Behavior modification The use of operant-conditioning techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable ones.

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1 Acquisition The gradual formation of an association between the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli. (See page 229) Associative learning Linking two stimuli, or events, that occur together. (see page 224) Behavior modification The use of operant-conditioning techniques to eliminate unwanted behaviors and replace them with desirable ones. (See page 249)

2 Classical conditioning (Pavlovian conditioning) A type of associative learning in which a neutral object comes to elicit a response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response. (See page 226) Cognitive map A visual/spatial mental representation of an environment. (See page 250) Conditioned response (CR) A response to a conditioned stimulus; a response that has been learned. (See page 227)

3 Conditioned stimulus (CS) A stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place. (See page 227) Continuous reinforcement A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced each time it occurs. (See page 245) Extinction A process in which the conditioned response is weakened when the conditioned stimulus is repeated without the unconditioned stimulus. (See page 230)

4 Habituation A decrease in behavioral response after repeated exposure to a stimulus. (See page 224) Latent learning Learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement. (See page 250) Law of effect Thorndike's general theory of learning: Any behavior that leads to a satisfying state of affairs ; is likely to occur again, and any behavior that leads to an annoying state of affairs ; is less likely to occur again. (See page 241)

5 Learning A relatively enduring change in behavior, resulting from experience. (See page 222) Mirror neurons Neurons in the brain that are activated when one observes another individual engage in an action and when one performs a similar action. (See page 259) Modeling The imitation of observed behavior. (See page 256)

6 Negative punishment The removal of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior's recurring. (See page 246) Negative reinforcement The removal of an unpleasant stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior's being repeated. (See page 244) Nonassociatve learning Responding after repeated exposure to a single stimulus or event. (see page 223)

7 Observational learning Acquiring or changing a behavior after exposure to another individual performing that behavior. (See page 224) Operant conditioning (instrumental conditioning) A learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future. (See page 240) Partial reinforcement A type of learning in which behavior is reinforced intermittently. (See page 245)

8 Partial-reinforcement extinction effect The greater persistence of behavior under partial reinforcement than under continuous reinforcement. (See page 246) Phobia An acquired fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object or of a situation. (See page 235) Positive punishment The administration of a stimulus to decrease the probability of a behavior's recurring. (See page 246)

9 Positive reinforcement The administration of a stimulus to increase the probability of a behavior's being repeated. (See page 244) Reinforcer A stimulus that follows a response and increases the likelihood that the response will be repeated. (See page 241) Rescorla-Wagner model A cognitive model of classical conditioning; it holds that the strength of the CS-US association is determined by the extent to which the unconditioned stimulus is unexpected. (See page 233)

10 Sensitization An increase in behavioral response after exposure to a stimulus. (See page 224) Shaping A process of operant conditioning; it involves reinforcing behaviors that are increasing similar to the desired behavior. (See page 242) Spontaneous recovery A process in which a previously extinguished response reemerges after the presentation of the conditioned stimulus. (See page 230)

11 Stimulus discrimination A differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one of them is consistently associated with the unconditioned stimulus. (See page 231) Stimulus generalization Learning that occurs when stimuli that are similar but not identical to the conditioned stimulus produce the conditioned response. (See page 230) Unconditioned response (UR) A response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex. (See page 227)

12 Unconditioned stimulus (US) A stimulus that elicits a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning. (See page 227) Vicarious learning Learning the consequences of an action by watching others being rewarded or punished for performing the action. (See page 257) Warning: not all of the key ideas are on this list of key terms

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