# Associativity condition for some alternative algebras of degree three

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1 Associativity condition for some alternative algebras of degree three Mirela Stefanescu and Cristina Flaut Abstract In this paper we find an associativity condition for a class of alternative algebras of degree three. This is given in the last two statements of the paper. AMS Subject Classification: 17A0. Key words: Alternative algebra, composition algebra, isotopic subspace, bilinear form. The algebras A over a field K satisfying the identities x 2 y = x xy) and yx 2 = yx)x, x, y A, are called alternative algebras. It is obvious that an alternative algebra is powerassociative: x 2 x = xx 2 = x, for all x A. An algebra A over a field K is called a composition algebra if we have a quadratic form n : A K satisfying the relation nxy) = n x) n y), for every x, y A, and the associated bilineare form f : A A K, f x, y) = 1 n x + y) n x) n y)) 2 is non-degenerate. An alternative algebra A is of degree three, if, for every x A, a polynomial relation of degree three is satisfied, namely: x T x) x 2 + S x) x N x) 1 = 0, where T is a linear mapping, called the generic trace, S is a bilinear form and N is a cubic form, called the norm form. The subset A 0 = {x A / T x) = 0} is a subspace of A called the isotopic subspace of the algebra A and A = K 1 A 0. Editor Gr.Tsagas Proceedings of The Conference of Applied Differential Geometry - General Relativity and The Workshop on Global Analysis, Differential Geometry and Lie Algebras, 2002, c 2004 Balkan Society of Geometers, Geometry Balkan Press

2 122 M. Stefanescu and C. Flaut We suppose the field K has the characteristic 2,. Let ω be the cubic root of unity, q be the solution of equation x 2 +=0 and µ be the root of the equation x 2 x + 1 = 0. We consider two cases: Case 1. ω K, therefore q, µ K. We recall now some necessary results. Proposition 1. [] Let A be an alternative algebra of degree three and A 0 be its isotopic subspace. The bilinear form S is nondegenerate on A if and only if S is nondegenerate on A 0. Proposition 2. [] Let A be a finite dimensional alternative algebra of degree three over the field K. On A 0 we define the multiplication : a b = ωab ω 2 ba 2ω + 1 T ab) 1. 1) Then S preserves the composition, that is S a b) = S a) S b). If A is a separable algebra over K i.e. A F = F K A is a direct sum of simple ideals, for every extension F of K) then the quadratic form S is nondegenerate and we find an operation such that A 0, ) is a Hurwitz algebra. If dim A =, then A 0, ) is an octonion algebra. Here, the operation is: a b = u a) b u), with Su) 0. 2) Proposition. [2] Let A be an alternative algebra of degree three over the field K with the generic minimum polynomial : P x λ) = λ T x) λ 2 + S x) λ N x) 1. On the isotopic subspace A 0, the operation is defined as in Proposition 2. Then we have: i) a b) a = a b a) = S a) b, for every a, b A 0. ) ii) S preserves composition and S x y, z) = S x, y z), for all x, y, z A 0. iii) A 0, ) does not have a unit element. iv) There exists an element a A 0, such that {a, a a} is a linearly independent system. A is finite dimensional and separable if and only if S is nondegenerate. The Proposition has a converse statement and we see this in the next proposition. These two propositions show us that always in an alternative algebra of degree three

3 Associativity condition for some alternative algebras 12 we can find a flexible i.e. xyx) = xy) x, x, y A) and composition subalgebra and its symmetric associated bilinear form is associative. Proposition 4. [2] Let B, ) be a nonunitary algebra over the field K with quadratic form S satisfying the condition ) from above. If B has an element b 0 such that the system {b 0, b 0 b 0 } is linearly independent, then we find an alternative algebra A of degree three over K such that B, ) is isomorphic to the algebra A 0, ) defined in Proposition 2. If S x, y) is the symmetric bilinear form associated to the quadratic form S and A = K 1 B, for x A, x = α + a, α K, a B, then define the multiplication on A: 2S a, b) ab= 1+ 1 [ ω 2-1 ) a b- ω-1) b a], a, b B, 4) and 1x = x1 = x, x A. We show, by straightforward calculation, that A is an alternative algebra of degree three over K., we obtain If we take T x)=α, S x)=α 2 +S a), N x)=α +S a) α-ρ x T x) x 2 + S x) x N x) 1 = 0, x A 2Sa a, a) and B = A 0 = {x A/ T x) = 0}. Then A is the asked algebra of degree three. Proposition 5. [2] With the assumptions and the notations from Proposition 4, the algebras B 1, ), B 2, ) are isomorphic if and only if the corresponding alternative algebras of degree three are isomorphic. We need some more properties of the computation. Proposition 6. With the notations from Proposition 4., the algebra A = K 1 B is associative if and only if the following condition holds : where a, b, c) = a b) c a b c). a, c, b) + b, a, c) = a, b, c), a, b, c B, 5) Proof. Let a, b, c B, then we have: c ab)=c 2S a, b) ω 2-1 ) a b- ω-1) b a ) = = + ω2-1 2S a, b) c+ ω2-1 2S c, a b) - c a b)+ ω-1 1+ ω2-1 c b a)= c b a) - ω-1 2S a, b) c+ b a) c -

4 124 M. Stefanescu and C. Flaut - ω-1 2S c, b a) - ca) b= 2S c, a) - + ω c b a) - ω-1 b a) c. ω 2 1 ) c a ω 1) a c ) b= = + ω2-1 - ω-1 2S c, a) b+ ω2-1 2S c a, b) - 2S a c, b) - c a) b ω-1 1+ ω ω2-1 a c) b=- c a) b- ω-1 a c) b- ω-1 In the following, we use the relations: a b) c + c b) a = 2S a, c) b = 2S c, a) b 2S c, a) b+ b c a) - b a c). a c) b + b c) a = 2S a, b) c, ω 2 1 ) 2 = ω 2, ω 2 1 ) ω 1) =, ω 1) 2 = ω. Then: c ab) ca) b=- 2S a, b) c- 2 ω 2-1 ) S c, a b)+ ω 2-1 ) 2 c a b)- - ω 2-1 ) ω-1) + ω-1)2 a b) c+ 2 ω-1) b a) c+ 2S c, a) S c, b a)- b+ 2 ω 2-1 ) ω 2-1 ) ω-1) Sc a, b) c b a)+ ω 2-1 ) 2 c a) b+ ω 2-1 ) ω-1) b c a)- 2 ω-1) S a c, b) + + ω 2-1 ) ω-1) a c) b ω-1)2 = 1 a c) b- 1 b c) a- 2 ω 2-1 ) b a c)= S c, a b)-

5 Associativity condition for some alternative algebras ω2 c a b)- 1 a b) c+ 2 ω 1) S c, b a)- 1 - ω b a) c+ 1 a b) c+ 1 c b) a+ 2 ω 2-1 ) c b a)- S c a, b)+ + ω2 c a) b + 1 b c a) 2 ω 1) S a c, b) a c) b + ω b a c). Since S is associative over B, we have: S c, a b) = Sc a, b) şi S c, b a) = S b a, c) = S b, a c). We get : c ab) ca) b = 1 [b c) a b c a)] ω [b a) c b a c)] + 1 [c b) a c b a)] ω2 c a b) + ω2 c a) b = = 1 b, c, a) ω b, a, c) + 1 c, b, a) + + ω2 c, a, b) ω2 c a) b + ω2 c a) b = = 1 b, c, a) + 1 c, b, a) + 1 b, a, c). Here, we used for the flexible algebra, A that a, b, c) = c, b, a). Case 2. We consider the field K such that ω / K; therefore q / K. Let F = K ω) = = Kq) and A be an alternative algebra of degree three over the field K, equipped with an involution J of second kind. Then J is an automorphism J : A A, J xy) =J y) J x), J αx) =α J J x), J k) =k, k K, α F. Since K F is an extension of second degree, the associated Galois group has the degree two, and α α J is a K-morphism over F of second degree, which differs of

6 126 M. Stefanescu and C. Flaut identity, since ω J = ω 2 and q J = q. Let Ā 0 = {x A/ T x) = 0 and J x) = x}. First we recall a result given by Elduque and Myung: Proposition 7. [2] Let a, b Ā0, such that a b = ωab ω 2 ba 2ω + 1 T ab) 1. Then Ā 0, ) is a K-algebra, S Ā0 is a nondegenerate quadratic form over K and S permits composition over Ā 0, ). Proposition 8. With the same assumptions and notations as above, the following equalities hold: i) A = Ā q Ā F K Ā. ii) A 0 = F K Ā 0. Remark. i) By Proposition 7 we have that S/ Ā and S/ Ā0 are quadratic forms over K. Since the F -algebra A 0, ) satisfies the conditions i)-iii) in Proposition, Ā0, ) satisfies the same conditions, Ā 0 being a K-subalgebra of A 0. Then we have: 1) a b) a = a b a) = S a) b, a, b Ā 0, ). 2) S permits composition and is associative over Ā 0, ). ) Ā 0, ) does not have the unity element. We prove a property of the alternative algebras in both cases 1 and 2. Propozition 10. Let A, ) be a nonunitary algebra over the field K, which has a bilinear nondegenerate form S satisfying the condition ). If the elements {x, x x} are linearly dependent for each x A, then x x = α x) x, and α : A K defined by this relations is a K-algebra morphism. Proof. If in the relation ) we take a = b = x, we get: x x) x = S x) x. It results α x) x) x = S x) x so α 2 x) x = S x) x, and we have α 2 x) = S x) 6) Let x, y A be arbitrary elements. Then: x + y) x + y) = α x + y) x + y), therefore x x + x y + y x + y y = α x + y) x + α x + y) y, hence α x) x + α y) y + x y + y x = α x + y) x + α x + y) y, and we obtain: Since α x+y) -α x)) x+ α x+y) -α y)) y=x y+y x, x, y A. 7)

7 Associativity condition for some alternative algebras 127 S x, y)= 1 2 S x+y) S x) S y))= 1 2 we have: α 2 x+y) α 2 x) α 2 y) ), α 2 x + y) = α 2 x) + α 2 y) + 2S x, y), x, y A. 8) Applying S., x) to the relation 7), we obtain: α x + y) α x)) S x, x) + α x + y) α y)) S x, y) = = S x y, x)+s y x, x). The conditions from the hypothesis involve that S.,.) is associative and permits composition, no matter whether ω is in K or not we use the Proposition and the Remark i)). So S x y, x) = S x, x y) = S x x, y) = α x) S x, y), and S y x, x) = S y, x x) = α x) S x, y). We have, for all x, y A: αx+y)-αx))α 2 x)+αx+y)-αy))sx, y)=2αx)sx, y). ) We note that α x + y) = z, α x) = a, α y) = b. Then 8) and ) become respectively: z 2 = a 2 + b 2 + 2S x, y), 10) z a) a 2 = b + 2a z) S x, y). 11) We suppose that α x) 0. If b + 2a z = 0, then α y) + 2α x) = α x + y), for all x, y A, x 0. If we take y = 0, we obtain 2α x) = α x), so α x) = 0, false. Then b + 2a z 0. By the relation 11), we have S x, y) = z a) a2 b + 2a z and replace it in the relation 10). We get z 2 = a 2 + b 2 z a) a2 + 2 b + 2a z, so b+2a-z) z2 = = a 2 +b 2) b+2a-z)+2a 2 z-a) and we have z + b + 2a) z 2 + b 2 a 2) z b a + b) 2 = 0. The polynomial P Z)=-Z +b+2a) Z 2 + b 2 -a 2) Z-b a+b) 2 has the decomposition in irreducible factors: P Z)=-Z-a-b) 2 Z+b). It results that z 1 =a + b and z 2 = b are the different roots of the polynomial P. If z = a+b, we have α x + y) = α x)+α y). If z= b, we obtain α x + y) = α y) and, for y = 0, it result α x) = 0, which is a contradiction. Therefore α x + y) = α x) + α y), x, y A,

8 128 M. Stefanescu and C. Flaut with α x) 0. If α x) = 0, by relation ), we have z b) S x, y) = 0, for all y A and x A with α x) = 0. If z = b, then α x + y) = α y) = α y) + α x). If S x, y) = 0, y A, we obtain x = 0 and α 0) = 0, therefore α x + y) = α x) + α y), x, y A. 12) By the relation 7), for y = ax, with a K, we have α a + 1) x) x α x) x + aα a + 1) x) x aα ax) x = 2aα x) x, hence α ax) x + α x) x α x) x + aα ax) x + aα x) x aα ax) x = 2aα x) x, and we get α ax) = aα x). 1) Since S.,.) permits composition, it results that S x y, x y) = = S x, x) S y, y), hence S x y) = S x, x) S y, y).therefore α x y) = α x) α y). 14) By relations 12), 1), 14) it results that α is a K-morphism. With the notations in the Proposition 10, we note that S is nondegenerate over Ā if and only if S is nondegenerate over A. Moreover, we have: Proposition 11. [2] Let A, A 0, Ā, Ā0 be the algebras defined above. Then there exists a Ā0 such that {a, a a} is linearly independent and A is finite-dimensional and separable if and only if S is nondegenerate. Proposition 12. [2] Let B, ) be an algebra over the field K, q / K. If B has a quadratic form S over K satisfying the relation ), for all a, b B, and there exists x 0 B such that {x 0, x 0 x 0 } is a linearly independent system, then there exists an alternative algebra A of degree three over F = K q) equipped with an involution J of second kind such that B, ) is isomorphic with the algebra Ā 0, ) defined above. Proposition 1. [2] The algebras B 1, ), B 2, ) in Proposition 12 are isomorphic if and only if the alternative algebras of degree three with the corresponding involution are isomorphic. Now we can state the main results of the paper. Proposition 14. The algebra A in Proposition 12 is associative if and only if a, c, b) + b, a, c) = a, b, c), a, b, c B. Proof. If the relation in the hypothesis is true for all a, b, c B, it results that the this proposition is true and for all x, y, z F K B. Then we use the Proposition 6 and A is an associative F -algebra. Indeed, let x, y, z F K B, x = α a, y = β b, z = γ c, α, β, γ F, a, b, c B. Then in F K B, we have x, y, z) =α a) β b)) γ c)-α a) β b) γ c))=

9 Associativity condition for some alternative algebras 12 = αβγ a b) c αβγ a b c) = αβγ a, b, c). Proposition 15. Let K be a field, ω / K and F =K ω). If A is a finite dimensional algebra of degree three equipped with an involution J of second kind, Ā 0 = {x A/ T x) = 0, J x) = x } then the multiplication: a b = ωab ω 2 ba 2ω + 1 T ab) 1, a, b Ā0can be defined. If A is separable, then the quadratic form S is nondegenerate and Ā 0, ) becomes a composition K-algebra. If dim A =, then we may define the multiplication on Ā0 such that Ā 0, ) is an octonionic K-algebra. If a, c, b) + b, a, c) = a, b, c), a, b, c Ā0, then A is associative. Proof. By Proposition 7, we have that Ā0 is a K-algebra and S/ Ā0 is a quadratic form over K permitting composition. By Proposition 11, we have that Ā 0, ) is flexible, and the associated bilinear form to S is associative. If S is nondegenerate, then Ā 0, ) is a non-unitary composition algebra and there exists u Ā0, such that S u) 0. Then we define: a b = u a) b u), with a, b Ā0 and we get that Ā 0, ) is a unitary composition algebra, with the unity e = u u, therefore it is a Hurwitz algebra. If dim A =, then, by Proposition 8, we have that dim A = dim Ā = dim A = dim Ā0 + 1, therefore dim Ā0 = 8 and Ā0 is an octonion algebra. References [1] Elduque, A., Myung, H.C., Flexible composition algebras and Okubo algebras, Comm. Algebra, 1, 4 11) [2] Elduque, A., Myung, H.C., On flexible composition algebras, Comm. Algebra, 21, 7 1) [] Faulkner, J.R., Finding octonion algebras in associative algebras, Proc. Amer. Math. Soc., 104, 4 188) [4] Kostrikin, A. I., Shafarevich, I.R. Eds), Algebra VI, Springer-Verlag, 15. [5] McCrimmon, K., Generically algebraic algebras, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., ) [6] Okubo, S., Introduction to Octonion and other Non-Associative Algebras in Physics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 15.

10 10 M. Stefanescu and C. Flaut [7] Okubo, S., Myung, H. C., Some new classes of division algebras, J. of Algebra, ) [8] Okubo, S., Osborne, J.M., Algebras with nondegenerate associative symmetric bilinear forms permitting composition, I, Comm. Algebra,, ) [] Okubo, S., Osborne, J.M., Algebras with nondegenerate associative symmetric bilinear forms permitting composition, II, Comm. Algebra,, ) [10] Schafer, R. D., An Introduction to Nonassociative Algebras, Academic Press, New-York, 166. Authors address: Mirela Stefanescu and Cristina Flaut Departament of Mathematics, Ovidius University, Bd. Mamaia 124, 8700-Constantza, Romania cristina

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