1 GRAMMAR AND COMMUNICATION IN PORTUGUESE AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE A study in thecontext of teletandem interactions Douglas Altamiro Consolo, Aline de Souza Brocco Department of Modern Languages, State University of Sao Paulo, Rua Cristovao Colombo, 2265, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Brazil Camila Mendes Custodio Department of Modern Languages, State University of Sao Paulo, Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Brazil [ In: CSEDU Conference 2009, Lisbon, Portugal, Proceedings, CD-ROM ] Keywords: Abstract: distant education; foreign languages; grammar; Portuguese; on-line interaction; teletandem. This paper presents a study about the role of grammar in on-line interactions conducted in Portuguese and in English, between Brazilian and English-speaking interactants, with the aim of teaching Portuguese as a foreign language (PFL). The interactions occurred by means of chat and the MSN Messenger, and generated audio and video data for language analysis. Grammar is dealt with from two perspectives, an inductive and a deductive approach, so as to investigate the relevance of systematization of grammar rules in the process of learning PFL in teletandem interactions. 1 INTRODUCTION The growth of the economic and cultural globalization has increased the need of foreign language learning. Portuguese, the eighth most spoken language in the world, stands as one of the important foreign languages (FLS) to be learned nowadays. The political and economic relations between the countries of the Mercosul, 1 for example, call for the spread and use of the Portuguese language. Moreover, the increasing number of foreign students in the Brazilian universities has 1 The alliance of four countries in South America: Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay.
2 determined the implementation of courses of Portuguese throughout the country. The teaching of Portuguese as a foreign language (henceforth PFL) has expanded in past fifteen years, and it encompasses the development of course materials and of a national examination of proficiency in PFL, the CELPE-BRAS. However, professionals in the area of PFL still find difficulties concerning the lack of human resources and material brought up to date and according to didactic trends in language education (Almeida Filho, Oeiras and Rocha, 1998, p.2). According to Kunzendorf (1987), this is because studies in PFL have not been properly grounded in a specialized theoretical framework. Therefore PFL constitutes an important area for field work and research so as to provide theoretical and empirical results for education in Portuguese. The main objective of this study is to investigate the systematization of grammar in the process of learning PFL in a teletandem context. The participants are two undergraduate students of Letters in Brazil, the proficient Portuguese speakers who act as teachers, and two university students learning PFL in the USA. Interactions were conducted by means of the MSN Messenger, in scope of a larger project called Teletandem Brazil: foreign languages for all ( This project aims at providing language training for people who live geographically distant from each other, in addition to significantly bring people from different cultures to communicate. In this sense the project creates the opportunity for Brazilian university students to interact with partners from several countries all over the world in order to (a) develop their proficiency in foreign languages and (b) teach PFL by means of online interactions. The Teletandem Brazil project establishes a virtual context for the teaching and learning of foreign languages at a distance, aided by computers. Teaching and learning happen concurrently in listening, reading, oral production and writing, with the aid of images and pictures. The Brazilian interactants in the Teletandem Brazil project are university students of Letters a BA course for teacher education in Portuguese and in FLS, who participate as volunteers, that is, their engagement in the project is not a formal requirement of their university course. In the USA, however, some of the interactants have to engage in the project as a compulsory activity of their courses of PFL. According to Cziko and Park (2003), the learning of languages in-tandem requires two native speakers of different languages working in collaboration with the intention to teach and learn the languages involved. In this study the tutors of PFL are being educators to become language teachers and are also learners of English as a foreign language. 2 THEORETICAL BACKGROUND One of the principles for interactions in the Teletandem Brazil project is the autonomy of learners, since education is no longer under the responsibility of the teacher. Learners then become responsible for their own process of language learning. In this way, the teletandem experience allows for choices about goals, the content of learning and the resources to be used, offering the possibility of negotiation between the participants. Another principle of teletandem is reflection, which, according to Schön (1983) and Mezirow (1991), bridges the traditional didactic asymmetry, in the sense that the student also becomes a teacher and the teacher becomes as student. Moreover, reflection offers the learners the possibility to negotiate the course of the interactions and, as a result, the route of their learning experience. A third principle of teletandem interactions is reciprocity, that is, both interactants are expected to act as language teachers and learners so that they can experience not only language development as learners but also how to behave as the partner who is more proficient in one of the languages involved. By counting on language proficiency, on previous experiences in foreign language learning - and on teaching experience, if that is the case, and on reflection, the most proficient interactant (the teacher ) can decide on the actions in order to help his or her partner learn a given foreign language. In teletandem contexts the learner is expected to have an active role in the teaching and learning process, and s/he must therefore learn how to become an autonomous learner in order to accomplish the roles of teacher and student in such contexts. Learners can count on the help from their language teachers, and from another helper, a participant of the Teletandem Brazil project who acts a mediator. Mediation occurs in face-to-face meetings and also by means of electronic contacts between the mediator and each of the interactants.
3 Issues concerning language, cultural and interactive aspects are dealt with in the mediation sessions. In order to help learners to become proficient language users and develop skills in listening, speaking, reading and writing, they must be exposed not only to opportunities to communicate in the target language but also be exposed to the grammatical rules that govern such language. Otherwise learners run risk of producing nongrammatical statements which may impair communication. As learning in-tandem presents a new way to learn languages, replacing or complementing classroom approaches to language teaching, this project aims at discussing how the knowledge of grammatical rules by the students helps in learning languages, as in the case of PFL. On the other hand we must point out that the main goal of interactions is communication, and grammar is seen as one aspect of communicative competence (Canale, 1983). 3 PROCEDURE The interactions occurred by means of chat or audio communication, with the help of the MSN, and generated a corpus of written and spoken data. Oral data were recorded by means of a software called Easy Recorder, which is available on the Internet, free of charge. A teletandem session lasts two hours on average. One hour is dedicated to each of the two languages used by the interactants. In principle each session comprises three parts: conversation, feedback on language and evaluation of the session. The first part consists of a conversation in the target language, about one of more topics, and lasts around thirty minutes. In the second part, which takes approximately twenty minutes, the interactants discuss the language used in their previous conversation and the more proficient interactant has the opportunity to provide linguistic feedback to his or her partner, with the help of notes written during the conversation or, in the case of written communication (chat), by referring to the previous lines of their interaction. The third part of the session usually lasts ten minutes and is dedicated to evaluating the whole session, focusing on the difficulties faced by the participant while interacting in teletandem and on suggestions for future action. It has been observed in the data from the Teletandem Brazil project as a whole that most of the interactants initiate the contacts with their partners by , and then interact by means of chat, and only after a period of familiarization with each other they start using audio and video resources to communicate. Salomão (2006) analyzed diaries produced by interactants, which indicate that some participants felt somehow afraid or ashamed to start interacting by means of audio and video, due to either their lack of proficiency in the target language or little experience in using computer resources for communication. Benedetti (2006) states that there may be differences in the technical conditions available for the interactants. While interactants in Brazil can make use of their own home computers or use the equipment available in well-equipped laboratories at university, not all the interactants in the other countries had easy access to computers with microphones and video cameras. In this investigation, an inductive and a deductive approach are used to study the systematization of grammar in teaching-learning of PLE in the context of teletandem interactions. Based on the deductive approach, first the student's inadequacies regarding the structures of Portuguese are checked, especially if statement undermine communication between the interactants, and those gaps in the learner s knowledge of grammatical
4 rules are addressed by the teacher in future interactions. Thus the teaching occurs from the difficulties and needs of students. For example, if during the interaction it is noticed that the learner does not have proper control over the use of imperfect past a verb tense which has different uses and one of them is in combination with the Past Perfect, the teacher deals with the differences between the uses of the verb tenses in Portuguese. By means of the inductive approach the teacher motivates the interactant (=the student )to produce sentences using a given grammar topic to be addressed during the interaction, that is, if the choice is verb tenses to express past ideas, the learner is asked to speak, for example, about past experiences. Such procedure helps the use of selected structures for authentic communication, and highlights the grammar topic to be addressed. It is worth mentioning that since we deal with learners of PFL who speak English as their first language, there are differences - syntactic, semantic, phonetic and morphological - between the learner's mother tongue and Portuguese, a language of Latin origin. The corpus of interactions was analyzed so as to raise and discuss the occurrences of difficulties the interactants in the USA had when producing the Portuguese language, namely the occasions in which lack of grammar competence disturbed or impeded clear communication.
5 4 RESULTS In the following extract (Extract 1) we can observe how one of the the Brazilian interactants helps the North-American person deal with the perfect past in Portuguese ( I-USA1 = the North- American person; I-BR = the Brazilian person ): 2 Extract 1 I-USA1: no passado, como conjugas os verbos In the past, how do you conjugate the verbs? I-BR: Você já aprendeu algum tipo de passado? Have you already learned any type of past tense? I-USA1: nao, nada No, not yet I-BR: Então, vou te explicar como funciona o Pretérito Perfeito, que seria semelhante ao Past Simple, certo? Then I ll explain to you how the simple past in Portuguese is produced, which is similar to the simple past in English, all right? I-USA1: sim Yes I-BR: Para cada pessoa eu tenho uma forma do verbo, como no espanhol. Eu amei. Tu amaste. Ele amou. Nós amamos. Vós amastes. Eles amaram. Esta é a conjugação do verbo "amar" no pretérito perfeito. For each person we have a verb form, as in Spanish. I loved. You loved. He loved. We loved. You loved. They loved. This is the conjugation of the verb love in the simple past. I-USA1: ah, mas você no usa tu e vós, verdade? Ah, but you don t use tu and vos, right? I-BR: Todos os verbos regulares terminados em -ar vão formar o pretérito perfeito desta forma. Como o cantar, dançar, lavar, digitar, etc. All the verbs that end in ar Will form the simple past in this way. Like sing, dance, wash, type, etc I-USA1: Sim, nós não usamos o "tu" e o "vós" Right, we don t use tu and vos. I-USA1: SIM, COMO FALEI, LAVOU, ETC. Yes, like I said, washed, etc. I-BR: Isso mesmo. That s right. I-USA1: QUANDO FUI A PORTUGAL VI MUITO DE TU E VÓS. When I went to Portugal I saw a loto f tu and vos. I-BR: Você usou o pretérito de forma correta. You used the simple past correctly. I-BR: Lá em Portugal eles usam muito "tu" e "vós", mas aqui no Brasil nós não usamos. In Portugal they use tu and vos a lot but here in Brazil we don t (use these two forms). I-USA1: muito bem, e os verbos -er, como são? All right, and the verbs in er, how do they work? I-BR: Eu vendi. Tu vendeste. Ele vendeu. Nós vendemos. Vós vendestes. Eles venderam. Isso só para os regulares terminados em -er. Há muitos verbos terminados em -er que são irregulares. Por exemplo, ver, dizer, ser, ter, etc. I sold, You sold. He sold. We sold. You sold. They sold. This is only for the regular verbs ending in er. There are verbs ending in er which are irregular. For example, see, say, be, have, etc. I-USA1: SIM, E -IR SÃO: PARTI, PARTIU, PARTIMOS, PARTIRAM? Yes, and (for) ir (we have) departed, departed, departed, departed? I-BR: Eu parti. Tu partiste. Ele partiu. Nós partimos. Vós partistes. Eles partiram. I departed. You departed. He departed. We departed. You departed. They departed. The North-American interactant (I-USA1) is able to infer the perfect past form for the verbs falar (say) and lavar (wash), and for the verbs ending in -ir, like ir (departed), which is an irregular verb. All the inferences made by I-USA1 were successful. In Extract 2 we have an example of a problem USA1 has to use the correct gender of the article before the word rio (river), which is masculine in Portuguese, then it should be do rio : Extract 2 (from Brocco, 2007) 2 From Brocco, The English version of the statements is in italics. I-USA1: você sabe o que é St. Patrick's Day? Do you know what St. Patrick s Day is? I-BR: sim Yes. I-BR: o que acontece neste dia? What happens on that day?
6 I-USA1: tudo está 3 verde, as roupas, as ruas e também é normal que a gente bebe muito. Everything is Green, the clothes, the streets and it is normal to drink a lot. I-USA1: veja esta foto DA RIO em Chicago Have a look at this picture of the river in Chicago. rized/chicago_river_green [...] In Extracts 3 and 4 (from Custódio, 2007) we see examples of the difficulty to use the verbs estar and ser : Extract 3 I-USA2: estão aqui 9:30 It is 9:30 here Extract 4 I-USA2: agora no Brasil esta verão It is summer in Brazil now A summary of the main difficulties faced by the other North-American interactant, I-USA2, which are similar to the problems presented in the interactions with I-USA1, is presented in Table 1: Table 1: Difficulties in grammar in PFL. GRAMMAR TOPIC word gender verbs ser and estar in Portuguese DIFFICULTY FACED BY I-USA2 I-USA2 does not use articles correctly. Since both verbs correspond to be in English, I-USA2 cannot make clear 3 Instead of tude está verde USA1 could have used tudo é verde. This example indicates his difficulty to use the verbs estar and ser, which correspond to be in English. Prepositions subject & verb agreement Pronouns affirmative & negative structures past tenses distinctions in meaning. I-USA2 had some difficulty to use some prepositions in Portuguese.. I-USA2 had problems to use some verb forms because in Portuguese verb forms vary according to the subject pronouns. I-USA2 has problems concerning both subjectpronoun agreement and to use pronouns after subjects. In English it is possible to use I don t think + an affirmative sentence; in Portuguese you must say Eu penso (I think) + a negative sentence. I-USA2 had problems with the use of several past tenses. To finish the data analysis we show the types and frequency of linguistic feedback provided to I- USA1 by the Brazilian interactant. We consider as feedback all types of reflection about linguistic items, including grammar, vocabulary, spelling, discourse and phonology. Table 2 presents the frequency of the three types of feedback found in the data: Table 2: Types of linguistic feedback. Types of Number of Percentages linguistic items occurrences Grammar 44 28,4% Vocabulary 78 50,3% Spelling 8 5,2% Discourse 21 13,5% Phonology 4 2, 6% Total: 155 Total: 100% The information in Table 2 reveals that most of the linguistic feedback (50,3%) focused on vocabulary, a rather expected fact. Foreign language learners usually need help to learn new words and when they face lack of words while the language learning process develops. The amount of feedback on grammar, the focus of this investigation, was not very high. However, the frequency observed (28,4%), together with the cases of grammar mistakes raised in the corpus, suggest that grammar needs attention in foreign language learning.
7 5 CONCLUSIONS The results indicate there is a place for teaching grammar in the process of teletandem learning of PFL. The deductive approach helped the systematization of grammatical structures, and sometimes the inductive approach was more useful. And the focus on grammar helped the North- American interactant progress towards a better command of written and spoken Portuguese. Further investigation is needed in order to analyze larger corpora, from several interactants and perhaps from different target languages, and investigate the implications of focusing on grammar for language development in teletandem contexts. Mezirow, J Transformative Dimensions of Adult Learning. San Francisco:Jossey-Bass. Salomão, A. C. B. É Teletandem ou não? [Is it Teletandem?] Teletandem News, year 1, v. 3, r_ano_i_n_3.pdf. Schön, D. A How professionals think in action. New York:Basic Books. REFERENCES Almeida Filho, J. C. P.; Oeiras, J. Y. Y.; Rocha, H. V Português na internet: questões de planejamento e produções de materiais [Portuguese on the Internet: issues of planning and production of materials]. IV Congresso RIBIE, Brasilia, Brazil. Benedetti, A. M O primeiro ano de projeto Teletandem Brasil [The first year of the Teletandem Brazil Project.]. Teletandem News, year 1, v. 3, r_ano_i_n_3.pdf. Brocco, A. S The systematization of grammar via a deductive approach in the teaching/learning of Portuguese in a teletandem context. Report of a Scientific Initiation study. Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Brazil:UNESP, Department of Modern Languages. Canale. M From communicative competence to communicative language pedagogy. In Richards, J. C. & Schmidt, R. W. (eds.) Language and Communication, Harlow:Longman, Custódio, C. M Final report on a scientific initiation project. Sao Jose do Rio Preto, Brazil:UNESP, Department of Modern Languages. Cziko, G. A.; Park, S Internet audio communication for second language learning: a comparative review of six programs. Language Learning & Technology, v. 7, n.1, Kunzendorf, J. C O ensino-aprendizagem de Português para Estrangeiros adultos em SãoPaulo (Reflexões - Considerações - Propostas) [The teaching and learning of Portuguese for adult foreigners in Sao Paulo (Reflections Considerations Proposals). MA thesis. Sao Paulo, Brazil:Pontificia Universidade Catolica.
Course Title: Spanish III Course Number: NM 112545101 RISD 08311 Open to grades: 9-12 Credit: One unit Prerequisite: Successful completion of Spanish I and II with a grade of 80% or above or a significant
SPAN 100/101 ELEMENTARY SPANISH COURSE OBJECTIVES This Spanish course pays equal attention to developing all four language skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing), with a special emphasis on
Masconomet Regional High School Curriculum Guide Course Title: Spanish II CP Course Number: 4311 Department: Foreign Languages Grade Level and Phase: 9 College Prep Length of Course: Year Course Description:
Chetek-Weyerhaeuser High School Spanish I Units and Spanish IA Unit 1 1. I can recite and use the Spanish alphabet for reading, writing and spelling. 2. I can recall and count in Spanish. 3. I can identify
The New Forest Small School Spanish For Children Aged 11 to 16 OCR GCSE in Spanish J732 AIMS AND OBJECTIVES To provide: A meaningful and enjoyable educational experience Known and achievable but challenging
Spanish III Curriculum Map Nevada/National s 1.1: Students engage in conversations, provide and obtain information, express feelings and emotions, and exchange opinions 1.2: Students understand and interpret
Bexley City School World Language Program Overview Communication express needs, feelings, and opinions. provide and obtain information. understand spoken and written language. function in authentic situations.
Open University of Mauritius Foundation Course Foundation Level Spanish-OUfc007 1. Introduction In line with its philosophy to democratise access to university education, the Open University of Mauritius
Instructor: J. Luis Jaimes-Domínguez firstname.lastname@example.org Communication: Course Syllabus SP 101OC (On Line Learning) Introductory Spanish I Wilfrid Laurier University Bricker Academic Building Waterloo,
THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES, ST. AUGUSTINE FACULTY OF HUMANITIES AND EDUCATION CENTRE FOR LANGUAGE LEARNING COURSE DOCUMENTATION COURSE CODE: SPAN 1101 COURSE TITLE: LEVEL 1A SPANISH NO. OF CREDITS:
Department of Portuguese University of Massachusetts Dartmouth Spring 2014 Portuguese 102- Class time: Instructor: MWF e-mail: Office hrs: COURSE OBJECTIVES: Portuguese 102 is the second course in a four-course
Spanish I Syllabus Teacher Mrs. Pagnone Email email@example.com Period 4 th Classroom Location Building E Classroom 503 Course Overview Bienvenidos! I am glad to have you in my Spanish I class.
Spanish 1 Course Overview Spanish is the second most commonly spoken language in the United States. People in more than 20 different countries speak Spanish and it ranks within the top three most spoken
Title EMS Spanish grade 8 Type Essential Document Map Authors Joseph Filoramo, Susan Corbo, Joel DeBarros, Carlos Curet, Merced Solis, Julieth Saavedra, Marisa LaForgia Subject World Languages Course Spanish
UNIT 1 UNIT OVERVIEW: Students will meet the curricular goals and objectives by: Responding to and initiating greetings and farewells Spelling and providing names Describing people and their personalities
Name of Course: Spanish 4 Course Number: 544 Grade Level(s): 11-12 Unit or Strand: Unit 1 Review Spanish 3 Unit 2 Uses of the Imperfect Tense, Explore more irregular preterite verbs Unit 3 Irregular preterite,
Subject: Spanish as a Foreign Language, Middle School Program Overview: The Spanish as a Foreign Language Program at BNS focuses on the development of communication and comprehension skills. The Middle
Master of Arts Program in Teaching English as a Foreign Language Academic Program Master of Arts Program in Teaching English as a Foreign Language Degree Offered Objectives Master of Arts (Teaching English
COURSE SYLLABUS SPANISH IA COURSE DESCRIPTION Spanish 1A (first-year Spanish, first semester) is a communicative beginning-level Spanish course. Students will begin to develop their Spanish proficiency
Spanish First Grade 1. listen to and recite the alphabet 2. listen to and recite the days of the week 3. listen to and recite the months of the year 4. create My Spanish Book (cover) 5. listen to and recite
Unit 1: Greetings and Personal Information 2 weeks Sp 1.1 Sp 1.2 Sp 1.3 Sp 1.4 Sp 1.9 The will 1. Greet a person in 2. Introduce themselves ask other person s name 3. Ask where are from Writing on board
KINDERGARTEN SPANISH Listening, Speaking & Writing the student will do the following: a. Be introduced to phonics through pronunciation of the alphabet. b. Respond to commands, greetings, basic manners,
Portuguese as Foreign Language Level A.1 SYLLABUS NON-DEGREE GRANTING 1. CURRICULAR UNIT Portuguese as Foreign Language Level A.1 2. MAIN SCIENTIFIC AREA, according to Portaria nº 256/2005, of March 16
Guideline for Pre-Service Teachers.... look see, (Data Driven Learning). Both teachers and learners can use corpus linguistics in various ways within the classroom. A teacher might collect a set of student
Welcome to Spanish Class! 1. My name is Mrs. Dinsmore-Talbott. You may call me that, or since it is such a long name, you may call me Mrs. D-T. Please don t call me Hey teacher! WEBSS Goal #1: 2. Materials
Adopted: 6/25/14 SUBJECT AREA WORLD LANGUAGE COURSE TITLE: GRADE LEVEL: Grades 9-12 COURSE LENGTH: One Year PREREQUISITE: Spanish 1 or equivalent experience CREDIT: 10 units UC/CSU CREDIT: Receives UC/CSU
COURSE TITLE: Spanish III/IV Honors GRADE LEVELS: 11-12 COURSE DESCRIPTION: Honors Spanish III/IV is the third and fourth course in the sequence in preparing students for the Advanced Placement Test in
1. Repaso Introduce/review material from Avancemos 1A text (units 1-4) Flashcards Speaking activities Antes de Avanzar Describing self and others Listening activities Review and Introduction Daily schedules
Masconomet Regional High School Curriculum Guide Course Title: Spanish III CP Course Number: 4321 Department: Foreign Language Grade Level and Phase: 10 College Prep Length of Course: Year See also Spanish
SPANISH II 2010-2011 CURRICULUM COURSE DESCRIPTION Spanish 2 provides opportunities for students to discuss the many reasons for learning languages and enables them to develop an understanding of the people
SPA101: ELEMENTARY SPANISH I SYLLABUS LECTURE HOURS/CREDITS: 3/3 CATALOG DESCRIPTION Prerequisite: RDG099 Introduction to College Reading III Introductory grammar and pronunciation form the basis of this
Pre-Kindergarten The primary focus of the Spanish program in Pre-Kindergarten is the exposure to a foreign language. Since students are introduced to a language and culture that may not be familiar, an
Español II 2012-2013 Señora Kinneman firstname.lastname@example.org Course Description In this course the Spanish II student studies culture, grammar, pronunciation and vocabulary. Oral presentations are also an element
Expert Reader 1000 Chapter 5 by Elen Fernandes 5- A Dog Barbara wants a dog. She lives alone, so she thinks a dog can be a very nice friend. She decides to go to a pet shop. Barbara sees the animals at
SPANISH COURSE FOR FOREIGNERS - BASIC 2 I. COURSE DESCRIPTION The main objective of the course "Spanish for Foreigners," Basic Level 1, is to develop in its participants those basic communication skills
Training Programme in Spanish as a Foreign Language Syllabus Beginner Level Spanish 1 Course Syllabus Beginner Level Spanish (A1 CEFR) Idiomes UPF SPANISH LEVEL 1 (A1 CEFR) July 2015 Total number of hours:
O CÉU É O LIMITE THE SKY IS THE LIMIT PORTUGUESE ACHIEVEMENT CONFERENCE Dr. Beatriz de Paiva Portuguese provision in UK universities Portuguese in UG studies: case studies CELPE-Bras Portuguese in UK Higher
Subject: Spanish I Expresáte! Spanish I Calendar : 2008-2009 School Year Timeframe: 1 st 9 weeks Level/Grade: Secondary The student will be doing the following: Chapter 1 Vocabulary Asking someone s name
Unit 1, September TB Preliminary Lesson Unit 2, October TB Unit 5 Lesson 1 What do you and your family like to eat? Do you live in an apartment or a house? What do you do for fun when you are not in school?
NEW YORK CITY COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY DIVISION OF LIBERAL ARTS DEPARTMENT OF THE HUMANITIES COURSE OF STUDY: SPA 1101/SP 101 COURSE TITLE: ELEMENTARY SPANISH I COURSE DESCRIPTION: This is a course for beginning
LOTE STANDARDS SPANISH 5 COLLEGE http://www.emsc.nysed.gov/ciai/lote/lotestands/loteml1a.html Standard 1: Students will be able to use a language other than English for communication. Key Idea: LISTENING
Welcome to the first edition of Ponto de Encontro: Portuguese as a World Language! This program provides an ample, flexible, communication-oriented framework for use in the beginning and intermediate Portuguese
PELLISSIPPI STATE COMMUNITY COLLEGE MASTER SYLLABUS BEGINNING SPANISH I SPAN 1010 Class Hours: 3.0 Credit Hours: 3.0 Laboratory Hours: 0.0 Date Revised: Summer 10 Catalog Course Description: Introduction
2015.16 Spanish I, Quarter 4 Big Ideas/Key Concepts: Students will discuss and write about what is going on right now. Students will continue to improve their reading, writing, listening and speaking abilities
Continuing Education of English Language Teachers in Sao Paulo State Public Schools in a Virtual Environment Mariangela Braga Norte Universidade Estadual Paulista Marília (Brazil) Mariangela@marilia.unesp.br
90 HOURS PROGRAMME LEVEL A1 GENERAL AIMS On completing this course, students should be able to: be familiar with the Spanish alphabet letters and signs and relate them to the corresponding sounds. recognise
QUESTÕES QUE COBRAM O CONHECIMENTO DOS CONECTIVOS: 1 UFPR 77 - Which alternative can replace thus (line 5) in the text without changing the meaning? -) nevertheless -) though -) consequently -) despite
Syllabus Course Description for Spanish I: Spanish 1 constitutes a two-semester study of Level 1 Spanish for high school credit. Proficiencies of listening, speaking, reading, and writing, as well as language
Name of Course: Spanish 2 Course Number: 542 Grade Level(s): 9-12 Unit or Strand: Unit 1 Review of Spanish 1 Unit 2- The verb tener, describing family members Unit 3- Go verbs,indirect Object Pronouns,Restaurant
For the study of Foreign Language, Mooresville High School has developed overarching core strands. These strands derived from the North Carolina Standard Course of Study for Foreign Language. Each strand
Spanish IA Grade Levels 9 12 Spanish IA addresses the following: vocabulary, grammar, pronunciation, reading, and writing in Spanish basic conversational skills alphabet and numbers common greetings and
Spanish I Textbook: Avancemos I Aligned to NYS LOTE Curriculum Checkpoint A September Lección preliminar Greetings Numbers 1-10 Days of the week Unidad 1 (Leisure, Food, Personal ID) Subject pronouns Ser
Grandparents 2: Well grandma, there is an easier way to do it http://coerll.utexas.edu/brazilpod/cob/lesson.php?p=16 Conversa Brasileira Grandparents 2: Well grandma, there is Ruth s recipe has to be in
COMMUNICATION COMMUNITIES CULTURES COMPARISONS CONNECTIONS STANDARDS FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE LEARNING Preparing for the 21st Century Language and communication are at the heart of the human experience. The
UNIVERSIDAD ABIERTA PARA ADULTOS UAPA VICERRECTORIA ACADEMICA SCHOOL OF LANGUAGES SUBJECT S PROGRAM ENGLISH I CAREERS IN WHICH THIS SUBJECT IS TAUGHT PSYCHOLOGY ACCOUNTING MARKETING BUSINESS MANAGEMENT
Inglês 6. o ANO PLANOS AULA DE CARLOTA MARTINS NOÉMIA RODRIGUES MATERIAL EXCLUSIVO Professor ÍNDICE Introdução.................................................................................................
CHARTES D'ANGLAIS SOMMAIRE CHARTE NIVEAU A1 Pages 2-4 CHARTE NIVEAU A2 Pages 5-7 CHARTE NIVEAU B1 Pages 8-10 CHARTE NIVEAU B2 Pages 11-14 CHARTE NIVEAU C1 Pages 15-17 MAJ, le 11 juin 2014 A1 Skills-based
Study Plan for Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics Master of Arts in Applied Linguistics is awarded by the Faculty of Graduate Studies at Jordan University of Science and Technology (JUST) upon the fulfillment
YEAR 7 SPANISH PERIODS: PREP: 3 x 35 mins per week. 1 x 30 minutes per week. The pupils start Spanish in Year 7 and continue on into Year 8. At the end of Year 6, pupils are given the choice of studying
Provedor de Internet e Serviços - (41) 3673-5879 Balance PCC para 3 links adsl com modem em bridge (2 links de 8mb, 1 link de 2mb). Seu servidor deverá estar com a versão 3.24 ou superior do Mikrotik RouterOS
MA in English language teaching Pázmány Péter Catholic University *** List of courses and course descriptions *** Code Course title Contact hours per term Number of credits BMNAT10100 Applied linguistics
Programme Specification (Postgraduate) Date amended: March 2012 1. Programme Title(s): MA in Applied Linguistics and TESOL 2. Awarding body or institution: University of Leicester 3. a) Mode of study Campus:
Introduction First Impressions: Wow Your Portuguese Friends! Portuguese English Vocabulary Phrase Usage 3 Grammar Points 3 Cultural Insight 4 Portuguese Oi. Meu nome é. Oi. Meu nome é. Prazer em conhecê-la.
Advanced CB 21 A One level Assess descriptions and narrations of factual and technical materials. Discriminate for accurate information while taking notes of a complex discourse. Assess the essential message
Curriculum for Spanish in Grade 7 Mendham Township Middle School Preliminary Lesson-Avancemos! Summary: In this introductory lesson, students will review basic pronunciation techniques, the alphabet, greetings
HS Spanish II Curriculum Guide (including Course Objectives, Weekly Content, and Scope and Sequence) WLG200: Spanish II Course Description Students continue their introduction to Spanish with fundamental
Sir John Cass Red Coat School Programme of Study Key Stage 4 Subject: Spanish 1 Year 10 Year 11 Topics Covered/ Areas of Focus: Leisure - Free Time and the Media Free time activities Shopping, money, fashion
1 Objetivos didácticos_unit 1 1.1 Listado de fórmulas de saludo y de presentación 1.2 Formar sustantivos para hablar de profesiones 1.3 Hablar de profesiones 1.4 Formar adjetivos de nacionalidad 1.5 Adjetivos
Adlai E. Stevenson High School Course Description Division: World Languages Course Number: SPA201, SPA202 Course Title: Spanish 2 Course Description: Students continue to develop listening, speaking, reading,
Portuguese as Foreign Language Level B.2 SYLLABUS NON-DEGREE GRANTING 1. CURRICULAR UNIT Portuguese as Foreign Language Level B.2 2. MAIN SCIENTIFIC AREA, according to Portaria nº 256/2005, of March 16
TAMALPAIS UNION HIGH SCHOOL DISTRICT Larkspur, CA Course of Study FRENCH 1-2 I. INTRODUCTION From the beginning, the first year French foreign language program will initiate and develop the students receptive
COURSE AGENDA - LET 3308-1 Brazilian Culture and Portuguese Language Intermediate Portuguese Class time: Mon Sat, 11:30AM - 12:45PM Professor Luciana Lage Email: email@example.com This is an
Trinity Certificate in TESOL Trinity TESOL Study Resource no 7: Teaching Grammar in Context When we teach grammar, we not only help our learners to express themselves, but we also fulfil their expectations
Curriculum Map Spanish I State Standards Standard I Communication: The student communicates competently in Spanish. Standard 2 Culture: The student gains knowledge and understanding of Spanish-speaking
1. Welcome! UCSD LINGUISTICS LANGUAGE PROGRAM Welcome to the Linguistics Language Program, a unit of the Department of Linguistics at UCSD. We offer basic instruction in American Sign Language, Arabic,
TUFTS UNIVERSITY DEPARTMENT OF ROMANCE LANGUAGES SPANISH 001 Online course The Department of Romance Languages is committed to educating students in the corresponding languages and cultures, both at home
ESSENTIAL QUESTION: What is the larger question that we are investigating with our learning in this segment of instruction? 8 th Grade TIME FRAME [By Month/ Quarter] 1 st Quarter 1.1 5.2 STANDARD OR BENCHMARK
COURSE SYLLABUS Winter/Spring 2009 Spanish for Professionals (SIP) I For those new to the SIP program or who participated in the noncredit option who now wish to enroll for credit. Web Enhanced Course!
ABSTRACT USING PODCASTS TO IMPROVE LISTENING COMPREHENSION IN THE ARABIC CLASSROOMS FATIMA AHMED This study investigated the use of podcasts to improve listening comprehension in children s Arabic classrooms.
start portuguese speak Portuguese instantly no books no writing absolute confi dence p To find out more, please get in touch with us. For general enquiries and for information on Michel Thomas: Call: 020
Teaching English as a Foreign Language (TEFL) Certificate Programs Our TEFL offerings include one 27-unit professional certificate program and four shorter 12-unit certificates: TEFL Professional Certificate
Week 1 Week 2 Capítulo Preliminar 1. Intro to Spanish speaking world/nombres en Espanol 2. Frases útiles/ los cognados 3. El Alfabeto 4. Los Colores 5. Los números (0-30) and 1.3 Students present information,
Subject: Spanish as a Foreign Language Overview: The Spanish as a Foreign Language Program at BNS focuses on the development of communication skills. The kindergarten class is designed as an introductory
CELTA Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages Syllabus and Assessment Guidelines Fourth Edition CELTA (Certificate in Teaching English to Speakers of Other Languages) is regulated
Course of Study - Spanish 7-8. Introduction/ Course Description: Spanish 7-8 is a semester course in the World Languages Department that is open to 9th -th graders who possess the necessary prerequisite
Division of Arts, Humanities & Wellness Department of World Languages and Cultures Course Syllabus SPANISH II LAN 230 Semester and Year: Spring 2014 Course and Section number: 230- Meeting Times: Location:
Acknowledgements Page 3 Introduction Page 8 Academic orientation Page 10 Setting study goals in academic English Focusing on academic study Reading and writing in academic English Attending lectures Studying