Finnish National Phenological Network

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1 Finnish National Phenological Network Kubin E., Poikolainen J., Karhu J. & Tolvanen A. Finnish Forest Research Institute, Oulu Unit 5 th PEP725 Management Meeting 28 April 2014 Zentralanstalt für Meteorologie und Geodynamik (ZAMG) Hohe Warte 38, 1190 Wien Metla/ Tuula Aspegren

2 Finnish National Phenological Network established in 1995 Standardized observation guide Trained observers At least twice per week from the same tree individuals Recorded to the database immediately by using internet

3 Long-term background reaches to the Linné s time from this phenological recording by volunteers has continued over centuries in Finland Finland was - up to a part of the Kingdom of Sweden Linné s time was also the beginning of the Finnish phenology

4 The Finnish National Phenological Network was established in Observation rare and unorganized Finnish Society of Sciences and letters. Finska Vetenskap Societen founded Finnish Museum of Natural History. IPG, Universities A part of the Kingdom of Sweden Autonomic Grand Duchy of the Russian Empire Independent Republic Finnish National Phenological Network Observation by volunteers since 1751 Observation by office holders of different institutions since 1995

5 Examples from the monitoring guide Bud burst, leaf colouring and leaf fall of Downy birch Flushing before the phase of bud burst (A-D) Bud burst (E) Leaves fully out of the bud (F) Leaves full-sized (G) Leaf colouring (H) Leaf fall (I) A B C D E F G H I 5

6 Examples from the monitoring guide Height growth of Scots Pine Bud before onset of growth (A) Onset of height growth (B) Elongation of the shoot (D-H) End of height growth (I)

7 Examples from the monitoring guide Flowering of Scots Pine Male inflorescences before pollen release (A) During pollen release (B) A female inflorescence (C)

8 Examples from the monitoring guide Flowering and berry ripening of bilberry The points in time when the lowers have opened up (A) Flowering is over (B) The berries are still unripe (C) When the berries are ripe (D) 8

9 The www-pages Updated at least twice per week processed into maps and animations available at Metla s webpage, one of the most visited in Metla tinfo/fenologia/indexen.htm

10 Domestic and international co-operation Plenty of international and domestic cooperation Co-operation with the Finnish Meteorological Institute is important Location of the present phenological stations and the southern, middle and northern boreal zone in Finland. Collaborative Action on Nordic Countries under process

11 Excamples of results

12 Sorbus aucuparia and Prunus padus flowering Voluntary observation sites Localities for phenologicaldata collection of rowan (Sorbus aucuparia) and bird cherry (Prunus padus) in Finland in Terhivuo, J., Kubin, E. & Karhu, J Italian Journal of Agrometeorology (1) 2009.

13 Bursting into flower of Prunus padus B Date B Mean A Date Year A B A Year Mean

14 Bursting into flower of Prunus padus D Date D Mean D C C Date Year C Mean Year

15 Linear trend of flowering in Prunus padus during the period of = median of annual observations. Traditional regression model and its 95 % confidence limits have been drawn into the figure.

16 Julian date Y = x , R2 = 0,201, p<0.01 On the left. The timing of flowering in Bird Cherry during the period of o= median of annual observations. Traditional regression model and its 95 % confidence limits have been drawn into the figure. Flowering has been advanced every year 0.05 days since That is 5 days per one hundred years. Terhivuo, J., Kubin, E. & Karhu, J Phenological observation since the days of Linne in Finland. Italian Journal of Agrometeorology (1) Applied non parametric sen sslope estimate for linear trend is y = -0,05348 (x-1752) + 159,9627. Mann-Kendall test z = and significance < 0,001. According the model flowering Julian day in 1753 was 162,2 and onward from this to 2007 the flowering happened every year days earlier. That is 5,3 days per one hundred years. On the right unpublished data of the Finnish National Phenological Network

17 The next three slides: Timing of bud burst and yellowing of birch (Betula pubescens) leaves Location of the present phenological stations and the southern, middle and northern boreal zone in Finland 17

18 Linear trends in bud burst of Betula pubescens during the period Julian date

19 Linear trends in leaf yellowing of Betula pubescens during the period Julian date

20 Boxplots of ETS values needed for bud burst d.d.

21 Present long-term monitoring networks in the Finnish Forest Research Institute The research project Phenology and crop forecasts of forest plants in changing climate in will develop monitoring networks plant phenological observation network stands for forecast of wildberry and mushroom yields (in addition of phenological network) stands for flowering and seed crops of forest trees

22 During the next two years monitoring will be organized as a part of new Natural Resources Institute Finland as of 1 January 2015 MTT Agrifood Research Finland, the Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla), the Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute (RKTL) and the statistical services of the Information Centre of the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (Tike)

23 Acknowledgement Our phenology group at Metla Oulu Unit (Eero Kubin, Jarmo Poikolainen, Jouni Karhu, Jorma Pasanen & Anne Tolvanen) has done a great work for phenology. Cooperation with the Finnish Museum of Natural History to utilize the old historical data since the Linnéantime has given new possibilities to understand long time series It is highly appreciated those volunteers of many generations carried out observations in the field as well as the office holders of Finnish Museum of Natural History, Finnish Forest Research Institute and other participating units all over the Finland Finnish Museum of Natural History Finnish Forest Research Institute

24 There are many people involved to the Finnish National Phenological Network. Best thanks especially to field observers! Researchers Heinonen, Jaakko Hokkanen, Tatu Häkkinen, Risto Kubin, Eero Poikolainen, Jarmo Salo, Kauko Savonen, Eira Maija Tillman-Sutela, Eila Tolvanen, Anne The research project Phenology and crop forecasts of forest plants in changing climate Other project staff in Metla Oulu Pasanen, Jorma, (data) Karhu, Jouni, (data processing) Kylmänen, Kalervo, (digital technique) Aspegren, Tuula (data and graphicks) Observers Taisto Jaakola, Kannus Esa Ek, Paimio Kaarina Pynnönen, Tuusula Pekka Helminen, Vesijako Sirpa Kolehmainen, Suonenjoki Irma Heikkilä, Kolari Hannu Latvajärvi, Parkano Ahti Anttonen, Punkaharju Erkki Piiroinen, Lapinjärvi Kaija Puputti, Siuntio Reijo Seppänen, Paljakka Markku Tiainen, Joensuu Jouni Väisänen, Salla Pia Rännänen, Kuusamo Teuvo Hietajärvi, Värriö Heikki Törmänen, Kaamanen Elina Vainio, Kevo

25 Thank you for your attention!

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