# The Australian Curriculum Mathematics

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1 The Australian Curriculum Mathematics

2 Mathematics ACARA The Australian Curriculum

3 Number Algebra Number place value Fractions decimals Real numbers Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Establish understing of the language processes of counting by naming numbers in sequences, initially to from 20, moving from any starting point Connect number names, numerals quantities, including zero, initially up to 10 then beyond Subitise small collections of objects Represent practical situations to model addition sharing Compare, order make correspondences between collections, initially to 20, explain reasoning Develop confidence with number sequences to from 100 by ones from any starting point. Skip count by twos, fives tens starting from zero Recognise, model, read, write order numbers to at least 100. Locate these numbers on a number line Count collections to 100 by partitioning numbers using place value Represent solve simple addition subtraction problems using a range of strategies including counting on, partitioning rearranging parts Recognise describe one-half as one of two equal parts of a whole. Mathematics Scope Sequence: Foundation to Year 6 Investigate number sequences, initially those increasing decreasing by twos, threes, fives ten from any starting point, then moving to other sequences. Recognise, model, represent order numbers to at least 1000 Group, partition rearrange collections up to 1000 in hundreds, tens ones to facilitate more efficient counting Explore the connection between addition subtraction Solve simple addition subtraction problems using a range of efficient mental written strategies Recognise represent multiplication as repeated addition, groups arrays Recognise represent division as grouping into equal sets solve simple problems using these representations Recognise interpret common uses of halves, quarters eighths of shapes collections Investigate the conditions required for a number to be odd or even identify odd even numbers Recognise, model, represent order numbers to at least Apply place value to partition, rearrange regroup numbers to at least to assist calculations solve problems Recognise explain the connection between addition subtraction Recall addition facts for single-digit numbers related subtraction facts to develop increasingly efficient mental strategies for computation Recall multiplication facts of two, three, five ten related division facts Represent solve problems involving multiplication using efficient mental written strategies appropriate digital Model represent unit fractions including 1/2, 1/4, 1/3, 1/5 their multiples to a complete whole Recall multiplication facts up to 10 _ 10 related division facts Investigate use the properties of odd even numbers Recognise, represent order numbers to at least tens of thouss Apply place value to partition, rearrange regroup numbers to at least tens of thouss to assist calculations solve problems Investigate number sequences involving multiples of 3, 4, 6, 7, 8, 9 Develop efficient mental written strategies use appropriate digital for multiplication for division where there is no remainder Investigate equivalent fractions used in contexts Count by quarters halves thirds, including with mixed numerals. Locate represent these fractions on a number line Recognise that the place value system can be extended to tenths hundredths. Make connections between fractions decimal notation Identify describe factors multiples of whole numbers use them to solve problems Use estimation rounding to check the reasonableness of answers to calculations Solve problems involving multiplication of large numbers by one- or two-digit numbers using efficient mental, written strategies appropriate digital Solve problems involving division by a one digit number, including those that result in a remainder Use efficient mental written strategies apply appropriate digital to solve problems Compare order common unit fractions locate represent them on a number line Investigate strategies to solve problems involving addition subtraction of fractions with the same denominator Recognise that the number system can be extended beyond hundredths Compare, order represent decimals Identify describe properties of prime, composite, square triangular numbers Select apply efficient mental written strategies appropriate digital to solve problems involving all four operations with whole numbers Investigate everyday situations that use positive negative whole numbers zero. Locate represent these numbers on a number line Compare fractions with related denominators locate represent them on a number line Solve problems involving addition subtraction of fractions with the same or related denominators Find a simple fraction of a quantity where the result is a whole number, with without digital Add subtract decimals, with without digital, use estimation rounding to check the reasonableness of answers Multiply decimals by whole numbers perform divisions that result in terminating decimals, with without digital Multiply divide decimals by powers of 10 Make connections between equivalent fractions, decimals percentages

4 Number place value Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10 Year 10 A Identify describe properties of prime, composite, square triangular numbers Select apply efficient mental written strategies appropriate digital to solve problems involving all four operations with whole numbers Investigate everyday situations that use positive negative whole numbers zero. Locate represent these numbers on a number line Mathematics Scope Sequence: Year 6 to Year 10 Investigate index notation represent whole numbers as products of powers of prime numbers Investigate use square roots of perfect square numbers Apply the associative, commutative distributive laws to aid mental written computation Compare, order, add subtract integers Use index notation with numbers to establish the index laws with positive integral indices the zero index Carry out the four operations with integers, using efficient mental written strategies appropriate digital This sequence ends at this year level Number Algebra Fractions decimals Compare fractions with related denominators locate represent them on a number line Solve problems involving addition subtraction of fractions with the same or related denominators Find a simple fraction of a quantity where the result is a whole number, with without digital Add subtract decimals, with without digital, use estimation rounding to check the reasonableness of answers Multiply decimals by whole numbers perform divisions that result in terminating decimals, with without digital Multiply divide decimals by powers of 10 Make connections between equivalent fractions, decimals percentages This sequence ends at this year level Real numbers Compare fractions using equivalence. Locate represent fractions mixed numerals on a number line Solve problems involving addition subtraction of fractions, including those with unrelated denominators Multiply divide fractions decimals using efficient written strategies digital Express one quantity as a fraction of another, with without the use of digital Round decimals to a specified number of decimal places Connect fractions, decimals percentages carry out simple conversions Find percentages of quantities express one quantity as a percentage of another, with without digital. Recognise solve problems involving simple ratios Investigate terminating recurring decimals Investigate the concept of irrational numbers, including π Solve problems involving the use of percentages, including percentage increases decreases, with without digital Solve a range of problems involving rates ratios, with without digital Solve problems involving direct proportion. Explore the relationship between graphs equations corresponding to simple rate problems Apply index laws to numerical expressions with integer indices Express numbers in scientific notation Define rational irrational numbers perform operations with surds fractional indices Use the definition of a logarithm to establish apply the laws of logarithms

5 Money financial mathematics Mathematics Scope Sequence: Foundation to Year 6 Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Recognise, describe order Australian coins according to their value Count order small collections of Australian coins notes according to their value Represent money values in multiple ways count the change required for simple transactions to the nearest five cents Solve problems involving purchases the calculation of change to the nearest five cents with without digital Create simple financial plans Investigate calculate percentage discounts of 10%, 25% 50% on sale items, with without digital Number Algebra Patterns algebra Linear non-linear relationships Sort classify familiar objects explain the basis for these classifications. Copy, continue create patterns with objects drawings Investigate describe number patterns formed by skip counting patterns with objects Describe patterns with numbers identify missing elements Solve problems by using number sentences for addition or subtraction Describe, continue, create number patterns resulting from performing addition or subtraction Explore describe number patterns resulting from performing multiplication Solve word problems by using number sentences involving multiplication or division where there is no remainder Use equivalent number sentences involving addition subtraction to find unknown quantities Describe, continue create patterns with fractions, decimals whole numbers resulting from addition subtraction Use equivalent number sentences involving multiplication division to find unknown quantities Continue create sequences involving whole numbers, fractions decimals. Describe the rule used to create the sequence Explore the use of brackets order of operations to write number sentences

6 Money financial mathematics Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10 Year 10 A Investigate calculate percentage discounts of 10%, 25% 50% on sale items, with without digital Mathematics Scope Sequence: Year 6 to Year 10 Investigate calculate best buys, with without digital Solve problems involving profit loss, with without digital Solve problems involving simple interest Connect the compound interest formula to repeated applications of simple interest using appropriate digital Number Algebra Patterns algebra Linear non-linear relationships Continue create sequences involving whole numbers, fractions decimals. Describe the rule used to create the sequence Explore the use of brackets order of operations to write number sentences Introduce the concept of variables as a way of representing numbers using letters Create algebraic expressions evaluate them by substituting a given value for each variable Extend apply the laws properties of arithmetic to algebraic terms expressions Given coordinates, plot points on the Cartesian plane, find coordinates for a given point Solve simple linear equations Investigate, interpret analyse graphs from authentic data Extend apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions Factorise algebraic expressions by identifying numerical factors Simplify algebraic expressions involving the four operations Plot linear relationships on the Cartesian plane with without the use of digital Solve linear equations using algebraic graphical techniques. Verify solutions by substitution Extend apply the index laws to variables, using positive integral indices the zero index Apply the distributive law to the expansion of algebraic expressions, including binomials, collect like terms where appropriate Find the distance between two points located on a Cartesian plane using a range of strategies, including graphing software Sketch linear graphs using the coordinates of two points Find the midpoint gradient of a line segment (interval) on the Cartesian plane using a range of strategies, including graphing software Sketch simple non-linear relations with without the use of digital Factorise algebraic expressions by taking out a common algebraic factor Simplify algebraic products quotients using index laws Apply the four operations to simple algebraic fractions with numerical denominators Exp binomial products factorise monic quadratic expressions using a variety of strategies Substitute values into formulas to determine an unknown Solve problems involving linear equations, including those derived from formulas Solve linear inequalities graph their solutions on a number line Solve linear simultaneous equations, using algebraic graphical techniques including using digital technology Solve problems involving parallel perpendicular lines Explore the connection between algebraic graphical representations of relations such as simple quadratics, circles exponentials using digital technology as appropriate Solve linear equations involving simple algebraic fractions Solve simple quadratic equations using a range of strategies Investigate the concept of a polynomial apply the factor remainder theorems to solve problems Describe, interpret sketch parabolas, hyperbolas, circles exponential functions their transformations Solve simple exponential equations Apply understing of polynomials to sketch a range of curves describe the features of these curves from their equation Factorise monic non-monic quadratic expressions solve a wide range of quadratic equations derived from a variety of contexts

7 Using units of measurement Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Use direct indirect comparisons to decide which is longer, heavier or holds more, explain reasoning in everyday language Compare order the duration of events using the everyday language of time Connect days of the week to familiar events actions Mathematics Scope Sequence: Foundation to Year 6 Measure compare the lengths capacities of pairs of objects using uniform informal units Tell time to the halfhour Describe duration using months, weeks, days hours Compare order several shapes objects based on length, area, volume capacity using appropriate uniform informal units Compare masses of objects using balance scales Tell time to the quarter-hour, using the language of past to Name order months seasons Use a calendar to identify the date determine the number of days in each month Measure, order compare objects using familiar metric units of length, mass capacity Tell time to the minute investigate the relationship between units of time Use scaled instruments to measure compare lengths, masses, capacities temperatures Convert between units of time Use am pm notation solve simple time problems Compare objects using familiar metric units of area volume Choose appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity mass Calculate the perimeter area of rectangles using familiar metric units Compare hour time systems convert between them Connect decimal representations to the metric system Convert between common metric units of length, mass capacity Solve problems involving the comparison of lengths areas using appropriate units Connect volume capacity their units of measurement Interpret use timetables Measurement Geometry Shape Location transformation Sort, describe name familiar two-dimensional shapes three-dimensional objects in the environment Describe position movement Recognise classify familiar twodimensional shapes three-dimensional objects using obvious features Give follow directions to familiar locations Describe draw two-dimensional shapes, with without digital Describe the features of threedimensional objects Interpret simple maps of familiar locations identify the relative positions of key features Investigate the effect of one-step slides flips with without digital Identify describe half quarter turns Make models of threedimensional objects describe key features Create interpret simple grid maps to show position pathways Identify symmetry in the environment Compare the areas of regular irregular shapes by informal means Compare describe two dimensional shapes that result from combining splitting common shapes, with without the use of digital Use simple scales, legends directions to interpret information contained in basic maps Create symmetrical patterns, pictures shapes with without digital Connect three-dimensional objects with their nets other two-dimensional representations Use a grid reference system to describe locations. Describe routes using lmarks directional language Describe translations, reflections rotations of two-dimensional shapes. Identify line rotational symmetries Apply the enlargement transformation to familiar two dimensional shapes explore the properties of the resulting image compared with the original Construct simple prisms pyramids Investigate combinations of translations, reflections rotations, with without the use of digital Introduce the Cartesian coordinate system using all four quadrants Geometric reasoning Identify angles as measures of turn compare angle sizes in everyday situations Compare angles classify them as equal to, greater than or less than a right angle Estimate, measure compare angles using degrees. Construct angles using a protractor Investigate, with without digital, angles on a straight line, angles at a point vertically opposite angles. Use results to find unknown angles Pythagoras trigonometry

8 Using units of measurement Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10 Year 10 A Connect decimal representations to the metric system Convert between common metric units of length, mass capacity Solve problems involving the comparison of lengths areas using appropriate units Connect volume capacity their units of measurement Interpret use timetables Mathematics Scope Sequence: Year 6 to Year 10 Establish the formulas for areas of rectangles, triangles parallelograms use these in problem solving Calculate volumes of rectangular prisms Choose appropriate units of measurement for area volume convert from one unit to another Find perimeters areas of parallelograms, rhombuses kites Investigate the relationship between features of circles such as circumference, area, radius diameter. Use formulas to solve problems involving circumference area Develop the formulas for volumes of rectangular triangular prisms prisms in general. Use formulas to solve problems involving volume Solve problems involving duration, including using hour time within a single time zone Calculate the areas of composite shapes Calculate the surface area volume of cylinders solve related problems Solve problems involving the surface area volume of right prisms Investigate very small very large time scales intervals Solve problems involving surface area volume for a range of prisms, cylinders composite solids Solve problems involving surface area volume of right pyramids, right cones, spheres related composite solids Shape Construct simple prisms pyramids Draw different views of prisms solids formed from combinations of prisms This sequence ends at this year level Measurement Geometry Location transformation Investigate combinations of translations, reflections rotations, with without the use of digital Introduce the Cartesian coordinate system using all four quadrants Describe translations, reflections in an axis, rotations of multiples of 90 on the Cartesian plane using coordinates. Identify line rotational symmetries This sequence ends at this year level Geometric reasoning Investigate, with without digital, angles on a straight line, angles at a point vertically opposite angles. Use results to find unknown angles Identify corresponding, alternate cointerior angles when two parallel straight lines are crossed by a transversal Investigate conditions for two lines to be parallel solve simple numerical problems using reasoning Classify triangles according to their side angle properties describe quadrilaterals Demonstrate that the angle sum of a triangle is 180 use this to find the angle sum of a quadrilateral Define congruence of plane shapes using transformations Develop the conditions for congruence of triangles Establish properties of quadrilaterals using congruent triangles angle properties, solve related numerical problems using reasoning Use the enlargement transformation to explain similarity develop the conditions for triangles to be similar Solve problems using ratio scale factors in similar figures Formulate proofs involving congruent triangles angle properties Apply logical reasoning, including the use of congruence similarity, to proofs numerical exercises involving plane shapes Prove apply angle chord properties of circles Pythagoras trigonometry Investigate Pythagoras Theorem its application to solving simple problems involving right angled triangles Use similarity to investigate the constancy of the sine, cosine tangent ratios for a given angle in right-angled triangles Apply trigonometry to solve right-angled triangle problems Solve right-angled triangle problems including those involving direction angles of elevation depression Establish the sine, cosine area rules for any triangle solve related problems Use the unit circle to define trigonometric functions, graph them with without the use of digital Solve simple trigonometric equations Apply Pythagoras theorem trigonometry to solving three-dimensional problems in rightangled triangles

9 Mathematics Scope Sequence: Foundation to Year 6 Foundation Year Year 1 Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 Statistics Probability Chance Data representation interpretation Answer yes/no questions to collect information Identify outcomes of familiar events involving chance describe them using everyday language such as will happen, won t happen or might happen Choose simple questions gather responses Represent data with objects drawings where one object or drawing represents one data value. Describe the displays Identify practical activities everyday events that involve chance. Describe outcomes as likely or unlikely identify some events as certain or impossible Identify a question of interest based on one categorical variable. Gather data relevant to the question Collect, check classify data Create displays of data using lists, table picture graphs interpret them Conduct chance experiments, identify describe possible outcomes recognise variation in results Identify questions or issues for categorical variables. Identify data sources plan methods of data collection recording Collect data, organise into categories create displays using lists, tables, picture graphs simple column graphs, with without the use of digital Interpret compare data displays Describe possible everyday events order their chances of occurring Identify everyday events where one cannot happen if the other happens Identify events where the chance of one will not be affected by the occurrence of the other Select trial methods for data collection, including survey questions recording sheets Construct suitable data displays, with without the use of digital, from given or collected data. Include tables, column graphs picture graphs where one picture can represent many data values Evaluate the effectiveness of different displays in illustrating data features including variability List outcomes of chance experiments involving equally likely outcomes represent probabilities of those outcomes using fractions Recognise that probabilities range from 0 to 1 Pose questions collect categorical or numerical data by observation or survey Construct displays, including column graphs, dot plots tables, appropriate for data type, with without the use of digital Describe interpret different data sets in context Describe probabilities using fractions, decimals percentages Conduct chance experiments with both small large numbers of trials using appropriate digital Compare observed frequencies across experiments with expected frequencies Interpret compare a range of data displays, including side-by-side column graphs for two categorical variables Interpret secondary data presented in digital media elsewhere

10 Mathematics Scope Sequence: Year 6 to Year 10 Year 6 Year 7 Year 8 Year 9 Year 10 Year 10 A Statistics Probability Chance Data representation interpretation Describe probabilities using fractions, decimals percentages Conduct chance experiments with both small large numbers of trials using appropriate digital Compare observed frequencies across experiments with expected frequencies Interpret compare a range of data displays, including sideby-side column graphs for two categorical variables Interpret secondary data presented in digital media elsewhere Construct sample spaces for singlestep experiments with equally likely outcomes Assign probabilities to the outcomes of events determine probabilities for events Identify investigate issues involving continuous or large count data collected from primary secondary sources Construct compare a range of data displays including stem--leaf plots dot plots Calculate mean, median, mode range for sets of data. Interpret these statistics in the context of data Describe interpret data displays the relationship between the median mean Identify complementary events use the sum of probabilities to solve problems Describe events using language of at least, exclusive or (A or B but not both), inclusive or (A or B or both). Represent such events in twoway tables Venn diagrams solve related problems Explore the practicalities implications of obtaining representative data using a variety of investigative processes Investigate the effect of individual data values, including outliers, on the mean median Explore the variation of means proportions in representative data List all outcomes for two-step chance experiments, both with without replacement using tree diagrams or arrays. Assign probabilities to outcomes determine probabilities for events Calculate relative frequencies from given or collected data to estimate probabilities of events involving or or Investigate reports of surveys in digital media elsewhere for information on how data were obtained to estimate population means medians Identify everyday questions issues involving at least one numerical at least one categorical variable, collect data directly from secondary sources Construct back-to-back stem--leaf plots histograms describe data, using terms including skewed, symmetric bi modal Compare data displays using mean, median range to describe interpret numerical data sets in terms of location (centre) spread Investigate techniques for collecting data, including census, sampling observation Describe the results of two- three-step chance experiments, both with without replacements, assign probabilities to outcomes determine probabilities of events. Investigate the concept of independence Use the language of if...then, given, of, knowing that to investigate conditional statements identify common mistakes in interpreting such language Determine quartiles interquartile range Construct interpret box plots use them to compare data sets Compare shapes of box plots to corresponding histograms dot plots Use scatter plots to investigate comment on relationships between two continuous variables Investigate describe bivariate numerical data where the independent variable is time Evaluate statistical reports in the media other places by linking claims to displays, statistics representative data Investigate reports of studies in digital media elsewhere for information on the planning implementation of such studies, the reporting of variability Calculate interpret the mean stard deviation of data use these to compare data sets Use information to investigate bivariate numerical data sets. Where appropriate use a straight line to describe the relationship allowing for variation

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