3.3 The Periodic Table and the Elements

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1 . The Periodic Table and the Elements Dr. Fred Omega Garces Chemistry 00 Miramar College. Periodic Table : PM

2 The Periodic Table and the Elements What is the periodic table? What information is obtained from the table? How can elemental properties be predicted base on the PT?. Periodic Table : PM

3 Dmitri Mendeleev (89) In 89 Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer (Germany) published nearly identical classification schemes for elements known to date. The periodic table is base on the similarity of properties and reactivities exhibited by certain elements. Later, Henri Moseley ( England,88-9) established that each elements has a unique atomic number, which is how the current periodic table is organized. Periodic Table : PM

4 9..00 : PM. Periodic Table The Periodic Table A map of the building block of matter. IA 8 VIIIA H.009 IIA Periodic Table IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA He.00 Li.99 Be 9.0 B 0.8 C.0 N.00 8 O F Ne 0.9 Na.9898 Mg.0 IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB 8 9 VIIIB 0 IB IIB Al.98 Si 8.08 P 0.98 S.0 Cl. 8 Ar K Ca 0.08 Sc.9 Ti.90 V 0.9 Cr.99 Mn.980 Fe.8 Co Ni 8. 9 Cu. 0 Zn. Ga. Ge.9 As.9 Se 8.9 Br Kr 8.80 Rb 8. 8 Sr 8. 9 Y Zr 9. Nb 9.90 Mo 9.9 Tc [99] Ru 0.0 Rh 0.90 Pd 0. Ag Cd.0 9 In.8 0 Sn 8.9 Sb. Te.0 I.90 Xe.0 Cs.90 Ba. La 8.9 Hf 8.9 Ta W 8.8 Re 8. Os 90. Ir 9. 8 Pt Au Hg Tl 0. 8 Pb Bi Po [0] 8 At [0] 8 Rn [] 8 Fr [] 88 Ra [] 89 Ac [] 0 Ku [0]

5 Periodic Table Expanded View The way the periodic table usually seen is a compress view, placing the Lanthanides and actinides at the bottom of the stable. The Periodic Table can be arrange by subshells. The s-block is Group IA and & IIA, the p-block is Group IIIA - VIIIA. The d-block is the transition metals, and the f- block are the Lanthanides and Actinide metals. Periodic Table : PM

6 Periodic Table: Metallic arrangement Layout of the Periodic Table: Metals vs. nonmetals IA IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 8 VIIIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB 8 9 VIIIB 0 IB IIB Metals Nonmetals. Periodic Table : PM

7 Periodic Table: The three broad Classes Main, Transition, Rare Earth Main (Representative), Transition metals, lanthanides and actinides (rare earth). Periodic Table : PM

8 Reading the Periodic Table: Classification Nonmetals, Metals, Metalloids, Noble gases 8. Periodic Table : PM

9 Across the Periodic Table Periods: Are arranged horizontally across the periodic table (rows -) IA IIA These elements have the same number of valence shells. nd Period IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 8 VIIIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB 8 9 VIIIB 0 IB IIB th Period 9. Periodic Table : PM

10 Down the Periodic Table Family: Are arranged vertically down the periodic table (columns or group, - 8 or -8 A,B) These elements have the same number electrons in the outer most shells, the valence shell. IA IIA Alkali Family: e- in the valence shell IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 8 VIIIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB 8 9 VIIIB 0 IB IIB Halogen Family: e- in the valence shell 0. Periodic Table : PM

11 Infamous Families of the Periodic Table IA Notable families of the Periodic Table and some important members: Alkali IIA Alkaline (earth) Transition Metals IIIA Halogen Noble Gas Chalcogens IVA VA VIA VIIA 8 VIIIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB 8 9 VIIIB 0 IB IIB. Periodic Table : PM

12 Important members - the Elements Individual members of selected Elements & their characteristics IA H IIA IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 8 VIIIA He Li C N O F Na Mg IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB 8 9 VIIIB 0 IB IIB Al Si P S Cl K Ca Fe Cu Zn Br Ag I. Periodic Table : PM

13 Periodic Table e - configuration from the periodic periodic table (To be covered in future chapters) IA H s Li s Na s K s Rb s Cs s Fr s IIA Be s Mg s Ca s Sr s Ba s Ra s IIIB Sc d Y d La d Ac d IVB Ti d Zr d Hf d Rf d VB V d Nb d Ta d Db d VIB VIIB Cr Mn s d d Mo s d W s d Sg s d Tc d Re d Bh d 8 9 VIIIB Fe d Ru d Os d Hs d Co d Rh d Ir d Mt d 0 IB Ni d 8 Ni d 8 Ni d 8 Cu s d 0 Ag s d 0 Au s d 0 IIB Zn d 0 Cd d 0 Hg d 0 IIIA B p Al p Ga p In p Tl p IVA B C p Si p Ge p Sn p Pb p VA N p P p As p Sb p Bi p VIA O p S p Se p Te p Po p VIIA F p Cl p Be p I p At p 8 VIIIA He s Ne p Ar p Kr p Xe p Rn p. Periodic Table : PM

14 Periodic Table: electron behavior The periodic table can be classified by the behavior of their electrons IA IIA West (South) Mid-plains East (North) METALS Alkali Alkaline Transition METALLOID NON-METALS Noble gas Halogens Calcogens These elements tend to give up e - and form CATIONS These elements will give up e - or accept e - These elements tend to accept e - and form ANIONS IIIA IVA VA VIA VIIA 8 VIIIA IIIB IVB VB VIB VIIB 8 9 VIIIB 0 IB IIB. Periodic Table : PM

15 . Trend in Atomic Radius Atomic Radius: The size of at atomic specie as determine by the boundaries of the valence e-. Largest atomic species are those found in the SW corner since these atoms have the largest n, but the smallest Z eff.. Periodic Table : PM

16 . Trend in Ionization Potential Ionization potential: The energy required to remove the valence electron from an atomic specie. Largest toward NE corner of PT since these atoms hold on to their valence e- the tightest.. Periodic Table : PM

17 . Trend in Electron Affinity Electron Affinity: The energy release when an electron is added to an atom. Most favorable toward NE corner of PT since these atoms have a great affinity for e-.. Periodic Table : PM

18 Summary of Trend Periodic Table and Periodic Trends. Electron Configuration. Ionization Energy: Largest toward NE of PT. Electron Affinity: Most favorable NE of PT. Atomic Radius: Largest toward SW corner of PT 8. Periodic Table : PM

19 Summary Periodic Table: Map of the Building block of matter Type: Metal, metalloid and Nonmetal Groupings: Representative or main, transition and Lanthanide/Actanides Family: Elements in the same column have similar chemical property because of similar valence electrons Alkali, Alkaline, chalcogens, halogens, noble gases Period: Elements in the same row have valence electrons in the same shell. 9. Periodic Table : PM

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