# Appendix A Designing High School Mathematics Courses Based on the Common Core Standards

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Appendix A Designing High School Mathematics Courses Based on the Common Core Standards"

## Transcription

3 o 3

4 Pathway A Course 1 Building on their work with proportionality and linear equations in middle school, students turn their attention to the idea of function in this course. Students work closely with the expressions that define the functions, their graphs, domain, and function notation. Work with the functions is grounded in logical reasoning, where manipulations to the expressions are accomplished with intent and based on properties of arithmetic and the laws of equality. Students continue to expand and hone their abilities to model situations, including through the use of statistics, and to solve equations. There are many unifying threads which wind their way throughout the course, offering greater focus and coherence. These threads are captured in the Unifying Standards, and should be applied appropriately to each instructional unit: Linear expressions, equations, and functions; Quadratic expressions, equations, and functions; and Exponential expressions, equations and functions. The final algebra unit in the course provides an opportunity to synthesize the year s work with functions by comparing and contrasting them. Through this course, students continue to improve in their Mathematical Practices by attending to precision, constructing viable arguments and critiquing the reasoning of others, making sense of problems and persevering in solving them, looking for and making use of structure, looking for and expressing regularity in repeated reasoning, reasoning abstractly and quantitatively, modeling with mathematics, and using appropriate tools strategically. Teachers should look for opportunities to encourage student demonstration of their improvement of these practices. Unifying Standards Quantities N.Q.5 N.Q.6 Use and interpret quantities and units correctly in algebraic formulas. Use and interpret quantities and units correctly in graphs and data displays (function graphs, data tables, scatter plots, and other visual displays of quantitative information). Generate graphs and data displays using technology. This standard should be considered whenever a graph or data display is discussed. 1 N.Q Seeing Structure in Expressions A-SSE A.SSE.1 A.SSE.2 A.SSE.3 A.SSE.5 Understand that different forms of an expression may reveal different properties of the quantity in question; a purpose in transforming expressions is to find those properties. Examples: factoring a quadratic expression reveals the zeros of the function it defines, and putting the expression in vertex form reveals its maximum or minimum value; the expression 1.15t can be rewritten as (1.15 1/12 ) 12t t to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%. Understand that complicated expressions can be interpreted by viewing one or more of their parts as single entities. Interpret an expression that represents a quantity in terms of the context. Include interpreting parts of an expression, such as terms, factors and coefficients. See expressions in different ways that suggest ways of transforming them. For example, see x 4 y 4 as (x 2 ) 2 (y 2 ) 2, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x 2 y 2 )(x 2 + y 2 ). Standard with close connection to modeling 1 Italicized text following a standard is an instructional note to the teacher. 4

5 Creating Equations That Describe Numbers or Relationships A-CED A.CED.1 A.CED.2 A.CED.3 A.CED.4 Understand that equations in one variable are often created to describe properties of a specific but unknown number. Understand that equations in two or more variables that represent a relationship between quantities can be built by experimenting with specific numbers in the relationship. Write equations and inequalities that specify an unknown quantity or to express a relationship between two or more quantities. Use the equations and inequalities to solve problems. Include equations arising from linear and quadratic functions, and simple rational and exponential functions. Note that simple rational functions in this course refers to functions of the form f(x)=k/x (x 0), unless otherwise noted. This function bears close connections to the linear function and is thus included in this course. Rearrange formulas to highlight a quantity of interest. For example, transform Ohm s law V = IR to highlight resistance R; in motion with constant acceleration, transform v f,x 2 v i,x 2 = 2a x (x f x i ) to highlight the change in position along the x-axis, x f x i. Focus on formula involving linear and quadratic expressions in this course. Emphasize the use of logical arguments based on the properties of equality and rules of arithmetic. Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities A-REI A.REI.1 A.REI.4 A.REI.5 A.REI.8 A.REI.13 Understand that to solve an equation algebraically, one makes logical deductions from the equality asserted by the equation, often in steps that replace it with a simpler equation whose solutions include the solutions of the original one. Emphasize the use of logical arguments based on the properties of equality and rules of arithmetic. Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve or a line. Understand that solutions to two equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously. Understand that equations and inequalities can be viewed as constraints in a problem situation, (e.g., inequalities describing nutritional and cost constraints on combinations of different foods.) Solve equations f(x) = g(x) approximately by finding the intersections of the graphs of f(x) and g(x), e.g. using technology to graph the functions. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions. In this course, focus on linear, simple rational, quadratic, and exponential functions. Include the use of technology to approximate intersections. Interpreting Functions The following standards support the introduction of each major function in this course. A-IF A.IF.1 A.IF.3 A.IF.4 Understand that a function from one set (called the domain) to another set (called the range) assigns to each element of the domain exactly one element of the range. If f is a function and x is an element of its domain, then f(x) denotes the output of f corresponding to the input x. Understand that a function defined by an expression may be written in different but equivalent forms, which can reveal different properties of the function. Use function notation and evaluate functions for inputs in their domains. Standard with close connection to modeling 5

6 A.IF.5 A.IF.6 A.IF.7 A.IF.8 A.IF.10 Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by reading a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, what its long-run behavior appears to be, and whether it appears to be periodic). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that models a relationship between two quantities. Compare properties of two functions represented in different ways (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, draw conclusions about the graph of a quadratic function from its algebraic expression. Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function. Use technology to exhibit the effects of parameter changes on the graphs of linear, power, quadratic, square root, cube root, and polynomial functions, and simple rational, exponential, logarithmic, sine, cosine, absolute value and step functions. In this course, include linear, quadratic, simple rational functions of the form f x = a + k and f x = a 2 + k, exponential and absolute value functions. x h x h Building Functions A.BF.1 A.BF.5 A.BF.6 A.BF.7 Understand that functions can be described by specifying an explicit expression, a recursive process or steps for calculation. Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities, for example by varying parameters in and combining standard function types (such as linear, quadratic or exponential functions). Experiment with parameters and illustrate an explanation of the behavior of the function when parameters vary using technology. Solve problems involving linear, quadratic, and exponential functions. Identify the effect on the graph of replacing f(x) by f(x) + k, k f(x), f(kx), and f(x + k) for specific values of k (both positive and negative); find the value of k given the graphs. Experiment with cases and illustrate an explanation of the effects on the graph using technology. Focus on the linear (including absolute value), quadratic, and exponential functions. A-BF Linear, Quadratic, and Exponential Models A.LQE.9 Calculate and interpret the average rate of change of a function (presented symbolically or as a table) over a specified interval. Estimate the rate of change from a graph. A-LQE Unit 1: Linear Expressions, Equations, and Functions Quantities N.Q.1 N.Q.2 Understand that the magnitude of a quantity is independent of the unit used to measure it. For example, the density of a liquid does not change when it is measured in another unit. Rather, its measure changes. The chosen unit measures the quantity by giving it a numerical value ( the density of lead is 11.3 times that of water ). Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems, involving, e.g., acceleration, currency conversions, derived quantities such as person-hours and heating degree days, social science rates such as per-capita income, and rates in everyday life such as points scored per game. NQ Standard with close connection to modeling 6

7 N.Q.3 Define metrics for the purpose of descriptive modeling. For example, find a good measure of overall highway safety; propose and debate measures such as fatalities per year, fatalities per year per driver, or fatalities per vehicle-mile traveled. Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities A-REI A.REI.3 A.REI.6 A.REI.7 G.GPE.1 A.REI.11 A.REI.14 A.REI.15 G.GPE.7 A.REI.17 A.REI.18 Understand that given a system of two linear equations in two variables, adding a multiple of one equation to another produces a system with the same solutions. This principle, combined with principles already encountered with equations in one variable, allows for the simplification of systems. Note that on the coordinate plane, the graph of a linear combination of two linear equations whose graphs intersect produces a third equation whose graph intersects the two original ones at their point of intersection. Understand that the solutions to a linear inequality in two variables can be graphed as a half-plane (excluding the boundary in the case of a strict inequality). Include a variety of examples. Understand that solutions to several linear inequalities in two variables correspond to points in the intersection of the regions in the plane defined by the solutions to the inequalities. Understand that two lines with well-defined slopes are perpendicular if and only if the product of their slopes is equal to 1. A proof of this could be demonstrated using rotations of lines. Solve linear equations in one variable, including equations with coefficients represented by letters. Solve linear inequalities in one variable and graph the solution set on a number line. Solve systems of linear equations algebraically and graphically, focusing on pairs of linear equations in two variables. Include situations where the two lines are perpendicular, and connect to the following standard. Use the slope criteria for parallel and perpendicular lines to solve geometric problems (e.g., find the equation of a line parallel or perpendicular to a given line that passes through a given point). Graph the solution set of a system of linear inequalities in two variables. In modeling situations, represent constraints by systems of equations and/or inequalities, and interpret solutions of these systems as viable or non-viable options in the modeling context. Focus on linear models in this unit. Building Functions A-BF A.BF.2 A.BF.8 Understand that sequences are functions whose domain is a subset of the nonnegative integers. Focus on linear/arithmetic sequences in this unit. Generate an arithmetic or geometric sequence given a recursive rule for the sequence. Focus on arithmetic sequences in this unit. Linear, Quadratic, and Exponential Models A-LQE A.LQE.1 A.LQE.5 A.LQE.10 A.LQE.13 Understand that a linear function, defined by f(x) = mx + b for some constants m and b, models a situation in which a quantity changes at a constant rate, m, relative to another. Understand that in an arithmetic sequence, differences between consecutive terms form a constant sequence, and second differences are zero. Conversely, if the second differences are zero, the sequence is arithmetic. Arithmetic sequences can be seen as linear functions. Construct a function to describe a linear relationship between two quantities. Determine the rate of change and constant term of a linear function from a graph, a description of a relationship, or from two (x, y) values (including reading these from a table). Interpret the rate of change and constant term of a linear function or sequence in terms of the situation it models, and in terms of its graph or a table of values. 7

10 A.SSE.7 Use the laws of exponents to interpret expressions for exponential functions, recognizing positive rational exponents as indicating roots of the base and negative exponents as indicating the reciprocal of a power. For example, identify the per unit percentage change in functions such as y = (1.02) t, y = (0.97) t, y = (1.01) 12t, y = (1.2) t/10, and conclude whether it represents exponential growth or decay. Recognize that any non-zero number raised to the 0 power is 1 (for example, 12(1.05) 0 = 12). Avoid common errors such as confusing 6(1.05) t with (6 1.05) t and 5(0.03) t with 5(1.03) t. Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities A-REI A.REI.19 In the context of exponential models, solve equations of the form a b ct = d where a, c, and d are specific numbers and the base b is 2, 10, or e. In this course, use graphical methods or focus on equations having exact, integral solutions. For example, solve 2 x = 32. Interpreting Functions A-IF A.IF.2 Understand that functions of a single variable have key characteristics, including: zeros; extreme values; average rates of change (over intervals); intervals of increasing, decreasing and/or constant behavior; and end behavior. In this unit on exponential functions, focus on average rates of change (over intervals), whether the function is always increasing or always decreasing, and end behavior. Building Functions A-BF A.BF.9 As a way to describe routine modeling situations, write arithmetic and geometric sequences both recursively and in closed form, and translate between the two forms. Linear, Quadratic, and Exponential Models A-LQE A.LQE.3 Understand that an exponential function, defined by f(x) = ab x or by f(x) = a(1 + r) x for some constants a, b > 0 and r > 1, models a situation where a quantity grows or decays by a constant factor or a constant percentage change over each unit interval. A.LQE.4 A.LQE.7 Understand that linear functions grow by equal differences over equal intervals; exponential functions grow by equal factors over equal intervals. Understand that in a geometric sequence, ratios of consecutive terms are all the same. A.LQE.8 A.LQE.12 A,LQE.14 A.LQE.15 A.LQE.16 Understand that a quantity increasing exponentially eventually exceeds a quantity increasing linearly, quadratically or (more generally) as a polynomial function. Verify graphically and restrict polynomials to quadratics in this unit. Construct an exponential function in the form f(x) = a(1 + r) x or f(x) = ab x to describe a relationship in which one quantity grows with respect to another at a constant percent growth rate or a with a constant growth factor. Make connection to compound interest, here. Calculate and interpret the growth factor for an exponential function (presented symbolically or as a table) given a fixed time interval. Estimate the growth factor from a graph. Recognize a quantitative relationship as linear, exponential or neither from description of a situation. Compare quantities increasing exponentially to quantities increasing linearly or as a polynomial function. Restrict polynomials to quadratics in this part of the course. 10

11 Pathway A Course 2 Building on their work with lines, angles, and triangles in middle school, students turn their attention to a more formal treatment of geometry. The concepts of congruence, similarity and symmetry are developed through the concept of geometric transformation. Reflections and rotations each explain a particular type of symmetry, and the symmetries of an object offer insight into its attributes as when the reflective symmetry of an isosceles triangle assures that its base angles are congruent. Applying a scale transformation to a geometric figure yields a similar figure. The transformation preserves angle measure, and lengths are related by a constant of proportionality. If the constant of proportionality is 1, distances are also preserved (so the transformation is a rigid transformation) and the figures are congruent. Students move quickly to establish the triangle congruence theorems, and then apply them to other polygons. With congruence in hand, students examine the idea of similarity with a particular emphasis on triangles. Students then see additional applications of similarity including the definitions of sine, cosine and tangent for acute angles, which are founded on right triangle similarity. With the Pythagorean theorem, sine, cosine, and tangent are fundamental in many real-world and theoretical situations. With a strong understanding of the properties, attributes and relationships of triangles and polygons, students examine the geometry of circles, quickly bringing in connections to coordinate geometry. Modeling continues to be an important activity in this course. With the knowledge of a rich body of theorems about geometric objects, their attributes and relationships, students can apply them in diverse contexts interpreting a schematic drawing, estimating the amount of wood needed to frame a sloping roof, rendering computer graphics, or designing a sewing pattern for the most efficient use of material. Another application of geometry is to probability, where area models are provide additional insight and lead to a deeper study of probability concepts. Students continue to improve in their Mathematical Practices by attending to precision, constructing viable arguments and critiquing the reasoning of others, making sense of problems and persevering in solving them, looking for and making use of structure, looking for and expressing regularity in repeated reasoning, reasoning abstractly and quantitatively, modeling with mathematics, and using appropriate tools strategically. Teachers should look for opportunities to encourage student demonstration of their improvement of these practices. Unit 1: Triangles and Polygons Congruence Congruence G.CO.1 G.CO.2 G.CO.3 G.CO.4 G.CO.5 Understand that two geometric figures are congruent if there is a sequence of rigid motions (rotations, reflections, translations) that carries one onto the other. This is the principle of superposition. Understand that criteria for triangle congruence are ways to specify enough measures in a triangle to ensure that all triangles drawn with those measures are congruent. Understand that criteria for triangle congruence (ASA, SAS, and SSS) can be established using rigid motions. Understand that geometric diagrams can be used to test conjectures and identify logical errors in fallacious proofs. Know and use (in reasoning and problem solving) definitions of angles, polygons, parallel and perpendicular lines, rigid motions, parallelograms and rectangles. 11 G-CO

12 G.CO.6 G.CO.7 Prove theorems about lines and angles. Theorems include: vertical angles are congruent; when a transversal crosses parallel lines, alternate interior angles are congruent and corresponding angles are congruent; two lines parallel to a third are parallel to each other; points on a perpendicular bisector of a segment are exactly those equidistant from the segment s endpoints. Prove theorems about triangles. Theorems include: measures of interior angles of a triangle sum to 180, base angles of isosceles triangles are congruent, the triangle inequality, the longest side of a triangle faces the angle with the greatest measure and vice-versa, the exterior-angle inequality, and the segment joining midpoints of two sides of a triangle parallel to the third side and half the length. Connect back to logical reasoning about expressions and equations covered in previous course. G.CO.8 G.CO.9 G.CO.10 G.CO.11 G.CO.12 G.CO.13 Use and prove properties of and relationships among special quadrilaterals: parallelogram, rectangle, rhombus, square, trapezoid and kite. Characterize parallelograms in terms of equality of opposite sides, in terms of equality of opposite angles, and in terms of bisection of diagonals; characterize rectangles as parallelograms with equal diagonals. Make formal geometric constructions with a variety of tools and methods (compass and straightedge, string, reflective devices, paper folding, dynamic geometric software, etc). Copying a segment; copying an angle; bisecting a segment; bisecting an angle; constructing perpendicular lines, including the perpendicular bisector of a line segment; and constructing a line parallel to a given line through a point not on the line. Construct an equilateral triangle, a square and a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle. Use two-dimensional representations to transform figures and to predict the effect of translations, rotations and reflections. Use two-dimensional representations to transform figures and to predict the effect of dilations. Unit 2: Triangles and Polygons Similarity, Right Triangles and Trigonometry Similarity, Right Triangles, and Trigonometry G-SRT G.SRT.1 G.SRT.2 G.SRT.3 G.SRT.4 G.SRT.5 G.SRT.6 G.SRT.7 G.SRT.8 G.SRT.9 Understand that dilating a line produces a line parallel to the original. (In particular, lines passing through the center of the dilation remain unchanged.) Understand that the dilation of a given segment is parallel to the given segment and longer or shorter in the ratio given by the scale factor. A dilation leaves a segment unchanged if and only if the scale factor is 1. Understand that the assumed properties of dilations can be used to establish the AA, SAS, and SSS criteria for similarity of triangles. Understand that by similarity, side ratios in right triangles are properties of the angles in the triangle, leading to definitions of sine, cosine and tangent. Understand that a line parallel to one side of a triangle divides the other two proportionally, and conversely. Use triangle similarity criteria to solve problems and to prove relationships in geometric figures. Include a proof of the Pythagorean Theorem using triangle similarity. Use and explain the relationship between the sine and cosine of complementary angles. Use sine, cosine, tangent and the Pythagorean Theorem to solve right triangles 2 in applied problems. STEM Give an informal explanation using successive approximation that a dilation of scale factor r changes the length of a curve by a factor of r and the area of a region by a factor of r 2. Trigonometry of General Triangles G-TGT G.TGT.1 G.TGT.2 STEM Understand that the formula A = ½ ab sin(c) for the area of a triangle can be derived by drawing an auxiliary line from a vertex perpendicular to the opposite side. Applying this formula in three different ways leads to the Law of Sines. STEM Understand that the Law of Cosines generalizes the Pythagorean Theorem. 2 A right triangle has five parameters, its three lengths and two acute angles. Given a length and any other parameter, solving a right triangle means finding the remaining three parameters. 12

13 G.TGT.4 G.TGT.5 G.TGT.6 STEM Understand that the Laws of Sines and Cosines embody the triangle congruence criteria, in that three pieces of information are usually sufficient to completely solve a triangle. Furthermore, these laws yield two possible solutions in the ambiguous case, illustrating that Side-Side-Angle is not a congruence criterion. Do not emphasize ambiguous case in this course. Constrain to a discussion of its existence. STEM Explain proofs of the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines. For proof, emphasize explanation. STEM Use the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines to find unknown measurements in right and non-right triangles (e.g., surveying problems, resultant forces). Do not include ambiguous case. Unit 3: Circles Circles G-C G.CO.11 Construct an equilateral triangle, a square and a regular hexagon inscribed in a circle. Include the construction of a circle, a circle inscribed in a triangle, and circumscribed by a triangle. G.C.1 Understand that dilations can be used to show that all circles are similar. G.C.2 Understand that here is a unique circle through three non-collinear points, or tangent to three non-concurrent lines. Connect to the construction of a circle. G.C.3 Identify and define radius, diameter, chord, tangent, secant and circumference. G.C.4 G.C.5 G.C.6 G.C.7 Identify and describe relationships among angles, radii, and chords. Include the relationship between central, inscribed and circumscribed angles; inscribed angles on a diameter are right angles; the radius of a circle is perpendicular to the tangent where the radius intersects the circle. Determine the arc lengths and the areas of sectors of circles, using proportions. STEM Construct a tangent line from a point outside a given circle to the circle. STEM Prove and use theorems about circles, and use these theorems to solve problems. Include: Symmetries of a circle Similarity of a circle to any other Tangent line, perpendicularity to a radius Inscribed angles in a circle, relationship to central angles, and equality of inscribed angles Properties of chords, tangents and secants as an application of triangle similarity. Unit 4: Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations Expressing Geometric Properties with Equations G-GPE G.GPE.2 G.GPE.3 G.GPE.8 Understand that the equation of a circle can be found using its definition and the Pythagorean Theorem. Understand that transforming the graph of an equation by reflecting in the axes, translating parallel to the axes, or applying a dilation to one of the axes correspond to substitutions in the equation. For example, reflection in the y axis corresponds to (x,y) ( x,y), translation vertically down by three units corresponds to (x,y) (x,y+3), and dilating by a factor of 2 parallel to the x-axis corresponds to (x, y) (x/2, y). Find the point on the segment between two given points that divides the segment in a given ratio. 13

14 G.GPE.9 G.GPE.10 G.GPE.11 Use coordinates to compute perimeters of polygons and areas for triangles and rectangles, e.g. using the distance formula. Decide whether a point with given coordinates lies on a circle defined by a given equation. Use coordinates to prove simple geometric theorems algebraically. For example, prove or disprove that a figure defined by four given points in the coordinate plane is a rectangle; prove or disprove that the point (1, 3) lies on the circle centered at the origin and containing the point (0, 2). G.GPE.12 Complete the square to find the center and radius of a circle given by an equation. Include the case where the radius is 1 with center at the origin, and an introductory discussion of the unit circle. Unit 5: Geometric Measurement, Dimension, and Modeling Geometric Measurement and Dimension G.GMD.1 G.GMD.3 G.GMD.4 G.GMD.5 G.GMD.6 G.GMD.7 Modeling with Geometry G.MG.1 G.MG.2 G.MG.3 G.MG.4 Understand that the area of a decomposed figure is the sum of the areas of its components and is independent of the choice of dissection. STEM Understand that Cavalieri s principle allows one to understand volume formulas informally by visualizing volumes as stacks of thin slices. Find areas of polygons by dissecting them into triangles. Explain why the volume of a cylinder is the area of the base times the height, using informal arguments. For a pyramid or a cone, give a heuristic argument to show why its volume is one-third of its height times the area of its base. Apply formulas and solve problems involving volume and surface area of right prisms, right circular cylinders, right pyramids, cones, spheres and composite figures. Understand that models of objects and structures can be built from a library of standard shapes; a single kind of shape can model seemingly different objects. Use geometric shapes, their measures and their properties to describe objects (e.g., modeling a tree trunk or a human torso or as a cylinder). Apply concepts of density based on area and volume in modeling situations (e.g., persons per square mile, BTUs per cubic foot). Apply geometric methods to solve design problems (e.g., designing an object or structure to satisfy constraints or minimize cost; working with typograph. G-GMD G-MG Unit 6: Probability Models Significant emphasis should be given to the connection between probability and geometry. For example, there are geometry models for probability, including scaled two-way tables, for example. There are also true geometric probability problems, such as What is the probability of breaking a piece of 10 linguine into two parts and having one part be more than 8 long? Both types of models provide valuable opportunities to connect probability and geometry. Probability Models S-PM Standard with close connection to modeling Standard with close connection to modeling 14

15 S.PM.1 S.PM.2 S.PM.3 S.PM.4 S.PM.5 Understand that in a probability model, individual outcomes have probabilities that sum to 1. When outcomes are categorized, the probability of a given type of outcome is the sum of the probabilities of all the individual outcomes of that type. Understand that uniform probability models are useful models for processes such as (i) the selection of a person from a population; (ii) the selection of a number in a lottery; (iii) any physical situation in which symmetry suggests that different individual outcomes are equally likely. Understand that two different empirical probability models for the same process will rarely assign exactly the same probability to a given type of outcome. But if the data sets are large and the methods used to collect the data for the two data sets are consistent, the agreement between the models is likely to be reasonably good. Understand that a (theoretical) uniform probability model may be judged by comparing it to an empirical probability model for the same process. If the theoretical assumptions are appropriate and the data set is large, then the two models should agree approximately. If the agreement is not good, then it may be necessary to modify the assumptions underlying the theoretical model or look for factors that might have affected the data used to create the empirical model. Use a uniform probability model to compute probabilities for a process involving uncertainty, including the random selection of a person from a population and physical situations where symmetry suggests that different individual outcomes are equally likely. List the individual outcomes to create a sample space. Label the individual outcomes in the sample space to reflect important characteristics or quantities associated with them. Determine probabilities of individual outcomes, and determine the probability of a type or category of outcome as the fraction of individual outcomes it includes. S.PM.6 S.PM.7 Generate data by sampling, repeated experimental trials, and simulations. Record and appropriately label such data, and use them to construct an empirical probability model. Compute probabilities in such models. Compare probabilities from a theoretical model to probabilities from a corresponding empirical model for the same situation. If the agreement is not good, explain possible sources of the discrepancies. Independently Combined Probability Models S-IPM S.IPM.1 Understand that to describe a pair of random processes (such as tossing a coin and rolling a number cube), or one random process repeated twice (such as randomly selecting a student in the class on two different days), two probability models can be combined into a single model. The sample space for the combined model is formed by listing all possible ordered pairs that combine an individual outcome from the first model with an individual outcome from the second. Each ordered pair is an individual outcome in the combined model. The total number of individual outcomes (ordered pairs) in the combined model is the product of the number of individual outcomes in each of the two original models. S.IPM.2 Understand that when two probability models are combined independently, the probability that one type of outcome in the first model occurs together with another type of outcome in the second model is the product of the two corresponding probabilities in the original models (the Multiplication Rule). S.IPM.3 Combine two uniform models independently to compute probabilities for a pair of random processes (e.g., flipping a coin twice, selecting one person from each of two classes). Use organized lists, tables and tree diagrams to represent the combined sample space. Determine probabilities of ordered pairs in the combined model, and determine the probability of a particular type or category of outcomes in the combined model, as the fraction of ordered pairs corresponding to it. S.IPM.4 For two independently combined uniform models, use the Multiplication Rule to determine probabilities. Conditional Probability and the Laws of Probability S-CP S.CP.1 Understand that events are subsets of a sample space; often, events of interest are defined by using characteristics (or categories) of the sample points, or as unions, intersections, or complements thereof ( and, or, not ). A sample point may belong to several events (categories). 15

16 S.CP.2 Understand that if A and B are two events, then in a uniform model the conditional probability of A given B, denoted by P(AB), is the fraction of B s sample points that also lie in A. S.CP.3 S.CP.4 S.C.5 S.CP.6 S.CP.7 S.CP.8 S.CP.9 Understand that the laws of probability allow one to use known probabilities to determine other probabilities of interest. Compute probabilities by constructing and analyzing sample spaces, representing them by tree diagrams, systematic lists, and Venn diagrams. Use the laws of probability to compute probabilities. Apply concepts such as intersections, unions and complements of events, and conditional probability and independence to define or analyze events, calculate probabilities and solve problems. Construct and interpret two-way tables to show probabilities when two characteristics (or categories) are associated with each sample point. Use a two-way table to determine conditional probabilities. Recognize and explain the concepts of conditional probability and independence in everyday language and everyday situations. Use permutations and combinations to compute probabilities of compound events and solve problems. Standard with close connection to modeling 16

17 Pathway A Course 3a Building on their work with linear, quadratic, and exponential functions, students extend their repertoire of mathematical structures to include polynomial, rational 3 square root, and cube root functions. Students work closely with the expressions that define the functions, and continue to expand and hone their abilities to model situations and to solve equations, including solving quadratic equations over the set of complex numbers and solving exponential equations using the properties of logarithms. There are many unifying threads which wind their way throughout the course, offering greater focus and coherence. These threads are captured in the Unifying Standards, and should be applied appropriately to each instructional unit. The final unit in this course provides students opportunities to engage in inferential reasoning through further study in statistics. Through this course, students continue to improve in their Mathematical Practices by attending to precision, constructing viable arguments and critiquing the reasoning of others, making sense of problems and persevering in solving them, looking for and making use of structure, looking for and expressing regularity in repeated reasoning, reasoning abstractly and quantitatively, modeling with mathematics, and using appropriate tools strategically. Teachers should look for opportunities to encourage student demonstration of their improvement of these practices. Unifying Standards Seeing Structure in Expressions A.SSE.1 A.SSE.2 N.Q.5 A.SSE.3 A.SSE.5 Understand that different forms of an expression may reveal different properties of the quantity in question; a purpose in transforming expressions is to find those properties. Examples: factoring a quadratic expression reveals the zeros of the function it defines, and putting the expression in vertex form reveals its maximum or minimum value; the expression 1.15 t can be rewritten as (1.15 1/12 ) 12t t to reveal the approximate equivalent monthly interest rate if the annual rate is 15%. Understand that complicated expressions can be interpreted by viewing one or more of their parts as single entities. Use and interpret quantities and units correctly in algebraic formulas. Interpret an expression that represents a quantity in terms of the context. Include interpreting parts of an expression, such as terms, factors and coefficients. See expressions in different ways that suggest ways of transforming them. For example, see x 4 y 4 as (x 2 ) 2 (y 2 ) 2, thus recognizing it as a difference of squares that can be factored as (x 2 y 2 )(x 2 + y 2 ). A-SSE Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities A-REI A.REI.1 A.REI.4 Understand that to solve an equation algebraically, one makes logical deductions from the equality asserted by the equation, often in steps that replace it with a simpler equation whose solutions include the solutions of the original one. Emphasize the use of logical arguments based on the properties of equality, rules of arithmetic, and, where appropriate, the laws of exponents. Understand that the graph of an equation in two variables is the set of its solutions plotted in the coordinate plane, often forming a curve or a line. 3 In this course rational expressions are taken to be those that are at most linear polynomials divided by quadratic polynomials. 17

18 A.REI.5 A.REI.13 Understand that solutions to two equations in two variables correspond to points of intersection of their graphs, because points of intersection satisfy both equations simultaneously. Solve equations f(x) = g(x) approximately by finding the intersections of the graphs of f(x) and g(x), e.g. using technology to graph the functions. Include cases where f(x) and/or g(x) are linear, polynomial, rational, exponential, and logarithmic functions. Include the use of technology to approximate intersections. Interpreting Functions The following standards support the introduction of each major function (polynomial, rational, square root, and cube root) in this course. A.IF.2 A.IF.3 A.IF.4 A.IF.5 A.IF.6 A.IF.7 A.IF.8 A.IF.9 A.IF.10 Understand that functions of a single variable have key characteristics, including: zeros; extreme values; average rates of change (over intervals); intervals of increasing, decreasing and/or constant behavior; and end behavior. Understand that a function defined by an expression may be written in different but equivalent forms, which can reveal different properties of the function. Use function notation and evaluate functions for inputs in their domains. Describe qualitatively the functional relationship between two quantities by reading a graph (e.g., where the function is increasing or decreasing, what its long-run behavior appears to be, and whether it appears to be periodic). Sketch a graph that exhibits the qualitative features of a function that models a relationship between two quantities. Compare properties of two functions represented in different ways (algebraically, graphically, numerically in tables, or by verbal descriptions). For example, draw conclusions about the graph of a quadratic function from its algebraic expression. Relate the domain of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes. For example, if the function h(n) gives the number of person-hours it takes to assemble n engines in a factory, then the positive integers would be an appropriate domain for the function. Describe the qualitative behavior of functions presented in graphs and tables. Identify: intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior; and periodicity. Use technology to exhibit the effects of parameter changes on the graphs of linear, power, quadratic, square root, cube root, and polynomial functions, and simple rational, exponential, logarithmic, sine, cosine, absolute value and step functions. While the focus of this standard is on the effects of parameter changes on the graphs of several functions, it is advisable to first introduce the graphs through brief examinations of the functions domains. For logarithmic, absolute value and step functions, demonstrate the genesis of their graphs by evaluating the functions for several inputs in their domains and graphing the results. While the trigonometric functions will be fully treated in the Precalculus course, one may describe the genesis of their graphs for the purpose of studying transformations. This can be done by demonstrating the use of benchmark acute angles with vertex at the origin and right angles formed with the x-axis and points on the unit circle to develop a table of values in the first quadrant. Demonstrate the use transformations to move the angles to subsequent quadrants eventually generalizing to all quadrants to continue the table. Use the tables to generate the graph of sine and cosine. A-IF Building Functions A-BF Standard with close connection to modeling 18

20 A.APR.1 A.APR.2 A.APR.3 A.APR.4 A.APR.6 A.APR.7 Understand that polynomials form a system analogous to the integers, namely, they are closed under the operations of addition, subtraction, and multiplication. Understand that polynomial identities become true statements no matter which real numbers are substituted. For example, the polynomial identity (x 2 + y 2 ) 2 = (x 2 y 2 ) 2 + (2xy) 2 can be used to generate Pythagorean triples. Extend beyond quadratic examples to include higher degree polynomials in this course. Understand the Remainder Theorem: For a polynomial p(x) and a number a, the remainder on division by x a is p(a), so p(a) = 0 if and only if (x a) is a factor of p(x). Relate long division of polynomials to long division of positive integers. STEM Understand that the Binomial Theorem gives the expansion of (x + a) n in powers of x for a positive integer n and a real number a, with coefficients determined for example by Pascal s Triangle. The Binomial Theorem can be proved by mathematical induction or by a combinatorial argument. Connect to probability and Pascal s triangle. The proof may be explained by the instructor, but is not intended to be performed by students on their own. Add, subtract and multiply polynomials. Emphasize relationship of polynomial multiplication as an application of the distributive property. Identify zeros of polynomials when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros to construct a rough graph of the polynomial. Unit 2: Rational and Exponential Expressions, Equations, and Functions Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions A-APR A.APR.5 A.APR.8 A.APR.9 A.APR.11 A.APR.12 STEM Understand that rational expressions are quotients of polynomials. They form a system analogous to the rational numbers, closed under division by a nonzero rational function. Transform simple rational expressions using the commutative, associative, and distributive laws, and the inverse relationship between multiplication and division. Relate to division by zero. Clarify this it is the function output value that becomes zero with polynomial division. Distinguish between the output variable and the input value of the function that makes the function equal zero. Divide a polynomial p(x) by a divisor of the form x a using long division. STEM Identify zeros and asymptotes of rational functions, when suitable factorizations are available, and use the zeros and asymptotes to construct a rough graph of the function. STEM Divide polynomials, using long division for linear divisors and long division or a computer algebra system for higher degree divisors. Reasoning with Equations and Inequalities A-REI A.REI.10 A.REI.20 Solve simple rational and radical equations in one variable, noting and explaining extraneous solutions. Focus on rational functions in this unit. STEM Relate the properties of logarithms to the laws of exponents and solve equations involving exponential functions. Unit 3: Statistics and Probability Making Inferences and Justifying Conclusions S-IC S.IC.1 Understand that statistics is a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a sample from that population; randomness is the foundation for statistical inference. 20

### Overview Mathematical Practices Congruence

Overview Mathematical Practices Congruence 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in Experiment with transformations in the plane. solving them. Understand congruence in terms of rigid motions. 2. Reason

### Geometry. Higher Mathematics Courses 69. Geometry

The fundamental purpose of the course is to formalize and extend students geometric experiences from the middle grades. This course includes standards from the conceptual categories of and Statistics and

### GEOMETRY COMMON CORE STANDARDS

1st Nine Weeks Experiment with transformations in the plane G-CO.1 Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions of point,

### Geometry Enduring Understandings Students will understand 1. that all circles are similar.

High School - Circles Essential Questions: 1. Why are geometry and geometric figures relevant and important? 2. How can geometric ideas be communicated using a variety of representations? ******(i.e maps,

### New York State Student Learning Objective: Regents Geometry

New York State Student Learning Objective: Regents Geometry All SLOs MUST include the following basic components: Population These are the students assigned to the course section(s) in this SLO all students

### High School Algebra 1 Common Core Standards & Learning Targets

High School Algebra 1 Common Core Standards & Learning Targets Unit 1: Relationships between Quantities and Reasoning with Equations CCS Standards: Quantities N-Q.1. Use units as a way to understand problems

### This unit will lay the groundwork for later units where the students will extend this knowledge to quadratic and exponential functions.

Algebra I Overview View unit yearlong overview here Many of the concepts presented in Algebra I are progressions of concepts that were introduced in grades 6 through 8. The content presented in this course

### Montana Common Core Standard

Algebra I Grade Level: 9, 10, 11, 12 Length: 1 Year Period(s) Per Day: 1 Credit: 1 Credit Requirement Fulfilled: A must pass course Course Description This course covers the real number system, solving

### Content Emphases by Cluster--Kindergarten *

Content Emphases by Cluster--Kindergarten * Counting and Cardinality Know number names and the count sequence. Count to tell the number of objects. Compare numbers. Operations and Algebraic Thinking Understand

### Geometry Math Standards and I Can Statements

Geometry Math Standards and I Can Statements Unit 1 Subsection A CC.9-12.G.CO.1 Know precise definitions of angle, circle, perpendicular line, parallel line, and line segment, based on the undefined notions

### A Correlation of Pearson Algebra 1, Geometry, Algebra 2 Common Core 2015

A Correlation of Pearson,, Common Core 2015 To the North Carolina High School Mathematics Alignment to Traditional Text - MATH II A Correlation of Pearson,, Common Core, 2015 Introduction This document

### PowerTeaching i3: Algebra I Mathematics

PowerTeaching i3: Algebra I Mathematics Alignment to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics Standards for Mathematical Practice and Standards for Mathematical Content for Algebra I Key Ideas and

### For example, estimate the population of the United States as 3 times 10⁸ and the

CCSS: Mathematics The Number System CCSS: Grade 8 8.NS.A. Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers. 8.NS.A.1. Understand informally that every number

### Middle Grades Mathematics 5 9

Middle Grades Mathematics 5 9 Section 25 1 Knowledge of mathematics through problem solving 1. Identify appropriate mathematical problems from real-world situations. 2. Apply problem-solving strategies

### A COURSE OUTLINE FOR GEOMETRY DEVELOPED BY ANN SHANNON & ASSOCIATES FOR THE BILL & MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION

A COURSE OUTLINE FOR GEOMETRY DEVELOPED BY ANN SHANNON & ASSOCIATES FOR THE BILL & MELINDA GATES FOUNDATION JANUARY 2014 Geometry Course Outline Content Area G0 Introduction and Construction G-CO Congruence

### Common Core State Standards - Mathematics Content Emphases by Cluster Grade K

Grade K Not all of the content in a given grade is emphasized equally in the standards. Some clusters require greater emphasis than the others based on the depth of the ideas, the time that they take to

### Prentice Hall Algebra 2 2011 Correlated to: Colorado P-12 Academic Standards for High School Mathematics, Adopted 12/2009

Content Area: Mathematics Grade Level Expectations: High School Standard: Number Sense, Properties, and Operations Understand the structure and properties of our number system. At their most basic level

Academic Content Standards Grade Eight and Grade Nine Ohio Algebra 1 2008 Grade Eight STANDARDS Number, Number Sense and Operations Standard Number and Number Systems 1. Use scientific notation to express

### North Carolina Math 2

Standards for Mathematical Practice 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others 4.

### with functions, expressions and equations which follow in units 3 and 4.

Grade 8 Overview View unit yearlong overview here The unit design was created in line with the areas of focus for grade 8 Mathematics as identified by the Common Core State Standards and the PARCC Model

### Georgia Standards of Excellence 2015-2016 Mathematics

Georgia Standards of Excellence 2015-2016 Mathematics Standards GSE Coordinate Algebra K-12 Mathematics Introduction Georgia Mathematics focuses on actively engaging the student in the development of mathematical

### Name Geometry Exam Review #1: Constructions and Vocab

Name Geometry Exam Review #1: Constructions and Vocab Copy an angle: 1. Place your compass on A, make any arc. Label the intersections of the arc and the sides of the angle B and C. 2. Compass on A, make

### Georgia Standards of Excellence Mathematics

Georgia Standards of Excellence Mathematics Standards GSE Geometry K-12 Mathematics Introduction Georgia Mathematics focuses on actively engaging the student in the development of mathematical understanding

### Utah Core Curriculum for Mathematics

Core Curriculum for Mathematics correlated to correlated to 2005 Chapter 1 (pp. 2 57) Variables, Expressions, and Integers Lesson 1.1 (pp. 5 9) Expressions and Variables 2.2.1 Evaluate algebraic expressions

### Common Core Unit Summary Grades 6 to 8

Common Core Unit Summary Grades 6 to 8 Grade 8: Unit 1: Congruence and Similarity- 8G1-8G5 rotations reflections and translations,( RRT=congruence) understand congruence of 2 d figures after RRT Dilations

### Algebra Unpacked Content For the new Common Core standards that will be effective in all North Carolina schools in the 2012-13 school year.

This document is designed to help North Carolina educators teach the Common Core (Standard Course of Study). NCDPI staff are continually updating and improving these tools to better serve teachers. Algebra

### Georgia Standards of Excellence Curriculum Map. Mathematics. GSE Analytic Geometry

Georgia Standards of Excellence Curriculum Map Mathematics GSE Analytic Geometry These materials are for nonprofit educational purposes only. Any other use may constitute copyright infringement. GSE Analytic

### NEW YORK STATE TEACHER CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS

NEW YORK STATE TEACHER CERTIFICATION EXAMINATIONS TEST DESIGN AND FRAMEWORK September 2014 Authorized for Distribution by the New York State Education Department This test design and framework document

### Infinite Algebra 1 supports the teaching of the Common Core State Standards listed below.

Infinite Algebra 1 Kuta Software LLC Common Core Alignment Software version 2.05 Last revised July 2015 Infinite Algebra 1 supports the teaching of the Common Core State Standards listed below. High School

### Common Core State Standard I Can Statements 8 th Grade Mathematics. The Number System (NS)

CCSS Key: The Number System (NS) Expressions & Equations (EE) Functions (F) Geometry (G) Statistics & Probability (SP) Common Core State Standard I Can Statements 8 th Grade Mathematics 8.NS.1. Understand

### Mathematics Common Core Cluster. Mathematics Common Core Standard. Domain

Mathematics Common Core Domain Mathematics Common Core Cluster Mathematics Common Core Standard Number System Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.

### Lesson List

2016-2017 Lesson List Table of Contents Operations and Algebraic Thinking... 3 Number and Operations in Base Ten... 6 Measurement and Data... 9 Number and Operations - Fractions...10 Financial Literacy...14

### Scope & Sequence MIDDLE SCHOOL

Math in Focus is a registered trademark of Times Publishing Limited. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved. Printed in the U.S.A. 06/13 MS77941n Scope & Sequence MIDDLE SCHOOL

### Operations and Algebraic Thinking. K.NBT Number and Operations in Base Ten

KINDERGARTEN K.CC K.OA Counting and Cardinality Know number names and the count sequence. Count to tell the number of objects. Compare numbers. Operations and Algebraic Thinking Understand addition as

### Chapter 1: Essentials of Geometry

Section Section Title 1.1 Identify Points, Lines, and Planes 1.2 Use Segments and Congruence 1.3 Use Midpoint and Distance Formulas Chapter 1: Essentials of Geometry Learning Targets I Can 1. Identify,

### Whole Numbers and Integers (44 topics, no due date)

Course Name: PreAlgebra into Algebra Summer Hwk Course Code: GHMKU-KPMR9 ALEKS Course: Pre-Algebra Instructor: Ms. Rhame Course Dates: Begin: 05/30/2015 End: 12/31/2015 Course Content: 302 topics Whole

### Polynomial Operations and Factoring

Algebra 1, Quarter 4, Unit 4.1 Polynomial Operations and Factoring Overview Number of instructional days: 15 (1 day = 45 60 minutes) Content to be learned Identify terms, coefficients, and degree of polynomials.

### Common Core State Standards for Mathematics Accelerated 7th Grade

A Correlation of 2013 To the to the Introduction This document demonstrates how Mathematics Accelerated Grade 7, 2013, meets the. Correlation references are to the pages within the Student Edition. Meeting

### CORRELATED TO THE SOUTH CAROLINA COLLEGE AND CAREER-READY FOUNDATIONS IN ALGEBRA

We Can Early Learning Curriculum PreK Grades 8 12 INSIDE ALGEBRA, GRADES 8 12 CORRELATED TO THE SOUTH CAROLINA COLLEGE AND CAREER-READY FOUNDATIONS IN ALGEBRA April 2016 www.voyagersopris.com Mathematical

### Geometry Essential Curriculum

Geometry Essential Curriculum Unit I: Fundamental Concepts and Patterns in Geometry Goal: The student will demonstrate the ability to use the fundamental concepts of geometry including the definitions

### Math. MCC9 12.N.RN.1 Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the

MCC9 12.N.RN.1 Explain how the definition of the meaning of rational exponents follows from extending the properties of integer exponents to those values, allowing for a notation for radicals in terms

### Topic: Solving Linear Equations

Unit 1 Topic: Solving Linear Equations N-Q.1. Reason quantitatively and use units to solve problems. Use units as a way to understand problems and to guide the solution of multi-step problems; choose and

### Higher Education Math Placement

Higher Education Math Placement Placement Assessment Problem Types 1. Whole Numbers, Fractions, and Decimals 1.1 Operations with Whole Numbers Addition with carry Subtraction with borrowing Multiplication

### NEW MEXICO Grade 6 MATHEMATICS STANDARDS

PROCESS STANDARDS To help New Mexico students achieve the Content Standards enumerated below, teachers are encouraged to base instruction on the following Process Standards: Problem Solving Build new mathematical

### Pythagorean Theorem. Overview. Grade 8 Mathematics, Quarter 3, Unit 3.1. Number of instructional days: 15 (1 day = minutes) Essential questions

Grade 8 Mathematics, Quarter 3, Unit 3.1 Pythagorean Theorem Overview Number of instructional days: 15 (1 day = 45 60 minutes) Content to be learned Prove the Pythagorean Theorem. Given three side lengths,

### Pearson Algebra 1 Common Core 2015

A Correlation of Pearson Algebra 1 Common Core 2015 To the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics Traditional Pathways, Algebra 1 High School Copyright 2015 Pearson Education, Inc. or its affiliate(s).

### Coordinate Coplanar Distance Formula Midpoint Formula

G.(2) Coordinate and transformational geometry. The student uses the process skills to understand the connections between algebra and geometry and uses the oneand two-dimensional coordinate systems to

### Students will understand 1. use numerical bases and the laws of exponents

Grade 8 Expressions and Equations Essential Questions: 1. How do you use patterns to understand mathematics and model situations? 2. What is algebra? 3. How are the horizontal and vertical axes related?

### Georgia Standards of Excellence Curriculum Map. Mathematics. GSE 8 th Grade

Georgia Standards of Excellence Curriculum Map Mathematics GSE 8 th Grade These materials are for nonprofit educational purposes only. Any other use may constitute copyright infringement. GSE Eighth Grade

### DRAFT. Algebra 1 EOC Item Specifications

DRAFT Algebra 1 EOC Item Specifications The draft Florida Standards Assessment (FSA) Test Item Specifications (Specifications) are based upon the Florida Standards and the Florida Course Descriptions as

### Math Foundations IIB Grade Levels 9-12

Math Foundations IIB Grade Levels 9-12 Math Foundations IIB introduces students to the following concepts: integers coordinate graphing ratio and proportion multi-step equations and inequalities points,

### Curriculum Map by Block Geometry Mapping for Math Block Testing 2007-2008. August 20 to August 24 Review concepts from previous grades.

Curriculum Map by Geometry Mapping for Math Testing 2007-2008 Pre- s 1 August 20 to August 24 Review concepts from previous grades. August 27 to September 28 (Assessment to be completed by September 28)

### Syllabi of High School Courses According to the Common Core Mathematics Standards

Syllabi of High School Courses According to the Common Core Mathematics Standards H. Wu August 4, 2011 The following are two sets of proposed syllabi for high school mathematics classes. Ever since the

### of surface, 569-571, 576-577, 578-581 of triangle, 548 Associative Property of addition, 12, 331 of multiplication, 18, 433

Absolute Value and arithmetic, 730-733 defined, 730 Acute angle, 477 Acute triangle, 497 Addend, 12 Addition associative property of, (see Commutative Property) carrying in, 11, 92 commutative property

### Biggar High School Mathematics Department. National 5 Learning Intentions & Success Criteria: Assessing My Progress

Biggar High School Mathematics Department National 5 Learning Intentions & Success Criteria: Assessing My Progress Expressions & Formulae Topic Learning Intention Success Criteria I understand this Approximation

### Current Standard: Mathematical Concepts and Applications Shape, Space, and Measurement- Primary

Shape, Space, and Measurement- Primary A student shall apply concepts of shape, space, and measurement to solve problems involving two- and three-dimensional shapes by demonstrating an understanding of:

### Correlation of Common Core Content Standards to CMP3 Content. Number Standard for Mathematical Content CMP3 Unit: Investigation

Correlation of Common Core Content Standards to CMP3 Content GRADE 8 8.NS.A Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers. 8.NS.A.1 8.NS.A.2 Understand informally

### Course: Math 7. engage in problem solving, communicating, reasoning, connecting, and representing

Course: Math 7 Decimals and Integers 1-1 Estimation Strategies. Estimate by rounding, front-end estimation, and compatible numbers. Prentice Hall Textbook - Course 2 7.M.0 ~ Measurement Strand ~ Students

### GEOMETRY CONCEPT MAP. Suggested Sequence:

CONCEPT MAP GEOMETRY August 2011 Suggested Sequence: 1. Tools of Geometry 2. Reasoning and Proof 3. Parallel and Perpendicular Lines 4. Congruent Triangles 5. Relationships Within Triangles 6. Polygons

### GCSE Maths Linear Higher Tier Grade Descriptors

GSE Maths Linear Higher Tier escriptors Fractions /* Find one quantity as a fraction of another Solve problems involving fractions dd and subtract fractions dd and subtract mixed numbers Multiply and divide

### 1.6 Powers of 10 and standard form Write a number in standard form. Calculate with numbers in standard form.

Unit/section title 1 Number Unit objectives (Edexcel Scheme of Work Unit 1: Powers, decimals, HCF and LCM, positive and negative, roots, rounding, reciprocals, standard form, indices and surds) 1.1 Number

### Mathematics. Designing High School Mathematics Courses Based on the Common

common core state STANDARDS FOR Mathematics Appendix A: Designing High School Mathematics Courses Based on the Common Core State Standards Overview The (CCSS) for Mathematics are organized by grade level

### Pennsylvania System of School Assessment

Pennsylvania System of School Assessment The Assessment Anchors, as defined by the Eligible Content, are organized into cohesive blueprints, each structured with a common labeling system that can be read

### KS4 Curriculum Plan Maths FOUNDATION TIER Year 9 Autumn Term 1 Unit 1: Number

KS4 Curriculum Plan Maths FOUNDATION TIER Year 9 Autumn Term 1 Unit 1: Number 1.1 Calculations 1.2 Decimal Numbers 1.3 Place Value Use priority of operations with positive and negative numbers. Simplify

### Introduction. The Aims & Objectives of the Mathematical Portion of the IBA Entry Test

Introduction The career world is competitive. The competition and the opportunities in the career world become a serious problem for students if they do not do well in Mathematics, because then they are

### North Carolina Math 1

Standards for Mathematical Practice 1. Make sense of problems and persevere in solving them. 2. Reason abstractly and quantitatively 3. Construct viable arguments and critique the reasoning of others 4.

### Math at a Glance for April

Audience: School Leaders, Regional Teams Math at a Glance for April The Math at a Glance tool has been developed to support school leaders and region teams as they look for evidence of alignment to Common

### GRADE 8 SKILL VOCABULARY MATHEMATICAL PRACTICES Define rational number. 8.NS.1

Common Core Math Curriculum Grade 8 ESSENTIAL DOMAINS AND QUESTIONS CLUSTERS How do you convert a rational number into a decimal? How do you use a number line to compare the size of two irrational numbers?

### Chapter 111. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Mathematics. Subchapter B. Middle School

Middle School 111.B. Chapter 111. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Mathematics Subchapter B. Middle School Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter B issued under the Texas Education

### Mathematics Georgia Performance Standards

Mathematics Georgia Performance Standards K-12 Mathematics Introduction The Georgia Mathematics Curriculum focuses on actively engaging the students in the development of mathematical understanding by

### Algebra I Support Lab CURRICULUM GUIDE AND INSTRUCTIONAL ALIGNMENT

TRENTON PUBLIC SCHOOLS Department of Curriculum and Instruction 108 NORTH CLINTON AVENUE TRENTON, NEW JERSEY 08609 Secondary Schools Algebra I Support Lab CURRICULUM GUIDE AND INSTRUCTIONAL ALIGNMENT The

### Expression. Variable Equation Polynomial Monomial Add. Area. Volume Surface Space Length Width. Probability. Chance Random Likely Possibility Odds

Isosceles Triangle Congruent Leg Side Expression Equation Polynomial Monomial Radical Square Root Check Times Itself Function Relation One Domain Range Area Volume Surface Space Length Width Quantitative

### Thnkwell s Homeschool Precalculus Course Lesson Plan: 36 weeks

Thnkwell s Homeschool Precalculus Course Lesson Plan: 36 weeks Welcome to Thinkwell s Homeschool Precalculus! We re thrilled that you ve decided to make us part of your homeschool curriculum. This lesson

### REVISED GCSE Scheme of Work Mathematics Higher Unit 6. For First Teaching September 2010 For First Examination Summer 2011 This Unit Summer 2012

REVISED GCSE Scheme of Work Mathematics Higher Unit 6 For First Teaching September 2010 For First Examination Summer 2011 This Unit Summer 2012 Version 1: 28 April 10 Version 1: 28 April 10 Unit T6 Unit

### Math Content

2012-2013 Math Content PATHWAY TO ALGEBRA I Unit Lesson Section Number and Operations in Base Ten Place Value with Whole Numbers Place Value and Rounding Addition and Subtraction Concepts Regrouping Concepts

### Performance Level Descriptors Grade 6 Mathematics

Performance Level Descriptors Grade 6 Mathematics Multiplying and Dividing with Fractions 6.NS.1-2 Grade 6 Math : Sub-Claim A The student solves problems involving the Major Content for grade/course with

### Week 1 Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Geometry. Week 2 Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Geometry. Week 3 Chapter 1: Fundamentals of Geometry Chapter 1 Test

Thinkwell s Homeschool Geometry Course Lesson Plan: 34 weeks Welcome to Thinkwell s Homeschool Geometry! We re thrilled that you ve decided to make us part of your homeschool curriculum. This lesson plan

### Maths curriculum information

Maths curriculum information Year 7 Learning outcomes Place value, add and subtract Multiply and divide Geometry Fractions Algebra Percentages & pie charts Topics taught Place value (inc decimals) Add

### Glencoe. correlated to SOUTH CAROLINA MATH CURRICULUM STANDARDS GRADE 6 3-3, 5-8 8-4, 8-7 1-6, 4-9

Glencoe correlated to SOUTH CAROLINA MATH CURRICULUM STANDARDS GRADE 6 STANDARDS 6-8 Number and Operations (NO) Standard I. Understand numbers, ways of representing numbers, relationships among numbers,

### South Carolina College- and Career-Ready (SCCCR) Pre-Calculus

South Carolina College- and Career-Ready (SCCCR) Pre-Calculus Key Concepts Arithmetic with Polynomials and Rational Expressions PC.AAPR.2 PC.AAPR.3 PC.AAPR.4 PC.AAPR.5 PC.AAPR.6 PC.AAPR.7 Standards Know

### ALGEBRA I A PLUS COURSE OUTLINE

ALGEBRA I A PLUS COURSE OUTLINE OVERVIEW: 1. Operations with Real Numbers 2. Equation Solving 3. Word Problems 4. Inequalities 5. Graphs of Functions 6. Linear Functions 7. Scatterplots and Lines of Best

### MATH Activities ver3

MATH Activities ver3 This content summary list is for the 2011-12 school year. Detailed Content Alignment Documents to State & Common Core Standards are posted on www.pendalearning.com NOTE: Penda continues

### Centroid: The point of intersection of the three medians of a triangle. Centroid

Vocabulary Words Acute Triangles: A triangle with all acute angles. Examples 80 50 50 Angle: A figure formed by two noncollinear rays that have a common endpoint and are not opposite rays. Angle Bisector:

### KEANSBURG SCHOOL DISTRICT KEANSBURG HIGH SCHOOL Mathematics Department. HSPA 10 Curriculum. September 2007

KEANSBURG HIGH SCHOOL Mathematics Department HSPA 10 Curriculum September 2007 Written by: Karen Egan Mathematics Supervisor: Ann Gagliardi 7 days Sample and Display Data (Chapter 1 pp. 4-47) Surveys and

COURSE OVERVIEW The geometry course is centered on the beliefs that The ability to construct a valid argument is the basis of logical communication, in both mathematics and the real-world. There is a need

### Correlation to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics Algebra 1. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Algerbra

Correlation to the Common Core State Standards for Mathematics Algebra 1 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Algerbra 1 2015 Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Algebra I 2015 correlated to the Common Core State Standards

### Chapter 111. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Mathematics. Subchapter C. High School

High School 111.C. Chapter 111. Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills for Mathematics Subchapter C. High School Statutory Authority: The provisions of this Subchapter C issued under the Texas Education

### Prentice Hall Mathematics Courses 1-3 Common Core Edition 2013

A Correlation of Prentice Hall Mathematics Courses 1-3 Common Core Edition 2013 to the Topics & Lessons of Pearson A Correlation of Courses 1, 2 and 3, Common Core Introduction This document demonstrates

### Middle School Course Acceleration

Middle School Course Acceleration Some students may choose to take Algebra I in Grade 8 so they can take college-level mathematics in high school. Students who are capable of moving more quickly in their

### Geometry Course Summary Department: Math. Semester 1

Geometry Course Summary Department: Math Semester 1 Learning Objective #1 Geometry Basics Targets to Meet Learning Objective #1 Use inductive reasoning to make conclusions about mathematical patterns Give

### Pre-Algebra 2008. Academic Content Standards Grade Eight Ohio. Number, Number Sense and Operations Standard. Number and Number Systems

Academic Content Standards Grade Eight Ohio Pre-Algebra 2008 STANDARDS Number, Number Sense and Operations Standard Number and Number Systems 1. Use scientific notation to express large numbers and small

### 8 th Grade Math Curriculum/7 th Grade Advanced Course Information: Course 3 of Prentice Hall Common Core

8 th Grade Math Curriculum/7 th Grade Advanced Course Information: Course: Length: Course 3 of Prentice Hall Common Core 46 minutes/day Description: Mathematics at the 8 th grade level will cover a variety

### McDougal Littell California:

McDougal Littell California: Pre-Algebra Algebra 1 correlated to the California Math Content s Grades 7 8 McDougal Littell California Pre-Algebra Components: Pupil Edition (PE), Teacher s Edition (TE),

### The Australian Curriculum Mathematics

The Australian Curriculum Mathematics Mathematics ACARA The Australian Curriculum Number Algebra Number place value Fractions decimals Real numbers Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year

### Conjectures. Chapter 2. Chapter 3

Conjectures Chapter 2 C-1 Linear Pair Conjecture If two angles form a linear pair, then the measures of the angles add up to 180. (Lesson 2.5) C-2 Vertical Angles Conjecture If two angles are vertical

### Creating, Solving, and Graphing Systems of Linear Equations and Linear Inequalities

Algebra 1, Quarter 2, Unit 2.1 Creating, Solving, and Graphing Systems of Linear Equations and Linear Inequalities Overview Number of instructional days: 15 (1 day = 45 60 minutes) Content to be learned

### Comprehensive Benchmark Assessment Series

Test ID #1910631 Comprehensive Benchmark Assessment Series Instructions: It is time to begin. The scores of this test will help teachers plan lessons. Carefully, read each item in the test booklet. Select

### South Carolina College- and Career-Ready (SCCCR) Algebra 1

South Carolina College- and Career-Ready (SCCCR) Algebra 1 South Carolina College- and Career-Ready Mathematical Process Standards The South Carolina College- and Career-Ready (SCCCR) Mathematical Process