1 MOLECULAR AND CELLULAR BIOLOGY, May 1988, p Vol. 8, No /88/ $02.0O/O Copyright 1988, American Society for Microbiology Transcriptional Regulation of the Arabidopsis thaliana Chalcone Synthase Gene RHONDA L. FEINBAUM AND FREDERICK M. AUSUBEL* Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, and Department of Molecular Biology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts Received 9 November 1987/Accepted 25 January 1988 We have cloned an Arabiodpsis thaliana chalcone synthase (CHS) gene on the basis of cross-hybridization with a Petroselinum hortense CHS cdna clone. The protein sequence deduced from the A. thaliana CHS DNA sequence is at least 85% homologous to the CHS sequences from P. hortense, Antirrhinum majus, and Petunia hybrida. Southern blot analysis indicated that CHS is a single-copy gene in A. thaliana. High-intensity light treatment of A. thaliana plants for 24 h caused a 50-fold increase in CHS enzyme activity and an accumulation of visibly detectable levels of anthocyanin pigments in the vegetative structures of these plants. A corresponding increase in the steady-state level of CHS mrna was detected after high-intensity light treatment for the same period of time. The accumulation of CHS mrna in response to high-intensity light was due, at least in part, to an increased rate of transcription of the CHS gene as demonstrated by nuclear runoff experiments. The accumulation of flavonoid compounds, a group of secondary metabolic products which includes the flavones, flavonols, isoflavonoids, and anthocyanins, is highly regulated in response to environmental stimuli and is thought to play an important role in protecting plants from environmental stress (26). For example, UV light treatment of parsley tissue culture cells resulted in the accumulation of flavone and flavonol glycosides (44). These flavonoid compounds absorbed UV light and were proposed to protect the cells from UV-induced damage (16). In legumes, fungal pathogens and elicitors induced the production of isoflavonoid phytoalexins that inhibited the growth of the pathogenic fungi (3, 11, 39). Similarly, light, temperature, and availablity of nutrients and water affected the accumulation of anthocyanins, pigments which are responsible for the red and blue coloration of various plant structures, in many plant species (23, 45). The light-induced production of anthocyanins in the epidermis may have evolved to protect plants against solar radiation (7, 12). The accumulation of flavone, flavonol, and isoflavonoid compounds in response to UV light and pathogen stress has been shown to be due to an increase in the rate of transcription of the chalcone synthase (CHS) gene, which encodes the first enzyme unique to flavonoid biosynthesis, and other flavonoid biosynthetic genes (9, 10, 20). By analogy with the production of these flavonoid compounds, the accumulation of anthocyanins in response to specific environmental conditions might also be due to transcriptional regulation of CHS and other genes in the biosynthetic pathway. CHS genes, or cdna copies of these genes, have been isolated from several plant species including Antirrhinum majus, Zea mays, Petunia hybrida, Petroselinum hortense, and Phaseolus vulgaris (19, 33, 35, 40, 46). CHS has been shown to be regulated transcriptionally in response to two environmental signals, UV light (in P. hortense and A. majus) and fungal pathogen treatment (in P. vulgaris) (9, 10, 17, 20). To identify and characterize putative trans-acting regulatory factors that control CHS expression, it would be advantageous to be able to isolate mutants altered in these factors. However, the systems in which environmental reg- * Corresponding author ulation of CHS has been best studied, P. hortense and P. vulgaris, are not readily amenable to genetic analyses. In contrast, Arabidopsis thaliana is particularly well suited to genetic studies: it has the smallest known genome size (7 x 107 base pairs) of any dicotyledonous plant and a generation time of only 6 weeks, produces up to 10,000 seeds per plant, is self-fertile, and is very small in size (14, 26). This report establishes that high-intensity light conditions, which induce the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in the leaves and stems of A. thaliana plants, cause a concomitant increase in the level of CHS enzyme activity. We demonstrate that the increase in CHS activity is due, at least in part, to an increased rate of transcription of CHS. MATERIALS AND METHODS Plasmids. The plasmid plf15 is a 1.5-kilobase (kb) P. hortense CHS cdna cloned into pbr322 (33). B. Lalonde provided the plasmid pbl104, which is an EcoRI genomic fragment containing a portion of the gene coding for the A. thaliana acetolactate synthase enzyme in puc18. pcab1.8 is a puc8 plasmid derivative that contains a 1.8-kb fragment which includes one of the three A. thaliana chlorophyll alb binding protein (cab) genes (22). Isolation of CHS. Standard plaque hybridization procedures were used to isolate A. thaliana CHS clones from a X EMBL4 library (24). All radiolabeled DNA probes were generated by nick translation (34). Plaque hybridizations and Southern blot hybridizations with the heterologous parsley cdna probe were done in 0.5 M Tris hydrochloride (ph 7.5)-i M NaCl-10% dextran sulfate-1% sodium dodecyl sulfate-0.2% polyvinylpyrrolidone (40,000 daltons)-0.2% bovine serum albumin-0.2% Ficoll (400,000 daltons)-0.1% sodium pyrophosphate-100,ug of salmon testis DNA per ml at 65 C, and washes were in 2 x SSC (1 x SSC is 0.15 M NaCl plus M sodium citrate)-1% sodium dodecyl sulfate at 65 C for 1 h. Southern hybridizations with the homologous probe were as described above, except that 25% formamide was added to the hybridization solution, the hybridization was at 45 C, and washes were at 50 C. Light treatment. All plants were grown in a climatecontrolled greenhouse at 22 ± 5 C. Seeds were planted at a density of 2,000 per 28- by 55- by 7-cm flat in Terralite
2 1986 FEINBAUM AND AUSUBEL Metromix 200 growing medium. Plants were grown under natural photoperiod for 32 weeks, from November to December, and received an average of 25 RE of sunlight per M2 per s during daylight hours. Sets of flats were then placed under high-intensity sodium lamps (General Electric LU1000) suspended at a height of 30 in. (ca. 75 cm) and received additional illumination, (total light intensity, 1,500 pue/m2s) for 6, 12, or 24 h. The ambient temperature under the high-intensity sodium lamps was approximately 5 C higher than normal greenhouse conditions, and therefore plants exposed to the high-intensity lights were watered more heavily. Plants were harvested immediately after the light treatment; 100 g of fresh whole plant tissue was used to prepare nuclei, and the rest was frozen in liquid nitrogen for use in either RNA preparations or enzyme assays. Control plants remained under natural photoperiod and were harvested simultaneously with the 24-h light treatment time point. Anthocyanin levels were determined from a separate set of plants which were treated in an identical fashion. Anthocyanin extraction. Frozen plant tissue (0.5 g) was ground in a mortar and pestle, total plant pigments were extracted in 1.5 ml of 1% HCl in methanol, and 1.0 ml of distilled H20 was added. Chlorophyll was separated from the anthocyanins by back-extraction with chloroform. The quantity of anthocyanin pigments in control and high-lighttreated plants was determined by spectrophotometric measurements of the aqueous-methanol phase (A530 - A657 was used as a measure of anthocyanin content) and normalized to the dry weight of tissue used in each sample (31). RNA analysis. Isolation of RNA was by a modification of the phenol-sodium dodecyl sulfate method (2). Poly(A)+ RNA was selected on oligo(dt)-cellulose columns (24). RNA was separated in formaldehyde-agarose gels (15), and Northern blot hybridization and washing were as stated above for Southern hybridizations with the heterologous probe, except that 50% formamide was added and the temperature of hybridization was 42 C. The 5' end of the mrna was mapped by primer extension and S1 nuclease analyses (2). A synthetic oligonucleotide that corresponded to the first 30 nucleotides of the CHS-coding sequence was used in the primer extension reaction. For the S1 probe, this same oligonucleotide was hybridized to a single-stranded M13 mpl9 clone of CHS (60CHS) and extended with DNA polymerase I Klenow fragment. A specific 570-nucleotide probe that extended 5' of the beginning of the CHS-coding sequence was generated by cutting the products of the Klenow reaction with SspI. The S1 and primer extension reaction products were compared to the sequence of 60CHS generated by the Sanger et al. sequencing method (36). The primer for the sequencing reactions was also the 30 base oligonucleotide. The sequencing primer did not have a terminal 5' phosphate; however, this should have minimal effect on the mobility of the fragments greater than 50 bases in length (42). Enzyme assays. A crude extract made from whole plants was used in all enzyme assays. For each set of plants assayed, 0.5 to 1.0 g of frozen plant tissue was ground with 0.1 g of Dowex 1x2 (Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis, Mo.) equilibrated with 0.2 M Tris hydrochloride (ph 8.0) in a mortar and pestle. Two milliliters of 0.2 M Tris hydrochloride (ph 7.8)-14 mm P-mercaptoethanol was then added to MOL. CELL. BIOL. the frozen tissue, and the sample was homogenized until it melted. The slurry was stirred for 20 min on ice, and the cellular debris was removed by centrifugation. A 10-,ul sample of this plant extract was used in each enzyme assay (37) in a final volume of 100,ul. The malonyl-2-['4c]coenzyme A reaction substrate was purchased from New England Nuclear Corp., Boston, Mass., and the other substrate, p-coumaroyl coenzyme A, was synthesized by the method of Stockigt and Zenk (41). Assays were incubated at 30 C for 15 min, and then 30,ug of naringenin (Roth; high-pressure liquid chromatography grade) was added to terminate the reaction. Reaction products were extracted with 200,ul of ethylacetate, and 40 [L1 from each reaction was analyzed by chromatography on a silica gel thin-layer chromatography plate in 75% chloroform-12.5% acetic acid- 12.5% formic acid. The naringenin was visualized by illumination of the thin-layer chromatography plate with UV light, autoradiography, or both. The amount of naringenin produced by the enzyme reaction was determined by scraping the thin-layer chromatography plates and quantifying the amount of 14C comigrating with the unlabeled naringenin by scintillation counting. To obtain a measurement of specific activity (counts per minute of labeled naringenin per microgram of protein), the amount of protein added to each reaction was determined by using the Bio-Rad protein assay (Bio-Rad Laboratories, Richmond, Calif.). In each case, before the specific activity was calculated, the number of counts per minute comigrating with naringenin obtained from reactions in which no coumaroyl-coenzyme A was added was subtracted from the amount of labeled naringenin produced. Nuclear assay runoff. Nuclei from 3 ½2-week-old A. thaliana plants were prepared by a modification of the method of Olszewski et al. (29). Leaf tissue (100 g) was washed with cold distilled H20 and chilled to 4 C. All of the following steps were carried out at 4 C unless indicated. The tissue was chopped into small pieces, submerged in diethyl ether for 3 min, rinsed with cold distilled H20, homogenized in 3 volumes of nucleus isolation buffer (1 M sucrose, 10 mm Tris hydrochloride [ph 7.2], 5 mm MgCl2, 10 mm I-mercaptoethanol) with a Brinkmann Polytron PT20 ST (Brinkmann Instruments, Inc., Westbury, N.Y.), and filtered through four layers of cheesecloth and one layer of Miracloth (Calbiochem-Behringer, La Jolla, Calif.). The homogenate was subjected to centrifugation at 9,000 rpm for 15 min in a Beckman JA-10 rotor (Beckman Instruments, Inc., Fullerton, Calif.). The pellet was suspended with a Dounce homogenizer in 20 ml of nucleus isolation buffer. The volume of suspended nuclei was carefully measured, and 100% Percoll solution (34.23 g of sucrose, 1.0 ml of 1 M Tris hydrochloride [ph 7.2], 0.5 ml of 1 M MgCl2, 34,u1 of,-mercaptoethanol, and Percoll to 100 ml) was added to generate a final concentration of 35% (vol/vol) Percoll. Nuclei suspended in 35% Percoll were layered over 7.5 ml of 60% (vol/vol) Percoll to create four discontinuous Percoll gradients. The gradients were subjected to centrifugation in a JS-13 rotor at an initial speed of 2,000 rpm for 10 min and then at 8,000 rpm for an additional 20 min. The crude nuclei were harvested from between the 35% and 60% layers and diluted with 5 volumes of nucleus isolation buffer. Nuclei were collected by centrifugation at 8,000 rpm for 10 min in a JS-13 rotor, suspended in 10 volumes of nuclei isolation buffer, and then collected by centrifugation. The crude nuclear pellet was suspended in 1.0 ml of storage buffer (20 mm N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid [ph 7.2], 5 mm MgCl2, 2 mm dithiothreitol, 50% glycerol) and stored at -70 C. The number of nuclei in each preparation was determined by quantitating their DNA content with diphenylamine analysis. To prepare nuclei for diphenylamine analysis, 50,u1 of nuclei in storage buffer was pelleted by centrifugation, and the storage buffer solution was removed. Contaminating chloroplast
3 VOL. 8, 1988 ARABIDOPSIS CHALCONE SYNTHASE GENE IS REGULATED BY LIGHT 1987 pigments were extracted once with 200,ul of acetone. The nuclei were recovered from the acetone extraction by centrifugation and suspended in 0.5 N perchloric acid. The perchloric acid solution of nuclei was boiled for 10 min and then assayed as described previously (6). A sample of 107 nuclei (-2,ug of DNA by diphenylamine analysis) was used in each nuclear run-on experiment. Nuclear run-on experiments were performed as described previously (2), except that the NaOH hydrolysis step was omitted, hybridizations were in 4 ml rather than 2 ml for a period of 72 h instead of 36, and washes were in 0.4x SSC-0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate at 65 C. RESULTS Cloning of the A. thaliana CHS. Fifteen genomic equivalents of an A. thaliana X EMBL4 library (obtained from E. Meyerowitz) were screened for cross-hybridization with a P. hortense CHS cdna clone (plf15, provided by K. Hahlbrock). Nine positive genomic clones were detected; restriction mapping and Southern blot analyses showed that these nine clones fell into two classes. Both classes contained a common region of homology to the P. hortense CHS cdna, and there was significant overlap in sequences between the two classes (Fig. 1). The entire region of homology to the P. hortense CHS cdna was contained on two adjacent HindlIl fragments, 2.6 and 1.3 kb, respectively. This region was subcloned as a 3.9-kb partial HindIll fragment into puc13 to generate pchs3.9 (Fig. 1). Genomic blots verified that pchs3.9 is colinear with sequences in the A. thaliana genome. Digests of A. thaliana DNA with HindlIl, EcoRI, DraI, and BglII were probed with nick-translated pchs3.9 DNA under low-stringency hybridization conditions (data not shown). The restriction fragments that hybridized with the pchs3.9 probe agreed with those predicted from the restriction map of the original genomic clone, indicating that pchs3.9 represented a single-copy gene in A. thaliana. DNA sequence analysis of pchs3.9. The DNA sequence of the 2.6- and 1.3-kb HindIll fragments was determined by the Sanger et al. dideoxy sequencing method (36). To obtain a B98H) H R HH BgRH,,fiIII,,,r ALXCHSI I. -, -" trenscript coding sequence R HH BgRHRHR H HRH Bg P R H X H I II'II"I pchs > le88 XCHS2 FIG. 1. Map of A. thaliana CHS genomic clones and pchs3.9. X CHS1 and X CHS2 are representative of the two classes of genomic phage isolated from the A. thaliana library by cross-hybridization with the P. hortense cdna. The hatched regions define the limits of the subclone pchs3.9 and the sequence reported in this paper. An expanded restriction map of pchs3.9 and the location of the CHS transcript and coding sequence within pchs3.9 are shown in the lower portion of the figure. Numbers indicate the ends of pchs3.9 (positions and 1888), the start of transcription (position 1), and the extent of the CHS coding sequence (positions 73 and 1344). Restriction enzymes: H, HindIll; R, EcoRI; Bg, BgIll; P, Pstl; and X, XbaI. The order of the restriction enzyme sites shown in brackets was not determined. complete double-stranded sequence of this region, nested sets of deletions were generated from the two HindlIl fragments and the 3.9-kb partial HindIll fragment by using BaI31 exonuclease (30); these subclones were the substrates for the sequencing reactions. The DNA sequence of the entire 3.9-kb fragment is presented in Fig. 2. Comparison of the CHS protein sequence deduced from the P. hortense CHS cdna with the A. thaliana genomic sequence suggested the presence of a single intron within the A. thaliana CHS gene. This putative intron is bordered by the appropriate 5'-GT and 3'-AG splice junction consensus sequences (5, 38) and is located at a position within the A. thaliana gene very similar to that of the first intron of the A. majus CHS gene (40). The deduced protein sequence of the A. thaliana CHS is 90% homologous to that of P. hortense, 87% homologous to that of P. hybrida, and 85% homologous to that of A. majuis. Induction of CHS enzyme activity and mrna by highintensity light. A change in plant growth conditions, from natural photoperiod (25 p.e/m2s during daylight hours) to continuous illumination with high-intensity light (total illumination, 1,500 j±e/m2s), resulted in the accumulation of purple anthocyanin pigments in the leaves and stems of wild-type A. thaliana plants (data not shown). The accumulation of anthocyanin pigments in the leaves of A. thaliana plants was visually detectable after 24 h of high-intensity light treatment. This visible change in leaf color represented a greater than 15-fold increase in the level of anthocyanins (pigments were extracted and measured spectrophotometrically) in these high-intensity light-treated plants. To determine whether the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments was associated with increased CHS activity, A. thaliana plants were grown and subsequently treated with highintensity light for 6, 12, or 24 h as described above. Plant material from each time point was divided into three parts and used for preparing protein extracts, RNA [poly(a)+ and total], or nuclei. The yield of naringenin, the product of the CHS and subsequent chalcone isomerase reactions, was used as a measure of CHS activity. The level of CHS activity, measured in vitro by an enzyme assay, increased by 50-fold after exposure of plants to high-intensity light conditions for 24 h. The specific activity of CHS was 5 cpm of naringenin per,ug of protein in controls and 14, 64, and 240 cpm of naringenin per,ug of protein after light treatment for 6, 12, and 24 h, respectively. The significant amount of CHS activity detectable in plants treated for only 12 h with high-intensity light preceded visual detection of anthocyanin pigments in the leaves. Poly(A)+ RNA isolated from plants that had been light treated as described above was examined by Northern blot analysis for the induction of CHS mrna. RNA blots were probed with nick-translated pchs3.9. A large increase in the level of mrna coding for CHS was detected in RNA isolated from plants exposed to high-intensity light for 24 h compared with that in RNA isolated from the control plants (Fig. 3a; compare lane 24h with lane c). (Overexposure of the autoradiogram depicted in Fig. 3a revealed the presence of a low level of CHS mrna in control tissue [data not shown].) Densitometric measurements determined that the level of CHS mrna was more than 25-fold higher in plants treated with high-intensity light for 24 h than in plants which remained under normal daylight conditions. A 2.5-fold increase in CHS mrna levels was detectable after exposure of the plants to high-intensity light conditions for only 6 h (lane 6h). The increase in the level of CHS mrna was not
4 1988 FEINBAUM AND AUSUBEL MOL. CELL. BIOL MGCTTGACATTCTTTCTCTGATGCCAMTCCTTTCAATTTCCGGTATAACACCACCACAGCCTGGAACCTACTCTCAACATCACTCATTTGATCAGCTTCA -168 ACC8 ATCTCTCATCCATAACTCACACTA8CATCATCTCACATCTCCCACTTG CuTCCACAACTCCATCCCTACACAATTCTTAWCA TGTAACCAGATCAACATCTTTAAACTCGACT CAA OCAG CATATCAOGTAAGCTCTACCGG CGTCTTTCTCTCCG OGTCCCOCGACAAAToGAGTGAACOCOGAAT CTC OGTACMGTCACACCATTTGAAGAAA TCTGAG CCTCGAAM TGTCGTCACTTCATTTCCTCCGAATT TGA AGAATCAGTAAAGCGAGTACACCGTCACTTGTA AACTTCCTCCOOGAMTCTCGAGTATCOCGACCTTATCACAG.CCCCCCCCATGGCATGATCCCCXTGAGGATCATCGTGTAGGATTA GACAATCGTTATCCAGTGGCCACCTGACOCCATCGGAAGCMATTCCOGTCTGCATTGTCCCGTACCATCGTCGACATCTCCTCTCGGGATGTTAA TATQCCCCAOGTCATCTTTMAACCC TAMATrMACTATGACTACCATOCTGAATOGGACGCTTATOG(CCTGAAGCTTAGCA GACGAACAGTGTGTTGTATAAT ACCATCTTCTGATCG CTACAOCTGACCATAACCTATAOCTCTOCOGATATACT CTACOOCGTCTACOCCTCOCATOCCTATCATTAACCGTCAATAATOGATOOXCOTTTIOCTAGOCCOOGTCAACCOGATTAAMGAAAACOGCT OCACTCC -US1 TTCC T GAATMCACOCATCOOGTMTCTCATAATOOOCCCOW-ACGTTCATACCATGTOCCTATOGTATuTTTCCA -796 ATTCTATTTOCGA ACArCM ATAACAG TACCAAAGt ATG TCATAGTMATTGATGTT -691 GAA.AAATCATCTTCATCTCCGTTO CCA CATMCACAGAATCACT A TWUGtACGGCG -564 TACCTuAGTAC ATTAGTCGTTAGTATAOACTTMGTTTGCCT TAnGATCAT MGGr AGr ATATTAGATAG -477 TAOGCTAGOGAGTAGTAGTATGCCGGTAGAACOO CTCCTCTATGG AAGAAACTAC CCCTTGGTGTATACG -370tTAATTT6AT CACAGCGATACGTATCTTCATATATATCTACTCATATAAATATCTAGATATATATACAATACCCTGT -263 AT A TAAATAGocATATAGTAGAAA'IATG A GTTGrrCnTATATAT TCAWGTACCACCATT GTAG so TAACCtCMCAMGAWGAACCACAGMCMCMGG TACTA GACACGTA GTTCAT CTOCT CCCGCTCCATTMCCTACCACACTCTCATCTTCT I w TTTT,CCCGTGTCAGMGTTATATAA CTCTCACTCTCCGGTATAMCCAATACACCTMCACTGTTtAGTACACAACAOACATCAACTCTAATATACCCAAG TTOCTGTATACTATA ATC 0t0 AtC OCT OCT OCT TCT TCT TTC CAT GAG ATC AGA CAG OCT CAG ACA OCT CAT OGA CCT OCA OOC MV MC AS S L D E I R A Q R D G PA C 142 ATC TTC OCT AT OC ACT CT AAC CCT CAG AAC CAT CTG CTT CAG QCG GAG TAT CCT GAC TAC TAC TC CC ATC ACCAAC 222 I L A I G T A N P E N H V L Q A E Y P D Y Y F R I T N 223 ACT CAA CAC ATG ACC GAC CTC MC CAC MCG TC MC COC ATG T gacgttt.tt.acttcttttcattkctttggcattakttcat 314 S E H M T D L K E K F K R M C 315 kacat gtttagctaacaagtatttactattcacagcc GAC MC TCC ACA ATI COG AMA CGT CAC ATC CAT CTG ACG GAO GAA TIC CTC 44 D K S T I R K R H M H L T E E F L 4U5 MCGAA MC CCA CAC ATCT CT OCT TAC ATG OCT CCT TC CTGGAC ACC AGA CAC GAC ATC GTG GTG GTC GAAC GTC CCT MG 486 K E N P H M C A Y M A P S L D T R Q D I V V V E V P K 486 CTA C AMA GAA CG OCA GTG MC OCC ATC MC GAG TOG CM CAG CCC MG TCA MG ATC ACT CAT GTCGTC C TC TOC ACT L G K E A A V K A I K E I G Q P K S K I T H V V F C T 567 ACC TCC OCC GCC GAC ATG CCT OCT OCT GAC TAC CAC CTC ACC MC CTT CTI OCT CTC CCT CCt ICC CTC MG CGT CTC ATG 647 I S G V D M P G A D Y Q L T K L L G L R P S V K R L M 648 ATG TAC CAG CAA G CTOC TC OCC OC COJ ACT CTC CTC CGT ATC OCT C GAT CTC OCC GAG MC C CGT CA CGT 728 M Y Q Q G C F A G G T V L R I A K D L A E N N R G A R 729 CTC CTC CTT GTC TOC TCT GAO ATC ACA OCC CTT ACC TIC COT OCGT CCC TCT GAC ACC CAC CTT GAC TCC CIC CTC OCT CAG Mg V L V V C S E I T A V T F R G P S D T H L D S L V G 61 OCT CTT TTC AGT AT OC OCC OCC OCA CTC AT GTC OCC CG GAC CCT GAC ACA TCT GTC OG CAG CCC ATC m GAG 8 A L F S D G A AA L I V G S D P D T S V G E K P I F E 891 ATG 01G TCT OCC OCT CAC ACC ATC CTI CCA GAC TCT GAT OCT OCC ATA GAC OGA CAT TTG AGC GAA OTT OGT CTC ACC TTC 971 M V S A A Q TI L P D S D C A I D OG L R E V G L T F 972 CAT CTC CTC MAG GAT GTT CCC OC CTC ATC TCC AAG AAC ATT GTG MG AGT CIA GAC GAA OCG TIT MA CCT TTG OCG ATA 1652 H L L K D V P C L I S K N I V K S L D E A F K P L G I 1053 AGT GAC TOG MC TCC CTC TIC TOG ATA OCC CAC CCT OGA OCT CCA OCG ATC CIA GAC CAG GTG GA ATA AAG CTA OGA CTA 1133 S D I N S L F I I A H P G G P A I L D Q V E I K L G L 1134 AAC GAA GAG AAG AIC AOG GCG ACA CGT CAC GTG TTG AOC GAG TAT OG AMC ATG TCG AOC OCO TOC GTI CTC TTC ATA CIA 1214 K E E K M R A T R H V L S E Y G N Y S S A C V L F I L 1216 GAC CACAG ACC AG AAG MTCA OCT G GAT GCI CTG QCCC ACA OGA GAA GGG TTG AG TOG OGT GC GTTOTTIC 1296 D E M R R K S A K D G V A T T G E L E I G V L F G F 1296 OCA CCA OCGT CTC ACT GTT GAG ACA GTC GTC TIG CAC AOC GTT CCT CTC TAACAGAACOCTTOCCTTCTATCTOCCTACCTACCTACOCAA 1366 G P G L T V E T V V L H S V P L 1387 MCTTTMTCCTGTCTTC TGTTTTTATATMTATMTCATTATATGTTTACOCAMT TTMAGAAGMTTCATTTGATGTGATATGTOCTOCACAGGTCTATTCGAC TGTMTGTACTCTCTI TGTGTCTTTACAATATTAMATCTATOOGTCTTGAATGACATCAMTCMTTACATCCACAMGTCTCAAACTCATCATACCGA GATTCGACGTTCCTCCTTTOCTCGTMATCATCTTGAGGATTCATTTGAOOCTCTGTCOCTGCTGTATCCTCGTCTTCATATTCTCCACCTTGTCTTOCCTTGAC TACCATCTCTTCCGTAGTTGTCCCCATIATCTCGTTTOCTTCCTTCATTTCCACOCATCTATACTTGTCTTCTGAATCCTGACCAOCCCTCACAATATTTACTTMC TGMCATATTCAGAGAACATTCTGATTAGAAGAHATACMOGACTCACACGAGATACAATCCMOCTT 188 FIG. 2. Sequence of pchs3.9 which includes the CHS-coding sequence as well as 5'- and 3'-flanking regions. The transcriptional start site (+1) is marked by an arrow, and putative promoter elements are underlined. The presence of an intron (positions 265 to 351) in the A. thaliana CHS gene was suggested by comparison with the P. hortense cdna and is shown in lowercase letters , ?
5 VOL. 8, 1988 ARABIDOPSIS CHALCONE SYNTHASE GENE IS REGULATED BY LIGHT 1989 A. B. CH S -* CAB_ ALS + Ilg9it c 6h I2r- 24h * + light c 6h 12h 24h _ 9.49 kb - 746kb kb kb kb FIG. 3. Northern blot analysis of CHS mrna levels in plants exposed to high-intensity light treatment. Poly(A)+ RNA (1,ug) isolated from control plants and plants treated with high-intensity light for 6, 12, and 24 h was separated on agarose-formaldehyde gels and blotted onto GeneScreen filters. Blots were probed with nicktranslated (A) pchs3.9 (CHS) and (B) pcab1.8 (chlorophyl alb) or pbl104 (ALS). The positions of RNA size standards (BRL RNA ladder; Bethesda Research Laboratories. Inc., Gaithersburg, Md.) are indicated to the right in A. due to a general accumulation of mrna under high-intensity light conditions, because neither the total level of mrna from the three chlorophyll a/b-binding protein genes (cab) nor the level of mrna from the gene coding for acetolactate synthase (ALS), an enzyme involved in branched chain amino acid biosynthesis, was increased by the alteration in light conditions (Fig. 4b). In fact, the level of ALS mrna appeared to decrease upon light treatment, which may be due to a negative effect of the high-intensity light treatment on expression of this gene. On the other hand, the rate of transcription of the ALS gene remained constant under these conditions (see below). Rate of CHS transcription increased by light. The rate of CHS transcription was examined by nuclear runoff assays using nuclei isolated from plants that had been treated in parallel with the plants used for the CHS enzyme assays and steady-state mrna analysis. In nuclear runoff assays, RNA transcripts are not initiated, but elongation of transcripts started before disruption of the plant cells occurs, providing a measure of the number of transcripts produced from a gene template at the time of nuclei isolation. Radiolabeled RNA isolated from nuclei of plants exposed to high-intensity light treatment (6-, 12-, 24-h time points) or control plants was used to probe slot blots containing DNA of various cloned plant genes. Nuclei isolated from plants exposed to high-intensity light conditions for 6 h showed an increase in the level of transcription of the CHS gene over the nondetectable rate of CHS transcription in control nuclei (Fig. 4, compare lane 6h with lane c). The rate of CHS transcription appeared to continue to increase in nuclei isolated from plants treated with high-intensity light for 12 and 24 h (Fig. 4, lanes 12h and 24h). It is likely that the increase in the rate of CHS transcription is a specific response to the alteration in light conditions, because the rate of transcription of neither the A. thaliana gene coding for ALS nor the cab genes was increased by the same treatment. The level of transcription of the gene coding for ALS, although very low, appeared to remain constant in all of the time points assayed. In contrast, the total rate of transcription of the three A. thaliana cab genes appeared to decrease in the plants treated with light for 6 h. It is unclear why this occurred, although cab mrna levels are thought to fluctuate in a diurnal manner (18) and this could have affected the levels of cab transcription detected in this experiment. On the other hand, it may be that transcription of one or more of the cab genes is down-regulated by the high-intensity light conditions of this experiment. Finally, the level of transcription in the nucleus preparations from the different time points remained approximately the same; the total counts incorporated into RNA varied less than twofold between time points (data not shown). Therefore, exposure of A. thaliana plants to high-intensity light conditions resulted in a specific increase in the rate of transcription of the CHS gene concomitant with the accumulation of CHS mrna and preceding the increase in CHS enzyme activity. Identification of the 5' end of the CHS mrna. Primer ALS a- + light c 6h 12h 24h CAB m m CHS.o IWOW om qggp puc FIG. 4. Transcriptional analysis of the CHS gene after treatment of A. thaliana plants with high-intensity light. 32P-labeled runoff transcripts from nuclei isolated after 6, 12, or 24 h of high-intensity light treatment and from control nuclei were used to probe slot blots of pbl1.04 (ALS), pcab1.8 (chorophyll alb), pchs3.9 (CHS), and puc12 (puc). Each slot contained 5,ug of plasmid DNA that had been linearized with a unique restriction enzyme. All plasmids are derivatives of puc.
6 1990 FEINBAUM AND AUSUBEL extension and Si nuclease analyses were used to map the 5' start site of the CHS mrna produced under both control and high-intensity light conditions. There were three major primer extension products generated in the analysis of CHS mrna from plants treated for 24 h with high-intensity light (Fig. 5a, lane 24h). These transcripts mapped to the 2 C's and the T in the sequence CCAAAT located -69 to -74 nucleotides from the ATG start codon. In control plants, a low level of initiation at the same two C residues was also detectable. The light-independent bands which terminate a few bases downstream of these initiation sites may be due to premature termination by the reverse transcriptase as a result of secondary structure near the 5' end of the message. S1 nuclease analysis confirmed that the two C residues at positions -73 and -74 correspond to the in vivo transcriptional initiation points for both control and high-intensity light-treated plants (Fig. 5b and c). In the Si analysis, transcripts also appeared to start at the four bases, AAAT, downstream of the two C's. This may be due to artifactual Si clipping within A+T-rich regions. MOL. CELL. BIOL. iana CHS sequence with the sequences of CHS genes from three plant families revealed that CHS has been highly conserved in evolution; the deduced protein sequence of the A. thaliana CHS is 90% homologous to that of P. hortense CHS, 87% homologous to that of P. hybrida CHS, and 85% homologous to that of A. majus CHS. Comparison of the A. thaliana CHS gene with the A. majus CHS gene suggested that the A. thaliana CHS gene has a single 85-base-pair intron located between the first and second nucleotides of a cysteine codon (amino acid 64). The location of the putative A. thaliana intron is very similar to that of the first of two introns in the A. majus CHS gene, which interrupts codon 60, also a cysteine residue (40). Heteroduplex analysis of two Petunia CHS genes also suggested the existence of an intron in a similar position in the P. hybrida CHS genes (32). The putative A. thaliana intron possesses the 5' and 3' splice site dinucleotide consensus sequences proposed for eucaryotic genes by Breathnach and Chambon (5). In addition, the CHS gene has sequences located 20 bases upstream of and within the putative intron that match six of nine nucleotides of the additional splice site consensus sequences derived from the six introns of the A. thaliana alcohol dehydrogenase gene (8). The proposed existence of a single-copy CHS gene containing one small intron in A. thaliana is in agreement with the general pattern emerging from the studies of DISCUSSION We isolated the CHS gene from A. thaliana and demonstrated that it is regulated transcriptionally in response to high-intensity light conditions. Comparison of the A. thalra AT A. *;-C! a ~~~~~~~~~A C... -, M A A TA c 5- -i S 4_ a 4m S -3 3_. a FIG. 5. Identification of the 5' end of the CHS mrna. (A) Primer extension analysis of 50,ug of total RNA isolated from both control plants and plants treated for 24 h with high-intensity, continuous light. The oligomer primer used included the first 30 bases of the CHS coding sequence (positions 73 through 102). Products were run on a 6% polyacrylamide sequencing gel and identified by autoradiography for 3 h. (B) Si nuclease analysis of the same RNA used in the primer extension experiments with a probe that extended from positions -469 to Products were separated and identified as in A. (C) Overexposure (12 h versus 3 h) of the autoradiogram shown in B to etnphasize that the S1 products from control and plants treated with light for 24 h are identical. The arrows indicate transcripts that map to 2 C residues located -74 and -73 bases from the ATG codon.
7 VOL. 8, 1988 ARABIDOPSIS CHALCONE SYNTHASE GENE IS REGULATED BY LIGHT 1991 the A. thaliana genome and gene structures; it appears that genes from A. thaliana, when compared with similar genes in other organisms, are represented as single or small gene families and have a minimal number of introns which are small in size (21, 27). The 5' transcriptional start site for the A. thaliana CHS mrna was mapped to a site -74 bases from the translation start codon. The sequence upstream of this site was analyzed for potential promoter elements. There is an A+T-rich sequence, TATATAAG, located at positions -28 to -19 that may represent a TATA box (5). In addition, a perfect CCAATC box is present -175 bases from the transcriptional initiation site; however, for most eucaryotic genes, this particular sequence element is found within approximately 100 base pairs of the transcriptional start site (13, 25). In addition to potential TATA and CAAT boxes in the 5' region of the A. thaliana CHS gene, there are several repeated sequences in the 2 kb of 5'-flanking region that might be involved in controlling expression of the CHS gene; the most striking is a repeat that occurs at -340 and -299 base pairs upstream from the transcriptional start site in which 16 of 19 bases are identical. To identify sequences potentially important in the transcription of the A. thaliana CHS gene, the 5'-flanking sequence of this gene was compared with that of the CHS gene from A. majus, where deletion studies have identified two regions that are important in determining the level of CHS expression (17). However, these sequence comparisons failed to identify any regions of homology between the promoter regions of the A. thaliana and A. majus CHS genes. The only similarity was the presence of a sequence reminiscent of the simian virus 40 enhancer core, gtgg(a/ T)(A/T)(A/T)g, in both promoters (43). At position -611 from the transcriptional start site, the A. majus CHS promoter contains the sequence GTGGTTAG, which is identical to the simian virus 40 core enhancer sequence. In a similar, although not identical, position in the A. thaliana CHS promoter (position -650 from the transcriptional start site) is the sequence TTGGAAAG, which has seven of eight bases in common with the simian virus 40 consensus sequence. Further experimentation will be required to define the functional units of the A. thaliana CHS promoter. We have demonstrated that the A. thaliana CHS gene is induced transcriptionally by a change in light conditions. It has been previously shown that, in parsley tissue culture cells and in tobacco teratomas carrying a chimeric CHS gene, transcription of the CHS gene is induced by UV B light (280 to 320 nm) (9, 17). However, the induction of transcription of the A. thaliana CHS gene reported here is probably not due to the effect of UV light, for several reasons. First, very little UV B light should be produced by the highintensity sodium lamps used in our experiments; the maximum emission of these lamps is in the yellow-orange range of the visible spectrum. Second, all plants were grown under sunlight before the high-intensity light treatment, and control plants remained under sunlight conditions. Therefore, all plants were exposed to some UV irradiation throughout their life cycle. This is in contast to previous experiments demonstrating UV induction of CHS where plant tissue was grown in a UV-free environment before induction with UV light. Thus, the induction of CHS transcription observed here may not be the same as that in previously reported responses. Whether or not the high-intensity light response that we observed resulted from UV exposure, it is apparent that the A. thaliana plants are stressed under the conditions used. One observation that supports this conclusion is that plants placed under the high-intensity lamps remain small and bolt quickly. Both of these phenotypes are also observed when A. thaliana is planted densely or becomes desiccated, suggesting that they are general stress responses. In addition, the production of anthocyanins and other flavonoids is induced in a variety of plants by various environmental stresses such as cool temperatures, insufficient nutrients, and ionizing radiation (26). Therefore, the increase in CHS transcription observed in these experiments may be due to a high-intensity light-induced stress response. An alternative explanation involves the role of light in the regulation of anthocyanin production. Light is known to stimulate anthocyanin production through a combination of mechanisms: (i) the red-far red phytochrome system, (ii) a blue or far-red high light intensity response (>1 J/cm2 of light), (iii) a UV light response, and (iv) the availability of fixed carbon derived from photosynthesis that is used for production of precursors (1, 4, 23, 28). Thus, it is possible that the induction of CHS transcription in response to treatment with high-intensity light is mediated by one of the known photoreceptors. Despite some uncertainty concerning the exact nature of the inducing signal, the expression of the A. thaliana CHS gene clearly is regulated at the transcriptional level. We are interested in identifying trans-acting regulatory factors responsible for the transcriptional regulation of this gene and hope to utilize the potential of A. thaliana as a genetic system for the isolation of mutants in such transcriptional factors. Ultimately, the identification and characterization of trans-acting regulatory factors will help to elucidate how plants perceive and respond to changes in their environment. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS We thank N. Olszewski for technical advice, J. Chory, K. Davis, and E. Hendrickson for critical reading of the manuscript, and R. Hyde for assistance in preparation of the manuscript. This work was supported by a grant from Hoechst AG to Massachusetts General Hospital. LITERATURE CITED 1. Arakawa, O., Y. Hori, and R. Ogata Relative effectiveness and interaction of ultraviolet-b, red and blue light in anthocyanin synthesis of apple fruit. Physiol. Plant. 64: Ausubel, F. M., R. Brent, R. E. Kingston, D. D. Moore, J. G. Seidman, J. A. Smith, and K. Struhl Current protocols in molecular biology. Greene Publishing Associates/Wiley-Interscience, New York. 3. Bailey, J. A., and J. W. Mansfield Phytoalexins. Blackie, Glasgow. 4. Beggs, C. J., and E. Wellmann Analysis of light-controlled anthocyanin formation of coleoptiles of Zea mays L.: the role of UV-B, blue, red and far-red light. Photochem. Photobiol. 41: Breathnach, R., and P. Chambon Organization and expression of eucaryotic split genes coding for proteins. Annu. Rev. Biochem. 50: Burton, K Determination of DNA concentration with diphenylamine. Methods Enzymol. 12B: Caldwell, M. M Plant response to solar ultraviolet radiation, p In 0. L. Lange, P. S. Nobel, C. B. Osmund, and H. Ziegler (ed.), Encyclopedia of plant physiology, vol. 12A. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 8. Chang, C., and E. M. Meyerowitz Molecular cloning and DNA sequence of the Arabidopsis thaliana alcohol dehydrogenase gene. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 83: Chappell, J., and K. Hahlbrock Transcription of plant defense genes in response to UV light or fungal elicitor. Nature (London) 311:76-78.
8 1992 FEINBAUM AND AUSUBEL 10. Cramer, C. L., T. B. Ryder, J. N. Bell, and C. J. Lamb Rapid switching of plant gene expression induced by fungal elicitors. Science 227: Dixon, R. A., P. M. Dey, and C. J. Lamb Phytoalexins: enzymology and molecular biology. Adv. Enzymol. 55: Drumm-Herrel, H., and H. Mohr Photosensitivity of seedlings differing in their potential to synthesize anthocyanin. Physiol. Plant. 64: Dynan, W. S., and R. Tjian Control of eucaryotic messenger RNA synthesis by sequence-specific DNA-binding proteins. Nature (London) 316: Estelle, M. A., and C. R. Somerville The mutants of Arabidopsis. Trends Genet. 2: Gerard, G. F., and K. Miller Comparison of glyoxal and formaldehyde gels for sizing rrnas. BRL Focus 8: Hahlbrock, K., and H. Griesbach Enzymic controls in the biosynthesis of lignin and flavonoids. Annu. Rev. Plant Physiol. 30: Kaulen, H., J. Schell, and F. Kreuzaler Light-induced expression of the chimeric chalcone synthase NPTII gene in tobacco cells. EMBO J. 5: Kloppstech, K Diurnal and circadian rhythmicity in the expression of light-induced plant nuclear messenger RNAs. Planta 165: Koes, R. E., C. E. Spelt, H. J. Reif, P. J. M. van den Elzen, E. Veltkamp, and J. N. M. Mol Floral tissue of Petunia hybrida (V30) expresses only one member of the chalcone synthase multi gene family. Nucleic Acids Res. 14: Lawton, M. A., and C. J. Lamb Transcriptional activation of plant defense genes by fungal elicitor, wounding and infection. Mol. Cell. Biol. 7: Leutwiler, L. S., B. R. Hough-Evans, and E. M. Meyerowitz The DNA of Arabidopsis thaliana. Mol. Gen. Genet. 194: Leutwiler, L. S., E. M. Meyerowitz, and E. M. Tobin Structure and expression of three light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein genes in Arabidopsis thaliana. Nucleic Acids Res. 14: Mancineili, A. L The photoregulation of anthocyanin synthesis, p In W. Shropshire, Jr., and H. Mohr (ed.), Encyclopedia of plant physiology, vol. 16B. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 24. Maniatis, T., E. F. Fritsch, and J. Sambrook Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y. 25. Maniatis, T., S. Goodbourn, and J. A. Fischer Regulation of inducible and tissue-specific gene expression. Science 236: McClure, J. W Physiology and function of flavonoids, p In J. B. Harborne, T. J. Mabry, and H. Mabry (ed.), The flavonoids. Academic Press, Inc., New York. 27. Meyerowitz, E. M., and R. E. Pruitt Arabidopsis thaliana and plant molecular genetics. Science 229: Mohr, H., and H. Drumm-Herrel Interaction between blue/uv light and light operating through phytochrome in higher plants, p In H. Smith (ed.), Plants and the daylight spectrum. Academic Press, Inc., London. 29. Olszewski, N. E., G. Hagen, and T. J. Guilfoyle A MOL. CELL. BIOL. transcriptionally active, covalently closed minichromosome of cauliflower mosaic virus DNA isolated from infected turnip leaves. Cell 29: Poncz, M., D. Solowiejczyk, M. Ballantine, E. Schwartz, and S. Surrey "Nonrandom" DNA sequence analysis in bacteriophage M13 by the dideoxy chain-termination method. Proc. NatI. Acad. Sci. USA 79: Rabino, I., and A. L. Mancinelli Light, temperature and anthocyanin production. Plant Physiol. 81: Reif, H. J., U. Niesbach, B. Deumling, and H. Saedler Cloning and analysis of two genes for chalcone synthase from Petunia hybrida. Mol. Gen. Genet. 199: Reimold, U., M. Kroger, F. Kreuzaler, and K. Hahlbrock Coding and 3' non-coding nucleotide sequence of chalcone synthase mrna and assignment of amino acid sequence of the enzyme. EMBO J. 2: Rigby, P. W. J., M. Dieckmann, C. Rhodes, and P. Berg Labeling deoxyribonucleic acid to high specific acitivity in vitro by nick translation with DNA polymerase I. J. Mol. Biol. 113: Ryder, T. B., C. L. Cramer, J. N. Bell, M. P. Robbins, R. A. Dixon, and C. J. Lamb Elicitor rapidly induces chalcone synthase mrna in Phaseolus vulgaris cells at the onset of phytoalexin defense response. Proc. Natl. Acad. 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Science 219: Wellmann, E Phytochrome-mediated flavone glycoside synthesis in cell suspension cultures of Petroselinum hortense after preirradiation with ultraviolet light. Planta 101: Wellmann, E U.V. radiation in photomorphogenesis, p In W. Shropshire, Jr., and H. Mohr (ed.), Encyclopedia of plant physiology, vol. 16B. Springer-Verlag, Berlin. 46. Wienand, U., U. Weydemann, U. Niesbach-Klosgen, P. A. Peterson, and H. Saedler Molecular cloning of the c2 locus of Zea mays, the gene coding for chalcone synthase. Mol. Gen. Genet. 203:
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Muscular Dystrophy A Case Study of Positional Cloning Described by Benjamin Duchenne (1868) X-linked recessive disease causing severe muscular degeneration. 100 % penetrance X d Y affected male Frequency
DNA Fingerprinting Unless they are identical twins, individuals have unique DNA DNA fingerprinting The name used for the unambiguous identifying technique that takes advantage of differences in DNA sequence
ISTEP+: Biology I End-of-Course Assessment Released Items and Scoring Notes Page 1 of 22 Introduction Indiana students enrolled in Biology I participated in the ISTEP+: Biology I Graduation Examination
Introduction To Real Time Quantitative PCR (qpcr) SABiosciences, A QIAGEN Company www.sabiosciences.com The Seminar Topics The advantages of qpcr versus conventional PCR Work flow & applications Factors
TECHNICAL BULLETIN Reverse Transcription System Instruc ons for use of Product A3500 Revised 1/14 TB099 Reverse Transcription System All technical literature is available on the Internet at: www.promega.com/protocols/
Ch 4: Energy and Cellular Metabolism Energy as it relates to Biology Chemical reactions Enzymes and how they speed rxs Metabolism and metabolic pathways Catabolism (ATP production) Anabolism (Synthesis
ELUTION OF DNA FROM AGAROSE GELS OBTECTIVE: To isolate specific bands or regions of agarose-separated DNA for use in subsequent experiments and/or procedures. INTRODUCTION: It is sometimes necessary to
TRI Reagent For processing tissues, cells cultured in monolayer or cell pellets Catalog Number T9424 Store at room temperature. TECHNICAL BULLETIN Product Description TRI Reagent is a quick and convenient
Microarrays And Functional Genomics CPSC265 Matt Hudson Microarray Technology Relatively young technology Usually used like a Northern blot can determine the amount of mrna for a particular gene Except
In vitro analysis of pri-mirna processing by Drosha-DGCR8 complex (Narry Kim s lab) 1-1. Preparation of radiolabeled pri-mirna transcript The RNA substrate for a cropping reaction can be prepared by in
Product Specification Reverse Transcriptase Primers, cdna Cloning Primers, T7 RNA Amplification Primers Oligo d(t) Primers Shipped at ambient temperature. Store at -20 o C For research use only. Not for
Effects of Antibiotics on Bacterial Growth and Protein Synthesis: Student Laboratory Manual I. Purpose...1 II. Introduction...1 III. Inhibition of Bacterial Growth Protocol...2 IV. Inhibition of in vitro
1 DNA TECHNOLOGY- methods for studying and manipulating genetic material. BIOTECHNOLOGY, the manipulation of organisms or their components to make useful products. Biotechnology today usually refers to
Nucleic Acid Techniques in Bacterial Systematics Edited by Erko Stackebrandt Department of Microbiology University of Queensland St Lucia, Australia and Michael Goodfellow Department of Microbiology University
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