Life Cycle Of A Plant Population

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1 Life Cycle Of A Plant Population Seed Rain n=3 Growth And Mortality n=7 Seedling Cohort n=22 Environmental Sieve Seed Bank n=5 Copyright G. Bonan 22

2 Suvivorship Of Seedlings In A Northern Hardwood Forest 1 Number Of Survivors Beech Sugar Maple Yellow Birch Age Class (years) Copyright G. Bonan 22

3 Constant Final Yield In Soybean Populations 1 1 Yield (g m -2 ) 1 1 Day Day 12 Day 21 Day 31 Day 45 Day 84 Day 119 Mean Plant Dry Weight (g) Density (per m 2 ) Density (per m 2 ) Copyright G. Bonan 22

4 Self-Thinning Over A 5-Year Period In Loblolly Pine Stands 1. Density (per hectare) Mean Tree Volume (m 3 ) Slope = -3/ Density (per hectare) Copyright G. Bonan 22

5 Biomass Production In Slash Pine Plantations Biomass (g m -2 ) 35 3 Total 25 2 Forest Floor And Soil 15 1 Tree And Understory Leaf Area Index (m 2 m -2 ) Leaf Area Index NPP Aboveground NPP (g m -2 yr -1 ) Stand Age (years) Stand Age (years) Copyright G. Bonan 22

6 Canopy Transpiration And Stand Development For Scots Pine Stands In Central Siberia 28-years 1 m Height (m) 67-years 15 m Height (m) 13-years 2 m Height (m) 24-years Height (m) 3 m 3 m 383-years Height (m) Leaf Area Index (m 2 m -2 ) Sapwood Area (1 mm 2 m -2 ) LAI Transpiration Sapwood Area Stand Age (years) Canopy Transpiration (mm day -1 ) Copyright G. Bonan 22

7 Succession On Southern Lake Michigan Sand Dunes Grasses Marram Sand reed Little bluestem Jack Pines White Black Oak Choke cherry and Poison ivy Prairie Blueberry and Huckleberry Mesophytic Herbs Pioneer Stage (dune stabilization) Pine Stage (75-15 years) Oak Stage (15-12 years) Pines Oaks Others Basal Area (m 2 per hectare) Forest Stand Dynamics Years Since Dune Stabilization Copyright G. Bonan 22

8 Primary Succession At Glacier Bay, Alaska Pioneer Dryas Alder Spruce Time Since Deglaciation Vegetation 5-1 years Blue-green algae Lichens Liverworts Forbs Soil depth 5.2 cm Soil carbon 1.3 kg m -2 Soil nitrogen 3.8 g m -2 ph 7.2 Litterfall 2 g m -2 yr -1 Time Since Deglaciation Vegetation years Dryas Scattered willow, cottonwood, alder, spruce 7. cm Soil depth Soil carbon 1.3 kg m -2 Soil nitrogen 5.3 g m -2 ph 7.3 Litterfall 3 g m -2 yr -1 Time Since 6-7 years Deglaciation Vegetation Sitka alder Soil depth 8.8 cm Soil carbon 2.9 kg m -2 Soil nitrogen 21.8 g m -2 ph 6.8 Litterfall 278 g m -2 yr -1 Time Since years Deglaciation Vegetation Sitka spruce Soil depth 15.1 cm Soil carbon 9.7 kg m -2 Soil nitrogen 53.3 g m -2 ph 3.6 Litterfall 261 g m -2 yr -1 Copyright G. Bonan 22

9 Old-Field Succession On Upland Sites In The North Carolina Piedmont Density (per hectare) Trees Pine Oak-Hickory Stand Age (years) Density (per hectare) Seedlings And Saplings 25 Pine 2 Oak-Hickory Stand Age (years) Composition And Structure Of A 2-Year Old Stand Hickory 12.8% Other 11.6% Pine 1.5% Percent Of Total Basal Area Oak 74.1% Copyright G. Bonan 22

10 Succession Following Disturbance In A Typical Northern Hardwood Forest High Yellow Birch Importance Birch Aspen Pin Cherry Sugar Maple American Beech Quaking Aspen Rubus species Low Years Since Disturbance Copyright G. Bonan 22

11 Phases Of Biomass Accumulation Following Clear-Cutting High Total Biomass Clear-Cut Reorganization Aggradation Transition Steady State Low Time Aboveground Biomass (g m -2 ) Observed Biomass Accumulation Biomass Accumulation During Aggradation Phase 8 Biomass (g m -2 ) Total Live Vegetation Dead Wood Forest Floor Mineral Soil Years Following Clear-Cutting Copyright G. Bonan 22

12 Effect Of Clear-Cutting On Hydrology Summer Water Flux (cm) P (Forested) ET (Forested) R (Forested) Deforested P (Deforested) ET (Deforested) R (Deforested) Copyright G. Bonan 22

13 Calcium Potassium Nitrate Particulate Matter Annual Net Export In Stream Water (g m -2 yr -1 ) Effect Of Clear-Cutting On Export Of Materials 6-Year Old Forest Deforested Recovery Forested Watershed Clear-Cut Watershed Copyright G. Bonan 22

14 Primary Succession On The Tanana River Floodplain Upland White Spruce Succession On South Slopes Following Fire Upland Black Spruce Succession On North Slopes Following Fire Copyright G. Bonan 22

15 Structure And Function Of Black Spruce Ecosystems Warm Soil Temperature Soil Water Wet Cold Dry Relative Size Net Primary Production Forest Floor Nutrients Available Soil Nutrients Aboveground Trees Mosses Available Nutrients Total Nutrients Phosphorus Nitrogen Post-burn Time 15 years Copyright G. Bonan 22

16 Contrasting Models Of Old-Field Succession Crop Weeds Grassland Shrubland Forest Relay Floristics Crop Weeds Grassland Shrubland Forest Initial Floristic Composition Species Species Time Time Copyright G. Bonan 22

17 Plant Strategies Theory Of Succession 1 Competition High Moderate Low Disturbance 75 1 Stem Allocation 1. Poor Soil.9 Moderate Soil.8 Rich Soil Root=.8 Resource-Ratio Theory Of Succession Root=.6 Root=.4 Root=.2 Root=. Stress Leaf Allocation Copyright G. Bonan 22

18 Gap Dynamics Copyright G. Bonan 22

19 Biomass (g m -2 ) Patch Dynamics And Shifting-Mosaic Steady State Years Deterministic Growth Patch Dynamics Landscape Dynamics Copyright G. Bonan 22

20 Cyclic Microsuccession In An Old-Growth Northern Hardwood Forest Old-Growth Forest Beech sprout origin Beech seed origin Canopy Gap Sugar Maple Yellow Birch Succession Large-Scale Disturbance Successional Communities Copyright G. Bonan 22

21 Regeneration Wave In A Balsam Fir Forest Wind Mature Dying Regenerating Young Mature Dying Copyright G. Bonan 22

22 Fire History Of A Portion Of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, km Copyright G. Bonan 22

23 Anderson Pond, Tennessee Boreal Forest Deciduous Forest Thousands Of Years Before Present Fir Spruce Pine Oak Ash Hickory Hornbeam Pollen (%) Copyright G. Bonan 22

24 Copyright G. Bonan 22

25 Climate History Of Eastern North America: 18, Years Ago To Present Mean January Temperature ( C) Mean July Temperature ( C) Annual Precipitation (mm) Present Copyright G. Bonan 22

26 Copyright G. Bonan 22

27 Spruce Migration Thousand Years BP Oak Migration Thousand Years BP km 4 km Contour From 1 To 15 By 1 Contour From 7 To 15 By 1 Copyright G. Bonan 22

28 ATMOSPHERE T, u,v, q, P S, L, CO 2, N λ E, H, τ x,τ y, S, L, CO 2, dust VEGETATION DYNAMICS gross primary production total respiration net primary production BIOGEOPHYSICS canopy physics energy balance water balance aerodynamics gross photosynthesis maintenance respiration soil water availability allocation growth of leaves, stems, roots mortality, disturbance soil physics plant functional type biomass height litter fall nitrogen supply energy balance water balance SOIL BIOGEOCHEMISTRY carbon cycling plant physiology maximum leaf area index decomposition of litter and soil organic matter photosynthesis respiration stomatal conductance nitrogen allocation wind, radiation temperature, soil water daily leaf area index temperature soil water photosynthesis nitrogen mineralization nitrogen cycling nitrification denitrification BIOGEOCHEMISTRY PHENOLOGY dust mobilization volatile organic compounds respiration trace gases budburst senescence dormancy t ~ years t ~ minutes to hours t ~ days to weeks Copyright G. Bonan 22

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