# Standards and progression point examples

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1 Mathematics Progressing towards Foundation Progression Point 0.5 At 0.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Foundation may, for example: connect number names and numerals with sets of up to 10 elements, use counting strategies to solve problems that involve comparing, combining and separating these sets. match individual objects with counting sequences up to and back from 10. order the first, second and third elements of a set. Mathematics Foundation Level Achievement Standard Students connect number names and numerals with sets of up to 20 elements, estimate the size of these sets, and use counting strategies to solve problems that involve comparing, combining and separating these sets. They match individual objects with counting sequences up to and back from 20. Students order the first 10 elements of a set. identify measurement attributes of length and mass in practical situations compare lengths and masses of familiar objects. order events in a day and name the days of the week, in order. identify simple shapes in their environment and use simple location words. Students identify measurement attributes in practical situations and compare lengths, masses and capacities of familiar objects. They order events, explain their duration, and match days of the week to familiar events. Students identify simple shapes in their environment and sort shapes by their common and distinctive features. They use simple statements and gestures to describe location. answer simple yes/no questions about given categorical data that are sorted. Students sort familiar categorical data into sets and use these to answer yes/no questions and make simple true/false statements about the data. VCAA 2012 Page 1 of 17

2 Mathematics Progressing towards Level 1 Mathematics Foundation Level Achievement Standard Progression Point F.5 At F.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 1 may, for example: Mathematics Level 1 Achievement Standard Students connect number names and numerals with sets of up to 20 elements, estimate the size of these sets, and use counting strategies to solve problems that involve comparing, combining and separating these sets. They match individual objects with counting sequences up to and back from 20. Students order the first 10 elements of a set. Students identify measurement attributes in practical situations and compare lengths, masses and capacities of familiar objects. They order events, explain their duration, and match days of the week to familiar events. Students identify simple shapes in their environment and sort shapes by their common and distinctive features. They use simple statements and gestures to describe location. connect number names and numerals with sets of more than 20 elements, and order the first 20 elements of a set subitise small collections of objects and represent and solve simple addition and subtraction problems, using materials investigate simple patterns of objects and their images use direct and indirect comparisons to decide which of two objects is longer, heavier or holds more, and explain their reasoning. place familiar events in time order. identify, sort and name familiar three-dimensional objects in their environment. describe movement, and follow and give simple directions. Students count to and from 100 and locate these numbers on a number line. They partition numbers using place value and carry out simple additions and subtractions, using counting strategies. Students recognise Australian coins according to their value. They identify representations of one half. Students describe number sequences resulting from skip counting by 2s, 5s and 10s. They continue simple patterns involving numbers and objects with and without the use of digital technology. Students use informal units of measurement to order objects based on length and capacity. They tell time to the half-hour and explain time durations. Students describe twodimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects. They use the language of distance and direction to move from place to place. Students sort familiar categorical data into sets and use these to answer yes/no questions and make simple true/false statements about the data. sort objects into designated categories on diagrams and create their own visual records by sorting objects or their images. describe outcomes of simple familiar events using 'will happen', 'won't happen' or 'might happen'. Students describe data displays. They ask questions to collect and draw simple data displays. Students classify outcomes of simple familiar events. VCAA 2012 Page 2 of 17

3 Mathematics Progressing towards Level 2 Mathematics Level 1 Achievement Standard Progression Point 1.5 At 1.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 2 may, for example: Mathematics Level 2 Achievement Standard Students count to and from 100 and locate these numbers on a number line. They partition numbers using place value and carry out simple additions and subtractions, using counting strategies. Students recognise Australian coins according to their value. They identify representations of one half. Students describe number sequences resulting from skip counting by 2s, 5s and 10s. They continue simple patterns involving numbers and objects with and without the use of digital technology. Students use informal units of measurement to order objects based on length and capacity. They tell time to the half-hour and explain time durations. Students describe twodimensional shapes and three-dimensional objects. They use the language of distance and direction to move from place to place. count to and from, and order numbers up to hundreds. recognise different ways of writing the same number. group collections of objects in units, tens and hundreds, and write and solve number sentences involving addition or subtraction. recognise and interpret common uses of halves and quarters. describe patterns with numbers and recognise simple digit patterns in number sequences. compare and order familiar objects by their length and relative mass describe the duration of familiar events in terms of hours, days and weeks recognise and classify familiar shapes and objects, using their features give and follow directions to and from a place using everyday language for orientation, relative position, direction and distance. Students count to and from, and order numbers up to They perform simple addition and subtraction calculations, using a range of strategies. They find the total value of simple collections of Australian notes and coins. Students represent multiplication and division by grouping into sets and divide collections and shapes into halves, quarters and eighths. They recognise increasing and decreasing number sequences involving 2s, 3s, 5s and 10s, identify the missing element in a number sequence, and use digital technology to produce sequences by constant addition. Students order shapes and objects, using informal units for a range of measures. They tell time to the quarter hour and use a calendar to identify the date, days, weeks and months included in seasons and other events. Students draw twodimensional shapes, specify their features and explain the effects of one-step transformations. They recognise the features of three-dimensional objects. They interpret simple maps of familiar locations. Students describe data displays. They ask questions to collect and draw simple data displays. Students classify outcomes of simple familiar events. use tallies and tables to record answers to questions and summarise the answers by counting explain why they think an event is 'certain' or 'impossible'. Students collect data from relevant questions to create lists, tables and picture graphs with and without the use of digital technology. They interpret data in context. Students describe outcomes of familiar events using everyday language. VCAA 2012 Page 3 of 17

4 Mathematics Progressing towards Level 3 Mathematics Level 2 Achievement Standard Progression Point 2.5 At 2.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 3 may, for example: Mathematics Level 3 Achievement Standard Students count to and from, and order numbers up to They perform simple addition and subtraction calculations, using a range of strategies. They find the total value of simple collections of Australian notes and coins. Students represent multiplication and division by grouping into sets and divide collections and shapes into halves, quarters and eighths. They recognise increasing and decreasing number sequences involving 2s, 3s, 5s and 10s, identify the missing element in a number sequence, and use digital technology to produce sequences by constant addition. Students order shapes and objects, using informal units for a range of measures. They tell time to the quarter hour and use a calendar to identify the date, days, weeks and months included in seasons and other events. Students draw twodimensional shapes, specify their features and explain the effects of one-step transformations. They recognise the features of three-dimensional objects. They interpret simple maps of familiar locations. count and order numbers to and from thousands apply place value to partition, rearrange and regroup numbers to help with calculations and solve problems recall multiplication facts for 2, 5 and 10 model and represent the unit fractions of halves, thirds, quarters, fifths and eighths, and explore language differences associated with fractions. describe, continue and create number patterns formed by repeated addition or subtraction. recognise angles in terms of turns in everyday situations and compare the masses of objects, using balance scales interpret digital and analogue representations of minutes, hours, days, weeks and years explore the properties of prisms interpret grid maps of their local environment. Students count and order numbers to and from They recognise the connection between addition and subtraction, and solve problems using efficient strategies for multiplication with and without the use of digital technology. Students recall addition and multiplication facts for single-digit numbers. They represent money values in various ways and correctly count out change from financial transactions. Students model and represent unit fractions for halves, thirds, quarters, fifths and eighths, and multiples of these up to one. They classify numbers as either odd or even, continue number patterns involving addition or subtraction, and explore simple number sequences based on multiples. Students use metric units for length, mass and capacity. They tell time to the nearest minute. Students identify symmetry in natural and constructed environments. They use angle size as a measure of turn in real situations and make models of threedimensional objects. Students match positions on maps with given information and create simple maps. Students collect data from relevant questions to create lists, tables and picture graphs with and without the use of digital technology. They interpret data in context. Students describe outcomes of familiar events using everyday language. make tallies and convert them into one-to-one picture graphs (pictographs) and bar chart recognise variation in measurements and other data. place events from familiar contexts in order of how likely they are to happen. Students carry out simple data investigations for categorical variables. They interpret and compare data displays. Students conduct chance experiments, list possible outcomes and recognise variations in results. VCAA 2012 Page 4 of 17

5 Mathematics Progressing towards Level 4 Mathematics Level 3 Achievement Standard Progression Point 3.5 At 3.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 4 may, for example: Mathematics Level 4 Achievement Standard Students count and order numbers to and from They recognise the connection between addition and subtraction, and solve problems using efficient strategies for multiplication with and without the use of digital technology. Students recall addition and multiplication facts for single-digit numbers. They represent money values in various ways and correctly count out change from financial transactions. Students model and represent unit fractions for halves, thirds, quarters, fifths and eighths, and multiples of these up to one. They classify numbers as either odd or even, continue number patterns involving addition or subtraction, and explore simple number sequences based on multiples. Students use metric units for length, mass and capacity. They tell time to the nearest minute. Students identify symmetry in natural and constructed environments. They use angle size as a measure of turn in real situations and make models of threedimensional objects. Students match positions on maps with given information and create simple maps. count and order numbers to and from tens of thousands, and use addition and subtraction facts to develop efficient mental strategies for computation calculate change and round to the nearest five cents make connections between fractions and decimal notation solve word problems by using number sentences involving multiplication or division, and use equivalent number sentences involving addition and subtraction to find unknown quantities investigate number sequences involving multiples of 3, 4, 6, 7, 8 and 9 count by quarters, halves and thirds, including with mixed numbers. use scaled instruments to measure length, angle, area and mass use am and pm notation and identify time between two events identify and describe symmetry, asymmetry and pattern in natural and made objects. Students recall multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and related division facts. They choose appropriate strategies for calculations involving multiplication and division, with and without the use of digital technology, and estimate answers accurately enough for the context. Students solve simple purchasing problems with and without the use of digital technology. They locate familiar fractions on a number line, recognise common equivalent fractions in familiar contexts and make connections between fractions and decimal notations up to two decimal places. Students identify unknown quantities in number sentences. They use the properties of odd and even numbers and describe number patterns resulting from multiplication. Students continue number sequences involving multiples of single-digit numbers and unit fractions, and locate them on a number line. Students compare areas of regular and irregular shapes, using informal units. They solve problems involving time duration. Students use scaled instruments to measure length, angle, area, mass, capacity and temperature of shapes and objects. They convert between units of time. Students create symmetrical simple and composite shapes and patterns, with and without the use of digital technology. They classify angles in relation to a right angle. Students interpret information contained in maps. Students carry out simple data investigations for categorical variables. They interpret and compare data displays. Students conduct chance experiments, list possible outcomes and recognise variations in results. identify questions or issues involving categorical variables, define data sources, and plan and trial methods of data collection and recording use a variety of methods of data presentation compare one event to the other as being less, equally or more likely to happen, and justify their reasoning identify everyday events where if one event occurs, the other event cannot occur. Students describe different methods for data collection and representation, and evaluate their effectiveness. They construct data displays from given or collected data, with and without the use of digital technology. Students list the probabilities of everyday events. They identify dependent and independent events. VCAA 2012 Page 5 of 17

6 Mathematics Progressing towards Level 5 Mathematics Level 4 Achievement Standard Progression Point 4.5 At 4.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 5 may, for example: Mathematics Level 5 Achievement Standard Students recall multiplication facts to 10 x 10 and related division facts. They choose appropriate strategies for calculations involving multiplication and division, with and without the use of digital technology, and estimate answers accurately enough for the context. Students solve simple purchasing problems with and without the use of digital technology. They locate familiar fractions on a number line, recognise common equivalent fractions in familiar contexts and make connections between fractions and decimal notations up to two decimal places. Students identify unknown quantities in number sentences. They use the properties of odd and even numbers and describe number patterns resulting from multiplication. Students continue number sequences involving multiples of single-digit numbers and unit fractions, and locate them on a number line. use number properties for efficient mental calculation. represent and order decimals and extend their fluency with the number system to beyond tens of thousandths. create a simple financial plan solve problems involving multiplication of large numbers by one- or two-digit numbers, using efficient mental and written methods and digital technology use equivalent number sentences involving multiplication and division to find unknown quantities. Students solve simple problems involving the four operations using a range of strategies including digital technology. They estimate to check the reasonableness of answers and approximate answers by rounding. Students identify and describe factors and multiples. They explain plans for simple budgets. Students order decimals and unit fractions and locate them on a number line. Students add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. They find unknown quantities in number sentences and continue patterns by adding or subtracting fractions and decimals. Students compare areas of regular and irregular shapes, using informal units. They solve problems involving time duration. Students use scaled instruments to measure length, angle, area, mass, capacity and temperature of shapes and objects. They convert between units of time. Students create symmetrical simple and composite shapes and patterns, with and without the use of digital technology. They classify angles in relation to a right angle. Students interpret information contained in maps. Students describe different methods for data collection and representation, and evaluate their effectiveness. They construct data displays from given or collected data, with and without the use of digital technology. Students list the probabilities of everyday events. They identify dependent and independent events. investigate units of measurement from historical and cultural contexts and convert between units of metric and other standard non-metric systems of measurement use square centimetres, square metres, square kilometres and hectares as units of area and estimate areas by counting squares estimate angles between 0 and 360 degrees in both clockwise and anticlockwise directions describe routes using landmarks and compare maps with aerial photographs or representations created by digital technology. construct column graphs and picture graphs where one picture can represent many data values from given or collected data, with and without the use of digital technology recognise that probabilities range from 0 to 1 and place events in order on a number line from 0 to 1 based on their probability. Students use appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity and mass, and calculate perimeter and area of rectangles. They convert between 12 and 24-hour time. Students use a grid reference system to locate landmarks. They estimate angles, and use protractors and digital technology to construct and measure angles. Students connect three-dimensional objects with their two-dimensional representations. They describe transformations of twodimensional shapes and identify line and rotational symmetry. Students pose questions to gather data and construct various displays appropriate for the data, with and without the use of digital technology. They compare and interpret different data sets. Students list outcomes of chance experiments with equally likely outcomes and assign probabilities as a number from 0 to 1. VCAA 2012 Page 6 of 17

7 Mathematics Progressing towards Level 6 Mathematics Level 5 Achievement Standard Progression Point 5.5 At 5.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 6 may, for example: Mathematics Level 6 Achievement Standard Students solve simple problems involving the four operations using a range of strategies including digital technology. They estimate to check the reasonableness of answers and approximate answers by rounding. Students identify and describe factors and multiples. They explain plans for simple budgets. Students order decimals and unit fractions and locate them on a number line. Students add and subtract fractions with the same denominator. They find unknown quantities in number sentences and continue patterns by adding or subtracting fractions and decimals. Students use appropriate units of measurement for length, area, volume, capacity and mass, and calculate perimeter and area of rectangles. They convert between 12 and 24-hour time. Students use a grid reference system to locate landmarks. They estimate angles, and use protractors and digital technology to construct and measure angles. Students connect three-dimensional objects with their two-dimensional representations. They describe transformations of twodimensional shapes and identify line and rotational symmetry. represent composite numbers as a product of their prime factors identify the highest common factor (greatest common divisor) and lowest common multiple of two whole numbers. explore the use of brackets and order of operations to write and evaluate number sentences continue and create sequences involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals, according to a given rule use ordered pairs of whole numbers to represent coordinates of points and locate these points on simple grids and in the first quadrant on the Cartesian plane. recognise metric prefixes and convert between common metric units access print and digital timetables, answer simple questions using a timetable and create simple personal timetables describe acute, obtuse and reflex angles in terms of their relationship to multiples of a right angle investigate compass points, angles on a straight line, angles at a point, and vertically opposite angles. Students recognise the properties of prime, composite, square and triangular numbers and determine sets of these numbers. They solve problems that involve all four operations with whole numbers and describe the use of integers in everyday contexts. Students locate fractions and integers on a number line and connect fractions, decimals and percentages as different representations of the same number. They solve problems involving the addition and subtraction of related fractions. Students calculate a simple fraction of a quantity and calculate common percentage discounts on sale items, with and without the use of digital technology. They make connections between the powers of 10 and the multiplication and division of decimals. Students add, subtract and multiply decimals and divide decimals where the result is rational. Students write number sentences using brackets and order of operations, and specify rules used to generate sequences involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals. They use ordered pairs of integers to represent coordinates of points and locate a point in any one of the four quadrants on the Cartesian plane. Students relate decimals to the metric system and choose appropriate units of measurement to perform a calculation. They solve problems involving length and area, and make connections between capacity and volume. Students interpret a variety of everyday timetables. They solve problems using the properties of angles and investigate simple combinations of transformations in the plane, with and without the use of digital technology. Students construct simple prisms and pyramids. Students pose questions to gather data and construct various displays appropriate for the data, with and without the use of digital technology. They compare and interpret different data sets. Students list outcomes of chance experiments with equally likely outcomes and assign probabilities as a number from 0 to 1. evaluate the effectiveness of different displays in illustrating data features, including variability pose questions and collect categorical or numerical data by observation or survey, and distinguish between a sample and a population recognise that probability can be interpreted as an Students interpret and compare a variety of data displays, including displays for two categorical variables. They analyse and evaluate data from secondary sources. Students compare observed and expected frequencies of events, including those where outcomes of trials are generated with the use of digital technology. They specify, list and communicate probabilities VCAA 2012 Page 7 of 17

8 expected frequency represent probabilities as simple ratios and fractions conduct chance experiments with both small and large numbers of trials, using digital technology. of events using simple ratios, fractions, decimals and percentages. VCAA 2012 Page 8 of 17

9 Mathematics Progressing towards Level 7 Mathematics Level 6 Achievement Standard Progression Point 6.5 At 6.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 7 may, for example: Mathematics Level 7 Achievement Standard Students recognise the properties of prime, composite, square and triangular numbers and determine sets of these numbers. They solve problems that involve all four operations with whole numbers and describe the use of integers in everyday contexts. Students locate fractions and integers on a number line and connect fractions, decimals and percentages as different representations of the same number. They solve problems involving the addition and subtraction of related fractions. Students calculate a simple fraction of a quantity and calculate common percentage discounts on sale items, with and without the use of digital technology. They make connections between the powers of 10 and the multiplication and division of decimals. Students add, subtract and multiply decimals and divide decimals where the result is rational. Students write number sentences using brackets and order of operations, and specify rules used to generate sequences involving whole numbers, fractions and decimals. They use ordered pairs of integers to represent coordinates of points and locate a point in any one of the four quadrants on the Cartesian plane. investigate index notation and represent whole numbers as products of powers of prime numbers find equivalent fractions and use them to order fractions. locate fractions and mixed numbers on a number line investigate and calculate 'best buys' and solve problems involving simple ratios, with and without the use of digital technology solve problems involving addition and subtraction of fractions, including those with unrelated denominators. use a variety of methods to solve linear equations with whole number solutions use substitution to check solutions. Students solve problems involving the order, addition and subtraction of integers. They make the connections between whole numbers and index notation and the relationship between perfect squares and square roots. They solve problems involving all four operations with fractions, decimals, percentages and their equivalences, and express fractions in their simplest form. Students compare the cost of items to make financial decisions, with and without the use of digital technology. They make simple estimates to judge the reasonableness of results. Students use variables to represent arbitrary numbers, connect the laws and properties of number to algebra and substitute numbers into algebraic expressions. They assign ordered pairs to given points on the Cartesian plane and interpret and analyse graphs of relations from real data. Students develop simple linear models for situations, make predictions based on these models, solve related equations and check their solutions. Students relate decimals to the metric system and choose appropriate units of measurement to perform a calculation. They solve problems involving length and area, and make connections between capacity and volume. Students interpret a variety of everyday timetables. They solve problems using the properties of angles and investigate simple combinations of transformations in the plane, with and without the use of digital technology. Students construct simple prisms and pyramids. use formulas for the area and perimeter of a square and calculate the surface area and volume of a cube construct parallel and perpendicular lines and identify squares, rectangles, rhombuses, parallelograms, kites and trapeziums based on their properties demonstrate that the angle sum in a triangle is 180 degrees draw different views of prisms, and solids formed from combinations of prisms. Students use formulas for the area and perimeter of rectangles. They classify triangles and quadrilaterals and represent transformations of these shapes on the Cartesian plane, with and without the use of digital technology. Students name the types of angles formed by a transversal crossing parallel line and solve simple numerical problems involving these lines and angles. They describe different views of threedimensional objects, and use models, sketches and digital technology to represent these views. Students calculate volumes of rectangular prisms. VCAA 2012 Page 9 of 17

10 Students interpret and compare a variety of data displays, including displays for two categorical variables. They analyse and evaluate data from secondary sources. Students compare observed and expected frequencies of events, including those where outcomes of trials are generated with the use of digital technology. They specify, list and communicate probabilities of events using simple ratios, fractions, decimals and percentages. create side-by-side column graphs interpret secondary data presented in digital media and elsewhere, including consideration of sampling, misleading displays, bias and purpose recognise that summarising data by calculating measures of centre and spread can help make sense of the data determine the median for different data sets determine probabilities by symmetry and counting. Students identify issues involving the collection of discrete and continuous data from primary and secondary sources. They construct stem-and-leaf plots and dot-plots. Students identify or calculate mean, mode, median and range for data sets, using digital technology for larger data sets. They describe the relationship between the median and mean in data displays. Students determine the sample space for simple experiments with equally likely outcomes, and assign probabilities outcomes. VCAA 2012 Page 10 of 17

11 Mathematics Progressing towards Level 8 Mathematics Level 7 Achievement Standard Progression Point 7.5 At 7.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 8 may, for example: Mathematics Level 8 Achievement Standard Students solve problems involving the order, addition and subtraction of integers. They make the connections between whole numbers and index notation and the relationship between perfect squares and square roots. They solve problems involving all four operations with fractions, decimals, percentages and their equivalences, and express fractions in their simplest form. Students compare the cost of items to make financial decisions, with and without the use of digital technology. They make simple estimates to judge the reasonableness of results. Students use variables to represent arbitrary numbers, connect the laws and properties of number to algebra and substitute numbers into algebraic expressions. They assign ordered pairs to given points on the Cartesian plane and interpret and analyse graphs of relations from real data. Students develop simple linear models for situations, make predictions based on these models, solve related equations and check their solutions. Students use formulas for the area and perimeter of rectangles. They classify triangles and quadrilaterals and represent transformations of these shapes on the Cartesian plane, with and without the use of digital technology. Students name the types of angles formed by a transversal crossing parallel line and solve simple numerical problems involving these lines and angles. They describe different views of threedimensional objects, and use models, sketches and digital technology to represent these views. Students calculate volumes of rectangular prisms. Students identify issues involving the collection of discrete and continuous data from primary and secondary sources. They construct stem-and-leaf plots and dot-plots. Students identify or calculate mean, mode, median and range for data sets, using digital technology for larger data sets. They describe the relationship between the median and mean in data displays. Students determine the sample space for simple experiments with equally likely outcomes, and assign solve problems involving multiplication of integers by single-digit whole numbers and use the sequence of square numbers to form estimates for square roots use equivalent decimals and percentages to order rational expressions classify rational numbers as having either terminating or infinite recurring decimals. calculate sale price when a percentage discount is applied. represent linear relationships as a table of ordered pairs, classify relationships as linear or non-linear determine gradient and axis intercepts of linear graphs. interpret gradient both as a ratio and as a constant rate of change. choose appropriate units of measurement for area and volume explore the use of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites in a variety of contexts investigate time zones and the approximate relation between distances between countries, and differences in time demonstrate facility in using digital technology to experiment with, create and re-create patterns involving combinations of flips, slides, turns and enlargements or reductions explain congruence of plane shapes in terms of transformations. calculate the mean for grouped data and for data summarised in a display interpret mean and median as central measures in a given context determine when a piece of data should be considered an outlier model situations with Venn diagrams and two-way tables, Students use efficient mental and written strategies to make estimates and carry out the four operations with integers, and apply the index laws to whole numbers. They identify and describe rational and irrational numbers in context. Students estimate answers and solve everyday problems involving profit and loss rates, ratios and percentages, with and without the use of digital technology. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions and connect expansion and factorisation of linear expressions. Students solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on the Cartesian plane. Students convert between units of measurement for area and for volume. They find the perimeter and area of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites. Students name the features of circles, calculate circumference and area, and solve problems relating to the volume of prisms. They make sense of time duration in real applications, including the use of 24-hour time. Students identify conditions for the congruence of triangles and deduce the properties of quadrilaterals. They use tools, including digital technology, to construct congruent shapes. Students explain issues related to the collection of sample data and discuss the effect of outliers on means and medians of the data. They use various approaches, including the use of digital technology, to generate simple random samples from a population. Students model situations with Venn diagrams and two-way tables and explain the use of 'not', 'and' and 'or'. Students choose appropriate language to describe events and experiments. They determine complementary events and VCAA 2012 Page 11 of 17

12 probabilities outcomes. and illustrate the relationship between the two representations. calculate the sum of probabilities. VCAA 2012 Page 12 of 17

13 Mathematics Progressing towards Level 9 Mathematics Level 8 Achievement Standard Progression Point 8.5 At 8.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 9 may, for example: Mathematics Level 9 Achievement Standard Students use efficient mental and written strategies to make estimates and carry out the four operations with integers, and apply the index laws to whole numbers. They identify and describe rational and irrational numbers in context. Students estimate answers and solve everyday problems involving profit and loss rates, ratios and percentages, with and without the use of digital technology. They simplify a variety of algebraic expressions and connect expansion and factorisation of linear expressions. Students solve linear equations and graph linear relationships on the Cartesian plane. Students convert between units of measurement for area and for volume. They find the perimeter and area of parallelograms, rhombuses and kites. Students name the features of circles, calculate circumference and area, and solve problems relating to the volume of prisms. They make sense of time duration in real applications, including the use of 24-hour time. Students identify conditions for the congruence of triangles and deduce the properties of quadrilaterals. They use tools, including digital technology, to construct congruent shapes. Students explain issues related to the collection of sample data and discuss the effect of outliers on means and medians of the data. They use various approaches, including the use of digital technology, to generate simple random samples from a population. Students model situations with Venn diagrams and two-way tables and explain the use of 'not', 'and' and 'or'. Students choose appropriate language to describe events and experiments. They determine complementary events and calculate the sum of probabilities. extend and apply the index laws to variables, using positive integer indices and the zero index simplify algebraic expressions by collecting like terms where appropriate sketch linear graphs using the coordinates of two points, determine linear rules from diagrams, tables of values and graphs, and specify these rules using words and algebra. solve problems involving direct proportion explore the relationship between graphs and equations corresponding to simple rate problems explain how changing the value of parameters in the rule of a linear function affects the shape and location of the graph of the function determine whether given data is most suitably represented by a linear or non-linear relation. investigate direct and inverse relations between features of circles such as circumference, area, radius and diameter investigate very small and very large timescales and intervals, and express these in scientific notation use enlargements to explain similarity and solve problems in similar figures with ratios and scale factors establish geometric properties of quadrilaterals using congruent triangles, parallel line and angle properties. use samples to make informal predictions about characteristics of a population, and recognise the associated uncertainty record continuous data and describe a data display as skewed, symmetric or bi-modal use intersection, union and complement of sets to solve probability problems. Students apply the index laws using integer indices to variables and numbers, express numbers in scientific notation, solve problems involving very small and very large numbers, and check the order of magnitude of calculations. They solve problems involving simple interest. Students use the distributive law to expand algebraic expressions, including binomial expressions, and simplify a range of algebraic expressions. They find the distance between two points on the Cartesian plane and the gradient and midpoint of a line segment using a range of strategies including the use of digital technology. Students sketch and draw linear and nonlinear relations, solve simple related equations and explain the relationship between the graphical and symbolic forms, with and without the use of digital technology. Students solve measurement problems involving perimeter and area of composite shapes, surface area and volume of rectangular prisms and cylinders, with and without the use of digital technology. They relate three-dimensional objects to two-dimensional representations. Students explain similarity of triangles, interpret ratios and scale factors in similar figures, and apply Pythagoras's theorem and trigonometry to solve problems involving angles and lengths in right-angled triangles. Students compare techniques for collecting data from primary and secondary sources, and identify questions and issues involving different data types. They construct histograms and back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots with and without the use of digital technology. Students identify mean and median in skewed, symmetric and bi-modal displays and use these to describe and interpret the distribution of the data. They calculate relative frequencies to estimate probabilities. VCAA 2012 Page 13 of 17

14 Students list outcomes for two-step experiments and assign probabilities for those outcomes and related events. VCAA 2012 Page 14 of 17

15 Mathematics Progressing towards Level 10 Mathematics Level 9 Achievement Standard Progression Point 9.5 At 9.5, a student progressing towards the standard at Level 10 may, for example: Mathematics Level 10 Achievement Standard Students apply the index laws using integer indices to variables and numbers, express numbers in scientific notation, solve problems involving very small and very large numbers, and check the order of magnitude of calculations. They solve problems involving simple interest. Students use the distributive law to expand algebraic expressions, including binomial expressions, and simplify a range of algebraic expressions. They find the distance between two points on the Cartesian plane and the gradient and midpoint of a line segment using a range of strategies including the use of digital technology. Students sketch and draw linear and nonlinear relations, solve simple related equations and explain the relationship between the graphical and symbolic forms, with and without the use of digital technology. Students solve measurement problems involving perimeter and area of composite shapes, surface area and volume of rectangular prisms and cylinders, with and without the use of digital technology. They relate three-dimensional objects to two-dimensional representations. Students explain similarity of triangles, interpret ratios and scale factors in similar figures, and apply Pythagoras's theorem and trigonometry to solve problems involving angles and lengths in right-angled triangles. Students compare techniques for collecting data from primary and secondary sources, and identify questions and issues involving different data types. They construct histograms and back-to-back stem-and-leaf plots with and without the use of digital technology. Students identify mean and median in skewed, symmetric and bi-modal displays and use these to describe and interpret the distribution of the data. They calculate relative frequencies to estimate probabilities. simplify algebraic products using index laws and fluently apply negative indices represent linear relations in equivalent algebraic forms, manipulate linear algebraic fractions solve simultaneous linear equations and verify solutions with and without the use of digital technology explore the effect of varying the parameters in the rules of linear and quadratic functions on the graphs of these functions. calculate absolute percentage difference between measured and actual values apply similarity and congruence to solve practical problems and establish general geometric results about plane shapes explore the effect of a change in scale of linear dimensions on area and volume of regular shapes and objects apply Pythagoras's theorem and trigonometry to problems in surveying and design. determine quartiles and construct box plots for discrete and continuous data use histograms and cumulative frequency graphs to represent data from a continuous scale list all outcomes for the sample space of two-step chance experiments using tables, Venn diagrams, tree diagrams and arrays assign probabilities to outcomes and determine probabilities for events. Students recognise the connection between simple and compound interest. They solve problems involving linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations and related graphs, with and without the use of digital technology. Students find unknown values after substitution into formulas, manipulate linear algebraic expressions, expand binomial expressions and factorise monic and simple non-monic quadratic expressions, with and without the use of digital technology. They represent linear, quadratic and exponential functions numerically, graphically and algebraically, and use them to model situations and solve practical problems. Students solve and explain surface area and volume problems relating to composite solids. They use parallel and perpendicular line, angle and triangle properties, similarity, trigonometry and congruence to solve practical problems and develop proofs involving lengths, angles and areas in plane shapes. They use digital technology to construct and manipulate geometric shapes and objects, and explore symmetry and pattern in two dimensions. Students compare univariate data sets by referring to summary statistics and the shape of their displays. They describe bivariate data where the independent variable is time and use scatter-plots generated by digital technology to investigate relationships between two continuous variables. Students evaluate the use of statistics in the media. They list outcomes for multi-step chance experiments involving independent and dependent events, and assign probabilities VCAA 2012 Page 15 of 17

16 Students list outcomes for two-step experiments and assign probabilities for those outcomes and related events. for these experiments. VCAA 2012 Page 16 of 17

17 Mathematics Progressing beyond Level 10 Mathematics Level 10 Achievement Standard Progression Point 10.5 At 10.5, a student progressing beyond the standard at Level 10 may, for example: Progression Point 11 At 11, a student progressing beyond the standard at Level 10.5 may, for example: Students recognise the connection between simple and compound interest. They solve problems involving linear equations and inequalities, quadratic equations and pairs of simultaneous linear equations and related graphs, with and without the use of digital technology. Students find unknown values after substitution into formulas, manipulate linear algebraic expressions, expand binomial expressions and factorise monic and simple non-monic quadratic expressions, with and without the use of digital technology. They represent linear, quadratic and exponential functions numerically, graphically and algebraically, and use them to model situations and solve practical problems work fluently with rational numbers, and exact and approximate forms of real numbers use tables of values, graphs and algebra to model, investigate and solve problems that involve the reciprocal function, logarithmic functions, circles and circular functions in a variety of context solve simultaneous equations that involve a line and a parabola or circle numerically, graphically or algebraically, with and without the use of digital technology. specify exact or approximate intervals over which an inequality defined using a quadratic, reciprocal, exponential, logarithm or circular function is true, with and without the use of digital technology investigate a range of mathematical structures, explore their properties and apply them to model situations and solve related problems. Students solve and explain surface area and volume problems relating to composite solids. They use parallel and perpendicular line, angle and triangle properties, similarity, trigonometry and congruence to solve practical problems and develop proofs involving lengths, angles and areas in plane shapes. They use digital technology to construct and manipulate geometric shapes and objects, and explore symmetry and pattern in two dimensions. use digital technology to transform geometric shapes and objects, and identify invariance or change of properties and measures under transformations investigate different geometric representations and properties of curves and paths in the plan solve simple three-dimensional problems involving geometry and trigonometry. recognise the effect of rounding and measurement errors in contexts where formulas are used, and obtain simple error bounds for related calculations use drawing tools, physical models and digital technology to create and extend patterns in two and three dimensions, including those based on self-similarity. Students compare univariate data sets by referring to summary statistics and the shape of their displays. They describe bivariate data where the independent variable is time and use scatter-plots generated by digital technology to investigate relationships between two continuous variables. Students evaluate the use of statistics in the media. They list outcomes for multi-step chance experiments involving independent and dependent events, and assign probabilities for these experiments. construct and use simulations, with and without the use of digital technology, to obtain data and solve probability problems, including analysis of the conditional nature of events investigate the distribution of proportions and means in samples from a population and discuss how these relate to the corresponding population parameters. use digital technology to access categorical and/or numerical data from online sources, display and analyse large univariate and bivariate data sets, and describe distribution, location (centre), spread and association as applicable comment critically on the use of statistics to support or contest points of view in the media. VCAA 2012 Page 17 of 17

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