1 Forest management and silviculture in the north balancing future needs Stjørdal, Norway, August 6-8, 2011 Sustainable use of forests in Upper Lapland A case study Mikko Hyppönen Finnish Forest Research Institute (Metla)
2 Responsible researchers Anssi Ahtikoski Ville Hallikainen Timo Helle Mikko Hyppönen Mikko Jokinen Arto Naskali Seija Tuulentie Martti Varmola Eero Vatanen
3 Partners of Metla University of Lapland University of Oulu University of Joensuu University of Jyväskylä University of Tampere University of Helsinki Finnish Game and Fisheries Research Institute (RKTL) Finnish Environment Institute (SYKE) University of Applied Sciences in Rovaniemi (RAMK)
4 Background Conflicts between different sources of livelihood and land-use forms in northern Lapland forestry and forest industry reindeer husbandry nature-based tourism collection of forest berries and mushrooms nature conservation
5 Study area Utsjoki Enontekiö Inari Figure: K. Mikkola
6 Forest land use in the Inari pilot area Land use Forest land Pine dominated forest land ha % ha % In forestry use Not in forestry use Total Source: Metsähallitus
9 The aim of the study To find out whether different sources of livelihood can be practiced in a sustainable way in the same area at the same time. To develop sustainable practices, methods and alternatives that promote the integration of different forms of forest use in northernmost Finnish Lapland.
10 Timetable and sub-projects 1 Economic importance of livelihoods M. Hyppönen 2 Cultural importance of livelihoods S. Tuulentie M. Jokinen V. Hallikainen 3 Relationships between forestry and reindeer herding T. Helle 4 Sustainability of livelihoods A. Naskali M. Hyppönen Pilotphase 5 Sustainable production strategies M. Varmola A. Ahtikoski Advisory group from stakeholders
11 Multidiciplinary methods Great variety of methods were used in the analyses of ecological, economic, sociological, and cultural studies: - general and generalized linear modelling, - input-output analyses, - qualitative interviews, - inquiries, - simulations (Motti-simulator), and - multi-criteria decision support (HIPRE) methods.
12 Production model alternatives The alternate production models were based on different areal cutting levels: m 3 year m 3 year m 3 year and m 3 year m 3 year -1.
13 Results - Importance of nature-based livelihoods for the local economy Branch Total output M Total gross effects M Employment man-yr Gross employment man-yr Reindeer husbandry Metsähallitus, forestry Private forestry Wood industry Metsähallitus, Natural Heritage Services Tourism
14 Results - Satisfaction toward present landuse distribution 100 % No opinion 80 % 100 % Too much 60 % 40 % 80 % 60 % 40 % Adequately 20 % 20 % 0 % 0 % Too little Erämaita Ls-alueita Porolaitumia Metsätalousmaita Liian vähän Sopivasti Liian paljon Ei osaa sanoa Wilderness Erämaita Nature conservation Ls-alueita area Porolaitumia Reindeer pasture Metsätalousmaita Land for forestry Liian vähän Sopivasti Liian paljon Ei osaa sanoa V. Hallikainen et al. 2006
15 Greenpeace EU Suomen Ls. liitto Metsät. sidosryhmät Eduskunta Paikall. ls.yhdistys Paliskunnat Saamelaiskäräjät Kunta Paikalliset ihmiset Results - Right to take part in land-use decision making in Inari % Cannot say Very much Rather much Ei osaa sanoa A little Not at all Hyvin paljon Jokseenkin paljon Hiukan Ei lainkaan 0 Local Local people people Municipality V. Hallikainen et al Sámi Parliament Reindeer owners' associations Local nature conservation ass. Parliament Forestry stakeholders The Finnish Ass. for Nature Conservation EU Greenpeace
16 Results - Reindeer lichen models - Kainuu No pasturing Pasturing Lichen biomass kg ha -1 Development class Development class
17 Jäkäläbiomassa, kg/ha Results - Biomass models for reindeer lichens - examples of the affecting factors in Upper Lapland Site type Lichen biomass, kg ha -1 Development class Lichen biomass kg ha Moist Dryish Dry 0 Sapling stand Thinning stand Mature stand Moist Dryish
18 milj. euro Results - Effect of forest treatment alternatives on the local economy gross effect of forest sector Present level (vv ) VE 1 VE 2 VE 3 VE 4 VE 5 Ahtikoski et al. 2009
19 milj. euro Results - Effect of forest treatment alternatives on the local economy gross effect of reindeer husbandry Present level ( ) 0 VE 1 VE 2 VE 3 VE 4 VE 5 Ahtikoski et al. 2009
20 Results: HIPRE - Three typical groups 0.8 Group Ryhmä 11 Typical - Tyypillinen result tulos 0.8 Group Ryhmä 2 Typical 2 - Tyypillinen result tulos VE 1 VE 2 VE 3 VE 4 VE 5 0 VE 1 VE 2 VE 3 VE 4 VE 5 Understanding Biodiversity Use of nature Sámi reindeer culture Employment Local economy Group Ryhmä 3 Typical 3 - Tyypillinen result tulos VE 1 VE 2 VE 3 VE 4 VE 5
21 Results The project produced new information about the relationships of the livelihoods, local economic effects of the livelihoods, factors affecting sustainability of the livelihoods, the opinions of the inhabitants, tourists, and stakeholders The project generated instruments usable in corresponding conflict situations.
22 Conclusions 1 - Well-executed interactive and participatory planning of natural resources is, in spite of its problems and weaknesses, a good and necessary means for resource management. - Shortcomings in knowledge exists a lot. - Multi-criteria decision analysis is a useful approach to evaluate the economic, ecological, social, and cultural aspects of the intense conflict. - Forest management treatments which lessen disadvantages to reindeer herding should be further studied and developed.
23 Conclusions 2 Achievement of consensus is worth reaching from the viewpoints of diversity of livelihoods, local economy and inhabitants communality. Forests in Upper Lapland can be used in a sustainable way taking into account different livelihoods, Sámi culture, biological diversity, and recreation possibilities. The achievement of consensus prevails in that the sides of conflicting parties are willing to compromise.
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