# Spline Curves COMP 575/COMP 770

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1 Spline Curves COMP 575/COMP 770 1

2 [Boeing] Motivation: smoothness In many applications we need smooth shapes that is, without discontinuities So far we can make things with corners (lines, squares, rectangles, ) circles and ellipses (only get you so far!) 2

3 Classical approach Pencil-and-paper draftsmen also needed smooth curves Origin of spline: strip of flexible metal held in place by pegs or weights to constrain shape traced to produce smooth contour 3

4 Translating into usable math Smoothness in drafting spline, comes from physical curvature minimization in CG spline, comes from choosing smooth functions usually low-order polynomials Control in drafting spline, comes from fixed pegs in CG spline, comes from user-specified control points 4

5 Defining spline curves At the most general they are parametric curves Generally f(t) is a piecewise polynomial for this lecture, the discontinuities are at the integers 5

6 Defining spline curves Generally f(t) is a piecewise polynomial for this lecture, the discontinuities are at the integers e.g., a cubic spline has the following form over [k, k + 1]: Coefficients are different for every interval 6

7 Coordinate functions 7

8 Coordinate functions 8

9 Control of spline curves Specified by a sequence of control points Shape is guided by control points (aka control polygon) interpolating: passes through points approximating: merely guided by points 9

10 How splines depend on their controls Each coordinate is separate the function x(t) is determined solely by the x coordinates of the control points this means 1D, 2D, 3D, curves are all really the same Spline curves are linear functions of their controls moving a control point two inches to the right moves x(t) twice as far as moving it by one inch x(t), for fixed t, is a linear combination (weighted sum) of the control points x coordinates p(t), for fixed t, is a linear combination (weighted sum) of the control points 10

11 Trivial example: piecewise linear This spline is just a polygon control points are the vertices But we can derive it anyway as an illustration Each interval will be a linear function x(t) = at + b constraints are values at endpoints b = x 0 ; a = x 1 x 0 this is linear interpolation 11

12 Trivial example: piecewise linear Vector formulation Matrix formulation 12

13 Trivial example: piecewise linear Basis function formulation regroup expression by p rather than t interpretation in matrix viewpoint 13

14 Trivial example: piecewise linear Vector blending formulation: average of points blending functions: contribution of each point as t changes 14

15 Trivial example: piecewise linear Basis function formulation: function times point basis functions: contribution of each point as t changes can think of them as blending functions glued together this is just like a reconstruction filter! 15

16 Seeing the basis functions Basis functions of a spline are revealed by how the curve changes in response to a change in one control to get a graph of the basis function, start with the curve laid out in a straight, constant-speed line what are x(t) and y(t)? then move one control straight up 16

17 Hermite splines Less trivial example Form of curve: piecewise cubic Constraints: endpoints and tangents (derivatives) 17

18 Hermite splines Solve constraints to find coefficients 18

19 Hermite splines Matrix form is much simpler cofficients = rows basis functions = columns note p columns sum to [ ] T 19

20 Longer Hermite splines Can only do so much with one Hermite spline Can use these splines as segments of a longer curve curve from t = 0 to t = 1 defined by first segment curve from t = 1 to t = 2 defined by second segment To avoid discontinuity, match derivatives at junctions this produces a C 1 curve 20

21 Hermite splines Hermite blending functions 21

22 Hermite splines Hermite basis functions 22

23 Continuity Smoothness can be described by degree of continuity zero-order (C 0 ): position matches from both sides first-order (C 1 ): tangent matches from both sides second-order (C 2 ): curvature matches from both sides G n vs. C n zero order first order second order 23

24 Continuity Parametric continuity (C) of spline is continuity of coordinate functions Geometric continuity (G) is continuity of the curve itself Neither form of continuity is guaranteed by the other Can be C 1 but not G 1 when p(t) comes to a halt (next slide) Can be G 1 but not C 1 when the tangent vector changes length abruptly 24

25 Control Local control changing control point only affects a limited part of spline without this, splines are very difficult to use many likely formulations lack this natural spline polynomial fits 25

26 Control Convex hull property convex hull = smallest convex region containing points think of a rubber band around some pins some splines stay inside convex hull of control points make clipping, culling, picking, etc. simpler YES YES YES NO 26

27 Affine invariance Transforming the control points is the same as transforming the curve true for all commonly used splines extremely convenient in practice 27

28 Matrix form of spline 28

29 Hermite splines Constraints are endpoints and endpoint tangents 29

30 Hermite basis 30

31 Affine invariance Basis functions associated with points should always sum to 1 31

32 Hermite to Bézier Mixture of points and vectors is awkward Specify tangents as differences of points note derivative is defined as 3 times offset reason is illustrated by linear case 32

33 Hermite to Bézier 33

34 Bézier matrix note that these are the Bernstein polynomials C(n,k) t k (1 t) n k and that defines Bézier curves for any degree 34

35 Bézier basis 35

36 Convex hull If basis functions are all positive, the spline has the convex hull property we re still requiring them to sum to 1 if any basis function is ever negative, no convex hull prop. proof: take the other three points at the same place 36

37 Chaining spline segments Hermite curves are convenient because they can be made long easily Bézier curves are convenient because their controls are all points and they have nice properties and they interpolate every 4th point, which is a little odd We derived Bézier from Hermite by defining tangents from control points a similar construction leads to the interpolating Catmull- Rom spline 37

38 Chaining Bézier splines No continuity built in Achieve C 1 using collinear control points 38

39 [FvDFH] Subdivision A Bézier spline segment can be split into a twosegment curve: de Casteljau s algorithm also works for arbitrary t 39

40 Cubic Bézier splines Very widely used type, especially in 2D e.g. it is a primitive in PostScript/PDF Can represent C 1 and/or G 1 curves with corners Can easily add points at any position 40

41 B-splines We may want more continuity than C 1 We may not need an interpolating spline B-splines are a clean, flexible way of making long splines with arbitrary order of continuity Various ways to think of construction a simple one is convolution relationship to sampling and reconstruction 41

42 Cubic B-spline basis 42

43 Deriving the B-Spline Approached from a different tack than Hermitestyle constraints Want a cubic spline; therefore 4 active control points Want C 2 continuity Turns out that is enough to determine everything 43

44 Efficient construction of any B-spline B-splines defined for all orders order d: degree d 1 order d: d points contribute to value One definition: Cox-deBoor recurrence 44

45 B-spline construction, alternate view Recurrence ramp up/down Convolution smoothing of basis fn smoothing of curve 45

46 Cubic B-spline matrix 46

47 Other types of B-splines Nonuniform B-splines discontinuities not evenly spaced allows control over continuity or interpolation at certain points e.g. interpolate endpoints (commonly used case) Nonuniform Rational B-splines (NURBS) ratios of nonuniform B-splines: x(t) / w(t); y(t) / w(t) key properties: invariance under perspective as well as affine ability to represent conic sections exactly 47

48 Converting spline representations All the splines we have seen so far are equivalent all represented by geometry matrices where S represents the type of spline therefore the control points may be transformed from one type to another using matrix multiplication 48

49 Evaluating splines for display Need to generate a list of line segments to draw generate efficiently use as few as possible guarantee approximation accuracy Approaches reccursive subdivision (easy to do adaptively) uniform sampling (easy to do efficiently) 49

50 [FvDFH] Evaluating by subdivision Recursively split spline stop when polygon is within epsilon of curve Termination criteria distance between control points distance of control points from line p 2 p 4 p 1 p 3 50

51 Evaluating with uniform spacing Forward differencing efficiently generate points for uniformly spaced t values evaluate polynomials using repeated differences 51

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