# ON COMPLETELY CONTINUOUS INTEGRATION OPERATORS OF A VECTOR MEASURE. 1. Introduction

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1 ON COMPLETELY CONTINUOUS INTEGRATION OPERATORS OF A VECTOR MEASURE J.M. CALABUIG, J. RODRÍGUEZ, AND E.A. SÁNCHEZ-PÉREZ Abstract. Let m be a vector measure taking values in a Banach space X. We prove that if the integration operator I m : L 1 (m) X, I m(f) = f dm, is completely continuous and X is Asplund, then m has finite variation and L 1 (m) = L 1 ( m ). 1. Introduction Throughout this paper (Ω, Σ) is a measurable space and X is a Banach space. Let m : Σ X be a vector measure (which we always assume to be countably additive). A Σ-measurable function f : Ω R is said to be m-integrable if (i) it is integrable with respect to the composition x m : Σ R for all x X, and (ii) for each A Σ there is a vector A f dm X such that x ( A f dm) = A f d(x m) for all x X. Let L 1 (m) be the Banach lattice of all equivalence classes of m-integrable functions, endowed with the norm f L1 (m) = sup{ Ω f d x m : x B X } and the m -a.e. order. Let I m : L 1 (m) X be the operator defined by I m (f) := f dm. I m is called the integration operator of m. It is known that any order continuous Banach lattice with weak unit is order isometric to the L 1 space of a suitable vector measure, [3, Theorem 8]. On the other hand, some properties of I m might cause sound consequences on the structure of L 1 (m), like having the equality (1) L 1 (m) = L 1 ( m ), which is equivalent to saying that L 1 (m) is order isomorphic to an AL-space, [4, Proposition 2]. Clearly, (1) implies that m has finite variation. The so-called Operator Ideal Principle, [10, Proposition 1.1], asserts that if A is an operator ideal and every vector measure m : Σ X with I m A has finite variation, then (1) holds true for every vector measure m : Σ X with I m A. The ideal A c of compact operators has the property that every vector measure m : Σ X with I m A c has finite variation, [9, Theorem 4] (cf. [11, Theorem 2.2]). The same is 2000 Mathematics Subject Classification. 46E30, 46G10, 47B07. Key words and phrases. Integration operator; vector measure; completely continuous operator; Asplund space. Research supported by Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad and FEDER under projects MTM (J.M. Calabuig), MTM (J. Rodríguez) and MTM c02-02 (E.A. Sánchez-Pérez). 1 Ω

2 2 J.M. CALABUIG, J. RODRÍGUEZ, AND E.A. SÁNCHEZ-PÉREZ true for the ideal Π p of p-summing operators (for 1 p < ), [10, Theorem 2.2]. In fact, equality (1) holds whenever I m is positive p-summing (for 1 p < ), [1, Theorem 2.7] (cf. [10, Remark 2.5]). For the ideal A cc of completely continuous operators the situation is not so pleasant. Recall that an operator is called completely continuous if it maps weakly convergent sequences to norm convergent ones. Let us introduce the following Definition 1.1. A Banach space X has property (O) if for every measurable space (Ω, Σ) and every vector measure m : Σ X the following implication holds: I m A cc = m has finite variation. As pointed out in [10, p. 217], if X has property (O), then X does not contain subspaces isomorphic to l 1 (shortly X l 1 ), since the integration operator of any l 1 -valued measure is completely continuous. Conversely, if X l 1 and X has an unconditional Schauder basis, then X has property (O), [10, Theorem 1.2]. The following question was then raised in [10, p. 243]: Problem 1.2. Does X have property (O) whenever X l 1? In this paper we address this question and show how the techniques of [10] can be pushed further to prove the following Theorem 1.3. If X is Asplund, then it has property (O). Recall that X is said to be Asplund if every separable subspace of X has separable dual or, equivalently, X has the Radon-Nikodým property, [5, p. 198]. It is known that a Banach lattice (e.g. a Banach space having an unconditional Schauder basis) is Asplund if and only if it does not contain subspaces isomorphic to l 1, see [5, p. 95] and [8, Theorem 7]. Therefore, Theorem 1.3 extends [10, Theorem 1.2] and allows us to solve affirmatively Problem 1.2 within the setting of Banach lattices: Corollary 1.4. A Banach lattice X has property (O) if and only if X l 1. We do not know, however, if the answer to Problem 1.2 is positive in full generality. In any case, Theorem 1.3 makes clear that if there is a counterexample, this should be based on some of the Banach spaces that draw the fine line between spaces not containing l 1 and Asplund spaces, like the James tree space, see e.g. [7]. 2. Preliminaries All unexplained terminology can be found in our standard references [5, 6, 12]. Our Banach spaces are real. By an operator between Banach spaces we mean a linear continuous mapping. By a subspace of a Banach space we mean a closed linear subspace. The topological dual of X is denoted by X. We write B X to denote the closed unit ball of X. The following lemma is an straightforward consequence of the Hahn-Banach separation theorem. Lemma 2.1. Let (x n ) be a sequence in X. The following statements are equivalent: (i) 0 conv(x n ); (ii) there is x X such that x (x n ) 1 for every n N;

3 ON COMPLETELY CONTINUOUS INTEGRATION OPERATORS 3 (iii) there is a constant C > 0 such that N N a n x n C for every N N and non-negative real numbers a 1,..., a N. A sequence satisfying the conditions of Lemma 2.1 will be called an l + -sequence. For basic sequences, this notion was considered in [13, Chapter II, 10]. To extend this concept to sequences of sets, we need some notation. Given C X, we write C := sup{ x : x C} and δ (x, C) := sup{x (x) : x C} for every x X. The collection of all norm compact non-empty subsets of X is denoted by k(x). Definition 2.2. A sequence (K n ) of subsets of X is called an l + -sequence if there is a constant C > 0 such that N N a n K n C for every N N and non-negative real numbers a 1,..., a N. In the proof of Theorem 1.3 we shall use the next lemma. A slightly weaker version of it (see Remark 2.4 below) was proved in [10, Lemma 3.1]. Here we provide an alternative, simpler proof which uses tools from convex analysis. Lemma 2.3. Let (K n ) be an l + -sequence of subsets of X such that: (i) sup{ K n : n N} < ; (ii) K n k(x) for every n N. Then there is x X such that δ (x, K n ) 1 for infinitely many n N. Proof. Let B X be equipped with the weak topology and let C(B X ) be the Banach space of all real-valued continuous functions on B X, equipped with the supremum norm. Note that the mapping Φ : k(x) C(B X ) given by a n a n Φ(C)(x ) := δ (x, C) is well-defined and satisfies the following properties: Φ(C + D) = Φ(C) + Φ(D) for every C, D k(x); Φ(λC) = λφ(c) for every C k(x) and every real number λ 0; Φ(C) = C for every C k(x); see e.g. [2, Chapter II, 3]. Clearly, writing h n := Φ(K n ) for all n N, the above properties of Φ imply that (h n ) is an l + -sequence in C(B X ). In particular, (h n ) is not weakly null. Since (h n ) is bounded, it follows from Grothendieck s theorem (see e.g. [6, Corollary 3.138]) that there is y B X such that the sequence (h n (y )) is not convergent to 0. Bearing in mind that h n (y ) = δ (y, K n ) for all n N, it is clear that we can find x X such that δ (x, K n ) 1 for infinitely many n N.

4 4 J.M. CALABUIG, J. RODRÍGUEZ, AND E.A. SÁNCHEZ-PÉREZ Remark 2.4. In [10, Lemma 3.1] the assumption that (K n ) is an l + -sequence is replaced by a stronger one, namely: there is a constant C > 0 such that N N a n K n C a n for every N N and arbitrary real numbers a 1,..., a N. 3. Proof of Theorem 1.3 As we mentioned in the introduction, our approach to Theorem 1.3 is based strongly on the ideas of [10]. In particular, we shall use the following two results, which appear in [10, Lemmas 3.3 and 3.4]. Note that the second one is stated in [10] under the additional assumption that the Schauder basis is unconditional. However, that assumption is not needed in the proof. Lemma 3.1. Let m : Σ X be a vector measure. If m(σ) is relatively norm compact, then I m (fb L (m)) k(x) for every f L 1 (m), where fb L (m) := {fg : g B L (m)}. Lemma 3.2. Suppose X has a Schauder basis and let (e n ) be a normalized monotone Schauder basis of X (for some equivalent norm ). For each n N, let P n : X X be the canonical projection onto span(e i ) 1 i n and Q n := id P n. Let m : Σ X be a vector measure having infinite variation such that m(σ) is relatively norm compact. Then: (i) There exist a strictly increasing sequence (k j ) in N and a sequence (f j ) in L 1 (m) with f j L 1 (m) = 1 such that the sets satisfy K j := I m ( fj B L (m)) k(x) (2) sup x K j+1 P kj (x) 1 2 j+1 and sup x K j Q kj (x) 1 2 j for all j N. (ii) There is a sequence (ψ j ) in B L (m) with I m (f j ψ j ) = 1 such that (3) I m (f i ψ i ) I m (f j ψ j ) 1/4 whenever i j. As an application of the previous lemma, we obtain yet another proof of [9, Theorem 4]: Theorem 3.3. Let m : Σ X be a vector measure. If I m is compact, then m has finite variation. Proof. Since I m is compact, the set m(σ) = {I m (1 A ) : A Σ} is relatively norm compact and so m(σ) I m (L 1 (m)) Y for some separable subspace Y X. Note that Y embeds isomorphically (even isometrically) into C[0, 1] (see e.g. [6, Theorem 5.8]), which has a Schauder basis. Let T : Y C[0, 1] be an isomorphic embedding and consider the vector measure m := T m : Σ C[0, 1]. The identity mapping i : L 1 (m) L 1 ( m) is an isomorphism and I m i = T I m, hence I m is compact. Lemma 3.2(ii) ensures that m has finite variation, and so does m.

5 ON COMPLETELY CONTINUOUS INTEGRATION OPERATORS 5 We are now ready to prove Theorem 1.3. Proof of Theorem 1.3. Let m : Σ X be a vector measure such that I m is completely continuous. Then m(σ) is relatively norm compact (see e.g. [12, p. 153]) and therefore m(σ) I m (L 1 (m)) Y for some separable subspace Y X. Since X is Asplund, Y is separable and so Y can be embedded isomorphically into a Banach space which has a shrinking Schauder basis, see [14]. The argument of the the proof of Theorem 3.3 makes clear that we can assume without loss of generality that X has a Schauder basis (e n ) which is shrinking, i.e. X = span(e n), where (e n) is the sequence of biorthogonal functionals to (e n ). We can assume further that (e n ) is normalized and monotone for some equivalent norm on X. We shall prove that m has finite variation by contradiction. Suppose that m has infinite variation and then apply Lemma 3.2. Step 1. The sequence (f j ψ j ) is not weakly null in L 1 (m), because I m is completely continuous and (I m (f j ψ j )) is not norm convergent in X (by (3)). Therefore, there is a strictly increasing sequence (j n ) in N such that (f jn ψ jn ) is an l + -sequence in L 1 (m), that is, there is C > 0 such that (4) N L N a n f jn ψ jn C 1 (m) for every N N and non-negative real numbers a 1,..., a N. Claim. (K jn ) is an l + -sequence of subsets of X. Indeed, fix N N and nonnegative real numbers a 1,..., a N. Define f := N a nf jn ψ jn L 1 (m) and note that f L 1 (m) = I m (fb L (m)) (see e.g. [12, Lemma 3.11]). Since m(σ) is relatively norm compact, the set I m (fb L (m)) is norm compact (by Lemma 3.1) and so there is g B L (m) such that a n f L 1 (m) = I m (fb L (m)) = I m (fg). Since I m (f jn ψ jn g) K jn for every n {1,..., N}, we get N N a n K jn a n I m (f jn ψ jn g) = I m (fg) = = N L1 a n f jn ψ jn (m) (4) C N a n. This proves the claim. Note also that K jn = f jn L1 (m) = 1 for all n N. Step 2. By Lemma 2.3, there exist x X and a sequence (x n ) in X such that x n K jn and x (x n ) 1 for infinitely many n N. Define a projection on X by R n := P kjn P kjn 1 and set y n := R n (x n ) for every n 2. Since x n 1 and R n 2, we have y n 2 for every n 2. Claim. We have x (y n ) 1/2 for infinitely many n 2. Indeed, observe that for every n 2 we have x n y n = Q kjn (x n ) + P kjn 1 (x n ) Q kjn (x n ) + P kjn 1 (x n ) (2) 1 2 jn 1

6 6 J.M. CALABUIG, J. RODRÍGUEZ, AND E.A. SÁNCHEZ-PÉREZ and therefore (5) x (y n ) = x (x n ) x (x n y n ) x (x n ) x x n y n x (x n ) x 2 jn 1. The fact that x (x n ) 1 for infinitely many n N and (5) ensure the existence of infinitely many n 2 for which x (y n ) 1/2. Step 3. Observe that for every k N and n 2 satisfying k jn 1 k we have e k(y n ) = e k ( ) ( k jn ) P kjn (x n ) P kjn 1 (x n ) = e k e i (x n )e i = 0. i=k jn 1+1 Thus, for any y span(e k ) there is n(y ) 2 such that y (y n(y )) = 0 and x (y n(y )) 1/2, hence 2 x y y n(y ) x y x (y n(y )) y (y n(y )) 1 2, and so x y 1/4. This contradicts the fact that (e n ) is shrinking and the proof is over. Remark 3.4. The proof of Theorem 1.3 does not involve Rosenthal s l 1 -theorem, [6, Theorem 5.37]. This result is used in [10, Proposition 3.6] to extract a subsequence (f jn ψ jn ) which is an l 1 -sequence in L 1 (m). Remark 3.5. It is easy to check that a bounded unconditional basic sequence is an l 1 -sequence if (and only if) it is an l + -sequence. In the proof of Theorem 1.3, (y n ) is a block basic sequence of (e n ). If in addition (e n ) is assumed to be unconditional, then so is (y n ). Any l + -subsequence of (y n ) (such subsequences exist by Step 2) is therefore an l 1 -sequence. This is the final argument in [10, Proposition 3.6]. References [1] J. M. Calabuig, J. Rodríguez, and E. A. Sánchez-Pérez, On the structure of L 1 of a vector measure via its integration operator, Integral Equations Operator Theory 64 (2009), no. 1, MR (2010g:46066) [2] C. Castaing and M. Valadier, Convex analysis and measurable multifunctions, Springer- Verlag, Berlin, 1977, Lecture Notes in Mathematics, Vol MR (57 #7169) [3] G. P. Curbera, Operators into L 1 of a vector measure and applications to Banach lattices, Math. Ann. 293 (1992), no. 2, MR (93b:46083) [4] G. P. Curbera, When L 1 of a vector measure is an AL-space, Pacific J. Math. 162 (1994), no. 2, MR (94k:46070) [5] J. Diestel and J. J. Uhl, Jr., Vector measures, American Mathematical Society, Providence, R.I., 1977, With a foreword by B. J. Pettis, Mathematical Surveys, No. 15. MR (56 #12216) [6] M. Fabian, P. Habala, P. Hájek, V. Montesinos, and V. Zizler, Banach space theory, CMS Books in Mathematics/Ouvrages de Mathématiques de la SMC, Springer, New York, 2011, The basis for linear and nonlinear analysis. MR (2012h:46001) [7] H. Fetter and B. Gamboa de Buen, The James forest, London Mathematical Society Lecture Note Series, vol. 236, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1997, With a foreword by Robert C. James and a prologue by Bernard Beauzamy. MR (98k:46013) [8] N. Ghoussoub and E. Saab, On the weak Radon-Nikodým property, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc. 81 (1981), no. 1, MR (81j:46068)

7 ON COMPLETELY CONTINUOUS INTEGRATION OPERATORS 7 [9] S. Okada, W. J. Ricker, and L. Rodríguez-Piazza, Compactness of the integration operator associated with a vector measure, Studia Math. 150 (2002), no. 2, MR (2002m:28018) [10] S. Okada, W. J. Ricker, and L. Rodríguez-Piazza, Operator ideal properties of vector measures with finite variation, Studia Math. 205 (2011), no. 3, MR (2012g:46062) [11] S. Okada, W. J. Ricker, and L. Rodríguez-Piazza, Operator ideal properties of the integration map of a vector measure, to appear in Indag. Math. (N.S.), doi: /j.indag [12] S. Okada, W. J. Ricker, and E. A. Sánchez Pérez, Optimal domain and integral extension of operators, Operator Theory: Advances and Applications, vol. 180, Birkhäuser Verlag, Basel, 2008, Acting in function spaces. MR (2009i:47085) [13] I. Singer, Bases in Banach spaces. I, Springer-Verlag, New York, 1970, Die Grundlehren der mathematischen Wissenschaften, Band 154. MR (45 #7451) [14] M. Zippin, Banach spaces with separable duals, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc. 310 (1988), no. 1, MR (90b:46028) Instituto Universitario de Matemática Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia, Spain address: Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Facultad de Informática, Universidad de Murcia, Espinardo (Murcia), Spain address: Instituto Universitario de Matemática Pura y Aplicada, Universidad Politécnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera s/n, Valencia, Spain address:

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