Chapter 13 & 14 Quiz. Name: Date:

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1 Name: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Quiz 1. Regarding the difference between normal and abnormal behavior, which of the following statements is TRUE? A) Abnormal behavior is unusual, whereas normal behavior is not. B) The difference between normal and abnormal is often a matter of degree. C) Normal behavior is not crazy, but abnormal behavior is. D) Abnormal behavior is usually frightening and disturbing, but normal behavior is not. 2. Research has investigated whether people with mental disorders are significantly more violent and dangerous than other groups of people. What was the basic finding of that research? A) People with even mild psychological disorders are more likely to be dangerous and violent than people who do not have a mental disorder. B) People who have a severe mental disorder in which they are delusional or hallucinating have a slightly higher level of violent behavior than people who do not have a mental disorder. C) People who have a severe mental disorder in which they are delusional or hallucinating are actually much less likely to display violent behavior than people who do not have a mental disorder. D) Mental illness is the most significant risk factor predicting the likelihood that a person will behave violently. 3. The National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R) found that: A) almost one out of two adults (46 percent) has experienced the symptoms of a psychological disorder at some point thus far in his or her life. B) there was a very low degree of comorbidity; few people with one disorder were likely to be diagnosed with another disorder as well. C) the vast majority of people with a psychological disorder seek professional treatment for their symptoms. D) only 1 out of every 10 adults (10 percent) has experienced the symptoms of a psychological disorder at some point in his or her life. 4. Which of the following statements about anxiety is TRUE? A) Anxiety is always abnormal. B) Anxiety is a symptom that occurs only in the anxiety disorders but not in other psychological disorders. C) Anxiety can be adaptive, helpful, and beneficial when it alerts people to a realistic threat. D) Anxiety is an unpleasant emotional state, but it has no physical effects. Page 1

2 5. On three separate occasions when she was out in public over the past three months, Vanessa has had to rush home after being overwhelmed by dizzy spells during which her heart pounded and she felt as if she couldn't breathe. On the last occasion she went to the emergency room but a thorough examination ruled out any medical problem. Nevertheless, Vanessa has become increasingly fearful about having more episodes and she has restricted her activities to only the most essential outings. Vanessa seems to be displaying symptoms of which of the following psychological disorders? A) posttraumatic stress disorder B) generalized anxiety disorder C) social phobia D) agoraphobia 6. Patrick has been diagnosed as suffering from social phobia. Patrick is likely to experience: A) simple shyness. B) the overwhelming urge to repeatedly wash his hands to avoid being contaminated by other people's germs. C) a paralyzing fear of crowds, particularly in confined areas like elevators, theaters, or small rooms. D) a paralyzing fear of performing even routine behaviors in public situations or in front of other people. 7. The development of phobias can be partly explained by: A) classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning. B) high brain levels of dopamine. C) low brain levels of dopamine. D) the misinterpretation of the signs of normal physical arousal. 8. A long-lasting anxiety disorder that develops in response to being exposed to a severe and often life-threatening trauma is called: A) generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). B) obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). C) posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). D) dysthymic disorder (DD). 9. Cross-cultural research on obsessive-compulsive disorder has found that: A) the content of obsessions and compulsions does not vary for different cultures and is independent of the beliefs, values, and concerns of any given culture. B) compulsions, but not obsessions, have been reported in virtually every culture. C) obsessions and compulsions are similar in different cultures, but the content of obsessions and compulsions tends to mirror the particular culture's concerns and beliefs. D) obsessions, but not compulsions, have been reported in virtually every culture. Page 2

3 10. Which of the following is often called the common cold of psychological disorders? A) obsessive-compulsive disorder B) schizophrenia C) cyclothymic disorder D) major depression 11. All forms of psychotherapy share the assumption that play(s) a significant role in problematic emotions, behaviors, and thoughts. A) genetic vulnerability to mental disorders B) abnormal brain chemistry C) psychological factors D) repressed sexual urges and wishes 12. Dr. Jenkins is a licensed clinical psychologist in Chicago who has an office next door to Dr. Zimmerman, who is a psychiatrist and psychoanalyst. Which of the following statements correctly describes the current rules under which Dr. Jenkins and Dr. Zimmerman practice? A) Dr. Zimmerman can write prescriptions for psychoactive drugs and administer electroconvulsive therapy, but Dr. Jenkins cannot. B) Dr. Jenkins can write prescriptions for psychoactive drugs and administer electroconvulsive therapy, but Dr. Zimmerman cannot. C) Both Dr. Jenkins and Dr. Zimmerman can write prescriptions for psychoactive drugs, but only Dr. Jenkins, who is a licensed psychologist, can admit patients to the hospital for electroconvulsive treatment for psychological disorders. D) Neither Dr. Zimmerman nor Dr. Jenkins can prescribe psychoactive medications, but because Dr. Jenkins is a licensed psychologist he can admit patients to the hospital for electroconvulsive treatment for psychological disorders. 13. Your textbook lists several psychological problems and disorders that have been successfully treated with interpersonal therapy. Which of the following was NOT listed as a psychological problem or disorder that can be successfully treated with interpersonal therapy? A) substance abuse B) schizophrenia C) marital conflict D) eating disorders 14. According to Carl Rogers, as therapy progresses and clients become more self-aware, more self-accepting, and less defensive, they will naturally move: A) toward rejecting the people who have caused their psychological pain. B) toward being self-centered, self-focused, and concerned with their own needs rather than with the needs of others. C) toward rejecting their therapist. D) toward self-actualization. Page 3

4 15. When Meredith was 12 years old, she had to endure a very painful dental procedure. Ever since, she has had an intense fear of going to the dentist. Which of the following techniques is most likely to help her overcome her fear of going to the dentist? A) contingency management B) eye movement desensitization reprocessing (EMDR) C) systematic desensitization D) rational-emotive therapy 16. To deal with 4-year-old Anne's temper tantrums at home and preschool, the behavior therapist trained Anne's parents and her preschool teachers to modify the problem behavior by using and, which are two techniques based on operant conditioning. A) punishment; conditional acceptance B) unconditional acceptance; empathic understanding C) extinction; positive reinforcement D) counterconditioning; systematic desensitization 17. Phil is a client in rational-emotive therapy. The first step of his therapy will probably focus on identifying: A) problem behaviors. B) unconscious conflicts. C) core irrational beliefs. D) aspects of the self that he has denied. 18. According to Aaron Beck's cognitive therapy, people who suffer from depression: A) are reinforced by others for their self-defeating behaviors and attitudes. B) have a deep-seated, often unconscious, need to suffer. C) have developed a negative cognitive bias that distorts their perceptions of events and situations. D) grew up in an atmosphere of conditional rather than unconditional positive regard. 19. A key difference between a self-help group and group therapy is that: A) self-help groups are usually more expensive. B) self-help groups are hardly ever effective whereas group therapy is almost always effective. C) self-help groups are made up of people with diverse problems while group therapy groups are made up of people with the same problem. D) self-help groups are typically organized and led by nonprofessionals. Page 4

5 20. One strategy to evaluate the effectiveness of psychotherapy is to compare people who enter psychotherapy with a matched control group of people who do not receive psychotherapy. When researchers combine and summarize the results of studies using this strategy, what overall conclusions emerge? A) People in the psychotherapy group improve at about the same rate as the people in the untreated group. B) People in the psychotherapy group actually improve at a slower rate than the people in the untreated group. C) The people in the untreated group do not get better, while about a third of the people in the psychotherapy group get better, about a third deteriorate, and about a third remain unchanged. D) Psychotherapy is significantly more effective than no treatment in producing an improvement in symptoms. Page 5

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