Changes of coniferous timber and tree lines in Finnish Lapland during

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1 Workshop Silviculture in Changing Environment November 24-25, 2014 Kirkkonummi, Finland Changes of coniferous timber and tree lines in Finnish Lapland during Anna Franke, Pasi Aatsinki, Ville Hallikainen, Esa Huhta, Mikko Hyppönen, Vesa Juntunen, Kari Mikkola, Seppo Neuvonen and Pasi Rautio

2 Research group, in addition to authors Tarmo Aalto Hannu Herva Jari Hietanen Esko Jaskari Heikki Kauhanen Mikko Kukkola Kari Mikkola Kuisma Ranta Katja Sippola Raija Vainio Pekka Välikangas

3 Contents of the presentation Forest timber line research in Metla About the experiment Aim of the monitoring study Material and methods Results Discussion and conclusions

4 Forest timber- and tree-line research in Metla The forests in timber- and tree-line area are supposed to indicate climatic variation and changes. Metla administers a forest-line experiment, jointly founded by Helsinki, Oulu and Turku universities and Metla in 1980s. Regeneration and success of Scots pine, Norway spruce and birch are monitored at northern and alpine timber lines in the experiment. The inventory years: 1983, 1994, 1999, 2004 and Results of the study have been published twice (Juntunen et al. 2002, 2006). In addition, Metla has an official role to monitor the forest regeneration success in the protection forest area (Forest act 1997).

5 Earlier reports of the experiment Kallio, P., Hurme, H., Eurola, S., Norokorpi, Y. & Sepponen, P Research activities on the forest line in Northern Finland. Arctic 39(1): Juntunen, V., Neuvonen, S., Norokorpi, Y. & Tasanen, T Potential for timberline advance in Northern Finland, as revealed by monitoring during Arctic 55(4): Juntunen, V. & Neuvonen, S Natural regeneration of Scots pine and Norway spruce close to the timberline in Northern Finland. Silva Fennica 40(3):

6 Protection forest area and conifer timber lines Map: K. Mikkola, Metla

7 Alpine forest line area in Pitkäsuvanto, Inari Photo R. Jalkanen

8 Pine tree line in Saariselkä, Inari Photo R. Jalkanen

9 Spruce tree and timber lines, Ylläs, Kolari Photo R. Jalkanen

10 Aim of the study To monitor the changes and variation of stem number and volume of growing stock of conifer species in northern and alpine forest line areas in Northern Finland The monitored variables for this study Volume of growing stock m 3 ha -1 (trees > 2 m) Number of trees ha -1

11 Monitoring locations and regions

12 Experiment design

13 Examples of the monitoring areas Alajoenpää and Urupää, Inari

14 Stem number of pine

15 Pine snow blight (Phacidium infestans) is a bad winter pathogen of Scots pine Photo R. Jalkanen

16 Volume of growing stock of pine

17 Stem number of spruce

18 Volume of the growing stock of spruce

19 Temperature sum in Kevo, Sodankylä and Kuusamo in

20 Results of earlier studies in timber-line and protection forests Juntunen ym. 2002: Study showed new regeneration and tree establishment in Northern Finland during recent decades, indicating potential for an advance of timber line and tree line (timberline monitoring). Hyppönen ym. 2003: Climate has been relatively favourable for forest regeneration during the recent decades. If the climate does not abruptly change in the near future no changes will be in forest regeneration (protection forest monitoring). Varmola et al. 2004: Temperature plays the main role in forest regeneration and the temperature sum expresses well the location of the Scots pine timber line. Natural regeneration of pine has been satisfactory, especially combined with soil preparation. Pine forests often regenerate in the form of advance growth without any silvicultural action (protection forest monitoring). Juntunen & Neuvonen 2006: Pine and spruce regenerated more or less regularly in all zones during However, seedling mortality of pine was much higher compared to spruce. The results suggest that stand dynamics in the timberline habitats are strongly controlled by seedling mortality due to a variety of causes (timberline monitoring). Hyppönen et al. 2012: Climate has been favourable for the regeneration of forests in the protection forest area and in high altitude forests. Extreme temperature conditions have stabilized. Seedling establishment has succeeded satisfactorily and seedling mortality has stayed low (protection forest monitoring).

21 Conclusions Stem number and volume of spruce have increased in the sprucedominated regions in all zones during the monitored period. Volume of pine has slowly increased in the pine regions in all zones, as well, but instead, stem number of pine has stagnated or even decreased in all zones. The results indicate a clear potential for the spruce timber and tree lines to advance upwards and northwards. Spruce needs favorable conditions for regeneration but after seedling establishment spruce seedlings seem to be more resistant against biotic and abiotic disturbances than pine seedlings. Responses to environmental changes are species-specific and hence, more favorable environmental conditions do not necessarily lead to expansion of coniferous forest line

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