The proof is very similar to the proof shown in Proposition 3, and it is omitted here Remark 4: One can show that for the case when there are only two subsystems in the cascade interconnection as shown in Fig5, ifν > andν >, which means both H and H are ISP, then again we can simply choose the sum of their storage functions as the candidate Lyapunovlike function for the closedloop system when we directly apply the unity output feedback to the cascade interconnection D Passivity measure of a cascade of IFOFP systems In this section, we present our results on passivity measure for IFOFP systems, which is an often used characterization of dissipative systems An IFOFP system, in general, could be passive or nonpassive based on the sign of its passivity indices Proposition 5 Consider the cascade interconnection shown in Fig, where n, and let each block be dissipative with respect to the supply rate given byω i (u i,y i )=u T i y i ρ i y T i y i 89
5 ν i u T i u i, that is there exists ac storage function V i for each subsystem, such that V i u T i y i ρ i y T i y i ν i u T i u i, (36) where u i,y i R m Here,ν i andρ i are not necessarily all positive Consider the symmetric matrix given by ν + ˆν ν ρ A=, (37) ν n ρ n ρ n + ˆρ if A is quasidominant for some ˆν, ˆρ R, then the cascade system admits a storage function of the form given by V= n i= V i such that the cascade interconnection is IF OFP(ˆν,ˆρ) Proof To show that the cascade interconnection is IFOFP(ˆν, ˆρ), we need to show that the storage function V(x) satisfies: since V V u T y n ˆνu T u ˆρy T n y n (38) (u T i y i ν i u T i u i ρ i y T i y i) (39) i= so if (u T i y i ν i u T i u i ρ i y T i y i) u T y n + ˆνu T u+ ˆρy T n y n, (4) i= then (38) is true Define ˆν ρ A = ρ ρ n ν (4) ν A = (4) ν n ˆρ notice that the lefthand side of (4) is equal to [u T y T ](A + A ) I m [u T y T ] T, (43) or we can rewrite it as [u T y T ](A + A T ) I m[u T y T ] T (44) We can see that A + A T is a symmetric matrix which is equal to the matrix A defined in (37) Based on Corollary, we can conclude that if A is quasidominant, then A is negative definite, and A I m is also negative definite So we can get [u T y T ](A + A T ) I m[u T y T ] T = [u T y T ]A I m [u T y T ] T < (45) and thus (38) holds This shows that the entire cascade interconnection is IFOFP(ˆν, ˆρ) E Stabilization of a cascade of IFOFP systems via output feedback In this section, we present the conditions under which a cascade of IFOFP systems can be stabilized directly via output feedback Proposition 6 Consider the feedback interconnection shown in Fig4, where n> Let each block be IFOFP(ν i,ρ i ) with its storage function V i such that (36) is satisfied, where u i,y i R m ν i,ρ i R are not necessarily all positive Consider the symmetric matrix given by ρ ν ρ ν 3 A=, ρ n ν n ρ n ν (46) if A is quasidominant, then the closedloop system with r= admits a candidate Lyapunovlike function given by V= n i= V i such that V= V i ε y (47) i= for some ε>, where y= [y T,yT,,yT n ] T Moreover, if {y=} is contained in the invariant set for which V=, and if each subsystem is ZSD, then the equilibrium x i = of each subsystem is asymptotically stable Proof The proof is very similar to the proof shown in Proposition 5, thus is omitted here Remark 5: One can show that for the case when there are only two subsystems in the cascade interconnection (n= )as shown in Fig5, ifν +ρ > andν +ρ >, then again we can simply choose the sum of storage functions for H and H as the candidate Lyapunovlike function for the closedloop system when we directly apply the unity output feedback to their cascade interconnection V Example Example Consider a cascade of three dissipative systems H, H and H 3 given by ẋ (t)= H : x (t)+u (t) ẋ (t)= H : 6 x (t)+u (t) y (t)= x (t)+5u (t), y (t)= x (t)+6u (t) (48) ẋ 3 (t)= x 3 (t) H 3 : ẋ 3 (t)= 5x 3 3 (t)+5x 3(t)+u 3 (t) (49) y 3 (t)= x 3 (t)+u 3 (t) 9
6 Choosing V (x)= x (t) as the storage function for H,we can obtain V = u (t)y (t) 75u (t)+y (t), (5) so the passivity indices for H areρ = andν = 75 We can see that H is ZSD but unstable H admits a storage function given by V (x)= 6 x,and V = y (t)u (t) 4u (t) 8 y (t), (5) so the passivity indices for H areρ = 8 andν = 4 We can see that H is stable and ZSD H 3 admits a storage function given by V 3 (x)= 8 x4 3 (t)+ x 3,and V 3 = u 3 (t)y 3 (t) 5u 3 (t)+5y 3 (t), (5) so the passivity indices for H 3 areρ 3 = 5 andν 3 = 5 H 3 is neither ZSD or stable Then the A matrix defined in Proposition 6 is given by ρ ν Since A= ρ ν 3 (53) ρ 3 ν ν +ρ = 39>,ν +ρ 3 = 7>,ν 3 +ρ = 4 9 > (54) A is row/column diagonally dominant Moreover, since {y = y = y 3 = } is contained in the invariant set for which V= 3 i= V i =, according to Proposition 6, the cascade of H, H and H 3 could be stabilized directly via unity output feedback The simulation results for the closedloop system with r= (seefig4)areshowninfig6fig7 VI Conclusions In this paper, we introduce a way to measure the degree of passivity for cascaded ISP/OSP systems We further proposed a method for passivity measure of cascaded IF OFP systems(dissipative systems), and study the conditions under which the cascade interconnection can be stabilized via output feedback VII Acknowledgments The support of the National Science Foundation under Grant No CCF is gratefully acknowledged References [] E D Sontag, Passivity gains and the secant condition for stability, Systems & Control Letters, Volume 55, Issue 3, March 6, Pages [] M Arcak, E D Sontag, Diagonal stability of a class of cyclic systems and its connection with the secant criterion, Automatica, Volume 4, Issue 9, September 6, Pages [3] J J Tyson, H G Othmer, The dynamics of feedback control circuits in biochemical pathways, in: R Rosen, F M Snell (Eds), in: Progress in Theoretical Biology, vol5, Academic Press, New York, 978, pp6 [4] C D Thron, The secant condition for instability in biochemical feedback controlparts I and II Bulletin of Mathematical Biology 53 (99) pp outputs time(s) states Fig 6: Outputs of H,H and H Y Y Y 3 X 3 X time(s) Fig 7: States of H,H and H 3 [5] C I Byrnes, A Isidori, and J C Willems, Passivity, feedback equivalence and the global stabilization of minimum phase nonlinear systems, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, vol36, no, pp84, Nov99 [6] R Sepulchre, M Jankovic, and P V Kokotovic, Constructive Nonlinear Control, SpringerVerlag, 997 [7] E Kaszkurewicz, A Bhaya, Matrix Diagonal Stability in Systems and Computation,Birkhauser Boston, 999 [8] J C Willems, Dissipative dynamical systems part I: General theory, Archive for Rational Mechanics and Analysis, Springer Berlin, Volume 45, Number 5, Page 335, January, 97 [9] J T Wen, Time domain and frequency domain conditions for strict positive realness, IEEE Trans on Automatic Control, vol33, no, pp98899, 988 [] J T Wen, Robustness analysis based on passivity, In Proceedings of American Control Conference, page 7, Atlanta, 988 [] V M Popov, Absolute stability of nonlinear systems of automatic control, vol, no8, pp , Aug, 96 [] V M Popov, Hyperstability of Control Systems, SpringerVerlag, 973 [3] C I Byrnes, A Isidori, New results and examples in nonlinear feedback stabilization, Systems & Control Letters Volume, Issue 5, June 989, Pages [4] P V Kokotovic and H J Sussmann, A positive real condition for global stabilization of nonlinear systems, Systems & Control Letters, Volume 3, Issue, August 989, Pages 533 [5] D J Hill and P J Moylan, Stability results for nonlinear feedback systems, Automatica, Vol 3, pp , July 977 [6] J P LaSalle, Some extensions of Lyapunovs second method, IRE Transactions on Circuit Theory, CT7, pp557, 96 [7] M Jankovic, R Sepulchre, P V Kokotovic, Constructive Lyapunov stabilization of nonlinear cascade systems, IEEE Transactions on Automatic Control, Volume 4, Issue, Dec 996, Page [8] R Sepulchre, M Jankovic, P V Kokotovic, Integrator Forwarding: A New Recursive Nonlinear Robust Design, Automatica, Volume 33, Number 5, May 997, pp [9] O Taussky, A recrurring theorem on determinants, American Mathematical Monthly, 56:67676, 949 X X 9
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