# Understanding Car Crashes: It s Basic Physics!

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Understanding Car Crashes: It s Basic Physics!"

## Transcription

1 Understanding Car Crashes: It s Basic Physics! Teacher s guide for grades 9 12 by Griff Jones, Ph.D. This teaching guide will help you to: effectively present the video in your classroom teach hands-on crash science lessons fulfill curriculum requirements teach objectives that correlate with national science standards stimulate students interest in modern crashworthiness INSURANCE INSTITUTE FOR HIGHWAY SAFETY

4 Table of Contents Understanding Car Crashes It s Basics Physics Video Concept Organizer: i-ii Teacher Organizer Answers Understanding Car Crashes It s Basics Physics Video Concept Organizer: iii-iv Student Organizer Questions Understanding Car Crashes It s Basics Physics Video Discussion Questions: v-vi Teacher Post-Video Answers Understanding Car Crashes It s Basics Physics Video Discussion Questions: vii-ix Student Post-Video Questions Penny for Your Thoughts on Inertia: Teacher Lesson # Penny for Your Thoughts on Inertia: Student Activity # Momentum Bashing: Teacher Lesson # Momentum Bashing: Student Activity # Egg Crash! Designing a Collision Safety Device: Teacher Lesson # Egg Crash! Designing a Collision Safety Device: Student Activity # Conservation: It s the Law!: Teacher Lesson # Conservation: It s the Law!: Student Activity #

5 Understanding Car Crashes It s Basics Physics Video Concept Organizer Teacher Organizer Answers TIME Running Time: 22 minutes Directions: To help you remember the key physics concepts discussed while viewing the video, fill in the blanks or circle the correct answer. 2:15 2:50 3:20 4:00 4:35 Video Scenes & Key Concepts Test Track Laws Why did the dummy get left behind? It s called inertia, the property of matter that causes it to resist any change in its motion. Isaac Newton s circle one 1st 2nd 3rd Law of Motion states: A body at rest remains at rest unless acted upon by an external force, and a body in motion continues to move at a constant speed in a straight line unless it is acted upon by an external force. Crashing Dummies Now watch what happens when the car crashes into a barrier.the front end of the car is crushing and absorbing energy which slows down the rest of the car. In this case, it is the steering wheel and windshield that applies the force that overcomes the dummy's inertia. Crash-Barrier Chalkboard Newton explained the relationship between crash forces and inertia in his circle one 1st 2nd 3rd Law of Motion. (Fill in the blanks to explain what each letter in the formula represents.) F = force F = ma m = mass a = acceleration F = m v t v = change in velocity t = time or rate Ft = impulse Ft = m v m v = change in momentum i

6 Understanding Car Crashes It s Basics Physics Video Concept Organizer Teacher Organizer Answers TIME 5:20 5:35 6:05 6:18 6:45 7:10 8:20 9:04 9:42 12:55 13:50 14:30 Surfers, Cheetahs, and Elephants...oh my! Momentum is inertia in motion. It is the product of an object's mass and its velocity. Which has more momentum? An 80,000 pound big rig traveling 2 mph or a 4,000 pound SUV traveling 40 mph? circle one Big Rig SUV same Soccer Kicks, Slap Shots, and Egg Toss What is it that changes an object's momentum? an impulse. It is the product of force and the time for which it acts. If the eggs are of equal mass and are thrown at the same velocity they will have the same momenta.the wall and the sheet both apply equal impulses. The wall applies a bigger force over a shorter time, while the sheet applies a smaller force over a longer time. With panic braking the driver stops in less time or distance and experiences more force. Crashing and Smashing The second animated vehicle s front end is less stiff so it crushes two feet instead of one, causing the deceleration to decrease from 30gs to 15 gs. Extending the time of impact is the basis for many of the ideas about keeping people safe in crashes. List three applications in vehicle or highway safety. 1. crumple zones 2. airbags 3. break-away light poles Conserving Momentum and Energy - It s the Law! In a collision of two cars of unequal mass, the occupants of the lighter car would experience much higher accelerations, hence much higher forces than the occupants of the heavier car. Motion related energy is called kinetic energy. Energy due to an object s position or conditions is called potential energy. At what point in the pendulum's swing is its potential energy equal to its kinetic energy? mid-point When is its kinetic energy at its maximum? bottom Circle the correct formula for kinetic energy (KE). KE = 1/2 m2v KE = 1/2 2mv 2 KE = 1/2 mv 2 KE = 1/2 mv2 ii

7 Name Period Date Understanding Car Crashes It s Basics Physics Video Concept Organizer Student Organizer Questions TIME 2:15 2:50 3:20 4:00 4:35 Running Time: 22 minutes Directions: To help you remember the key physics concepts discussed while viewing the video, fill in the blanks or circle the correct answer. Video Scenes & Key Concepts Test Track Laws Why did the dummy get left behind? It's called, the property of matter that causes it to. Isaac Newton's circle one 1st 2nd 3rd Law of Motion states: A body at rest remains at unless acted upon by an external, and a body in continues to move at a constant in a straight line unless it is acted upon by an external force. Crashing Dummies Now watch what happens when the car crashes into a barrier. The front end of the car is crushing and absorbing which slows down the rest of the car. In this case, it is the steering wheel and windshield that applies the that overcomes the dummy's Crash-Barrier Chalkboard Newton explained the relationship between crash forces and inertia in his circle one 1st 2nd 3rd Law of Motion. (Fill in the blanks to explain what each letter in the formula represents.) F = F = ma m = a = F = m v v = t t = Ft = Ft = m v m v = iii

8 TIME 5:20 5:35 6:05 6:18 6:45 7:10 8:20 9:04 9:42 12:55 13:50 14:30 CRASH COURSE ACTIVITY Understanding Car Crashes It s Basics Physics Video Concept Organizer Student Organizer Questions Surfers, Cheetahs, and Elephants...oh my! Momentum is in motion. It is the product of an object's and its. Which has more momentum? An 80,000 pound big rig traveling 2 mph or a 4,000 pound SUV traveling 40 mph? circle one Big Rig SUV same Soccer Kicks, Slap Shots, and Egg Toss What is it that changes an object s momentum?. It is the product of and the for which it acts. If the eggs are of equal mass and are thrown at the same velocity they will have the same. The wall and the sheet both apply equal. The wall applies a force over a time, while the sheet applies a force over a time. With panic braking the driver stops in less time or distance and experiences more. Crashing and Smashing The second animated vehicle s front end is less stiff so it crushes two feet instead of one, causing the deceleration to. Extending the time of impact is the basis for many of the ideas about keeping people safe in crashes. List three applications in vehicle or highway safety Conserving Momentum and Energy it s the Law! In a collision of two cars of unequal mass, the occupants of the lighter car would experience much higher, hence much higher than the occupants of the heavier car. Motion related energy is called. Energy due to an object s position or conditions is called. At what point in the pendulum's swing is its potential energy equal to its kinetic energy? When is its kinetic energy at its maximum? Circle the correct formula for kinetic energy (KE). KE = 1/2 m2v KE = 1/2 2mv 2 KE = 1/2 mv 2 KE = 1/2 mv2 iv

9 Understanding Car Crashes It s Basics Physics Video Discussion Questions Teacher Post-Video Answers Directions: After viewing the video, answer the following questions in the space provided. Be prepared to discuss your responses with your classmates while in small groups or as an entire class. Post-Video Crash Questions 1. Ever tried to stop a 150 pound (68 kg) cannonball fired towards you at 30 mph (48 km/hr.)? No, probably not. But you may have tried to brace yourself in a car collision. How are the two situations similar? Both you and the cannonball have momentum based upon mass and velocity. If you are traveling 30 mph and weigh 150 pounds your momentum would equal the cannonball s. In a major collision, it is impossible to prevent injuries by bracing yourself. No matter how strong you think you are, you are not strong enough to stop your inertia during a collision. 2. Show mathematically why an 80,000 pound (36,000 kg) big rig traveling 2 mph (0.89 m/s) has the SAME MOMENTUM as a 4,000 pound (1,800 kg) sport utility vehicle traveling 40 mph (18 m/s). Momentum is the product of an object's mass and velocity. The formula is p = mv. The product of each is equivalent. The SI unit for momentum is the kilogram x meter/second (kg x m/s). Truck momentum = (36,000 kg)(0.89 m/s) = 32,000 kg x m/s SUV momentum= (1,800 kg)(18 m/s) = 32,000 kg x m/s 3. During the Egg-Throwing Demonstration, which egg experienced the greater impulse, the egg that hit the wall or the bed sheet? (Be careful here!) Which egg experienced the greater force of impact? Which egg experienced the greater time of impact? If their momenta are equal before the collisions (same mass and velocity), both eggs experience identical impulses because both are stopped by the collision. The egg that hit the crash barrier experienced the greater impact force due to the shorter impact time. The egg that collided with the bed sheet experienced the greater time of impact, thereby experiencing a smaller stopping force over a longer time interval. v

11 Name Period Date Understanding Car Crashes It s Basics Physics Video Discussion Questions Student Post-Video Questions Directions: After viewing the video, answer the following questions in the space provided. Be prepared to discuss your responses with your classmates while in small groups or as an entire class. Post-Video Crash Questions 1. Ever tried to stop a 150 pound (68 kg) cannonball fired towards you at 30 mph (48 km/hr.)? No, probably not. But you may have tried to brace yourself in a car collision. How are the two situations similar? 2. Show mathematically why an 80,000 pound (36,000 kg) big rig traveling 2 mph (0.89 m/s) has the SAME MOMENTUM as a 4,000 pound (1,800 kg) sport utility vehicle traveling 40 mph (18 m/s). 3. During the Egg-Throwing Demonstration, which egg experienced the greater impulse, the egg that hit the wall or the bed sheet? (Be careful here!) Which egg experienced the greater force of impact? Which egg experienced the greater time of impact? vii

12 Understanding Car Crashes It s Basics Physics Video Discussion Questions Student Post-Video Questions 4. Explain how the fortunate race car drivers survived their high speed crashes. 5. Describe other examples where momentum is reduced by applying a smaller collision force over a longer impact time (or where things give way during a collision to lessen the impact force)???? 6. Which would be more damaging to your car: having a head-on collision with an identical car traveling at an identical speed or driving head on into the Vehicle Research Center s 320,000 pound (145,455 kg) deformable concrete crash barrier? Explain. viii

13 Name Period Date Understanding Car Crashes It s Basics Physics Video Discussion Questions Student Post-Video Questions 7. Show mathematically why a small increase in your vehicle s speed results in a tremendous increase in your vehicle's kinetic energy. (For example: doubling your speed from 30 mph to 60 mph results in a quadrupling of your kinetic energy.) Physics? Physics? 8. The Law of Conservation of Energy states: energy cannot be created or destroyed; it can be transformed from one form to another but the total amount of energy never changes. Car crashes can involve huge amounts of energy. How does the crashworthiness of the car affect the transfer and transformations of the energy and, ultimately, protect the occupants? ix

14 Crash Course Lesson Plans and Activities

15 Penny for Your Thoughts on Inertia 1 TEACHER LESSON Crash Course Definitions inertia: property of an object to resist any change in its state of motion mass: quantity of matter in an object; measure of an object s inertia Key Question(s) How do magicians pull a tablecloth out from under an entire set of dishes? Is it magic or science? How is a magician s tablecloth trick related to a crash dummy falling off the tailgate of a pickup truck as the truck accelerates? Grade levels: 9 12 Time required: 5 10 minutes Objectives Students will: learn and apply Newton s First Law of Motion recognize inertial mass as a physical property of matter National Science Education Standards Standard A: Science as Inquiry Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations Standard B: Physical Science Motion and forces Standard G: History & Nature of Science Science as a human endeavor Historical perspectives Background information The origins of Newton s Laws of Motion began with the Italian philosopher Galileo Galilei ( ). Galileo broke from the teachings of Aristotle that had been accepted as truth for more than 1,000 years.where Aristotle and his followers believed moving objects must be steadily pushed or pulled to keep moving, Galileo showed with his experiments that moving things, once moving, continued in motion without being pushed or pulled (forces applied). He called the property of objects to behave this way inertia, which is Latin for lazy or inert. Isaac Newton, born in England on Christmas day in 1642 (the year Galileo died) refined Galileo s Principle of Inertia in terms of unbalanced forces and made it his first law of motion. Newton s First Law of Motion In the absence of an unbalanced force, an object at rest remains at rest, and an object already in motion remains in motion at constant speed on a straight line path. 1

16 Penny for Your Thoughts on Inertia 1 TEACHER LESSON Materials needed For each group: 3"x 5" index card plastic cup or beaker 1 10 pennies (optional) mix of dimes, nickels, quarters, half dollars Getting ready Assemble the materials for each group.you may wish to consider having other coins available for the groups to try.their results may vary with the mass of the coins used. More mass results in more inertia. Procedure 1. Cover the cup with the index card and put the penny on top of the card. 2. Challenge the students to get the penny in the cup without lifting the card and only touching it with one finger. Best method Flick the card horizontally with your forefinger. 3. After students have succeeded with one penny, challenge them to try multiple pennies and other coins. Answers to analysis questions 1. Describe a successful technique. Answers will vary. See above for best method, Step 2 Procedure. 2. Why does the penny drop in the cup when the card is flicked away? Very little of the sudden horizontal force from your flicking finger is transferred upward to the penny, so the inertia of the penny keeps it over the mouth of the cup. With the card no longer providing support force, the force of gravity pulls it straight down into the cup. 3. How did the total mass of the coins used affect your success? They should have been more successful with more mass. More mass equals more inertia, which equates to a greater resistance to movement. But too much mass increases the force of friction beyond your horizontal flicking force and the card cannot move out from under the coins. 4. How do magicians use Newton s First Law to their advantage in pulling a tablecloth out from under an entire set of dishes? The heavier the plates the greater the inertia, and the better the magician s chance for success. But too much mass increases the force of friction beyond the horizontal pulling force and the tablecloth cannot move out from under the dishes. Answers to crash questions How is a magician s tablecloth trick related to a crash dummy falling off the tailgate of a pickup truck as the truck accelerates? Both apply the concept of inertia. Just as inertia keeps the plates at rest as the magician pulls the tablecloth our from under them, inertia keeps the crash dummy at rest as the tailgate moves out from under it. 2

17 Name Period Date Penny for Your Thoughts on Inertia 1 STUDENT ACTIVITY Crash test question How is a magician s tablecloth trick related to a crash dummy falling off the tailgate of a pickup truck as the truck accelerates? Purpose To explore the concept of inertia. Materials needed For each group: 3 x 5 index card plastic cup or beaker 1 10 pennies (optional) mix of dimes, nickels, quarters, half dollars Discussion Whether you are attempting the magician s tablecloth trick or slamming on your car brakes to avoid an accident, the laws of nature apply. Understanding nature s basic rules or PHYSICS can help improve your chances of success in either situation. Procedure 1. Cover the cup with the index card and put the penny on top of the card. 2. The challenge is to get the penny into the cup without lifting the card and only touching the card with one finger. 3. After you have succeeded with one penny, try it with multiple pennies and other coins. Analysis 1. Describe a successful technique. 2. Why does the penny drop in the cup when the card is flicked away? 3

18 Penny for Your Thoughts on Inertia 1 STUDENT ACTIVITY 3. How did the total mass of the coins affect your success? 4. How is a magician s tablecloth trick related to a crash dummy falling off the tailgate of a pickup truck as the truck accelerates? Crash question How are the magician s tablecloth trick and vehicle seat belts related? 4

19 Momentum Bashing 2 TEACHER LESSON Crash Course Definitions momentum: the product of the mass and the velocity of an object (p = mv) velocity: the speed of an object and its direction of motion acceleration: the rate at which velocity is changing Key question(s) What determines if one car has more momentum than another in a two-car collision? Does increasing an object s mass increase its momentum or bashing power? Grade levels: 9 12 Time required: minutes Objectives Students will: understand and apply the definition of momentum: momentum = mass x velocity conduct semi-quantitative analyses of the momentum of two objects involved in one-dimensional collisions describe automobile technologies that reduce the risk of injury in a collision National Science Education Standards Standard A: Science as Inquiry Identify questions and concepts that guide scientific investigations Design and conduct scientific investigations Standard B: Physical Science Motion and forces Conservation of energy Standard F: Science in Personal and Social Perspectives Natural and human-induced hazards Standard G: Nature of Science Nature of scientific knowledge Historical perspectives Background information Science is a process that is performed not only by individuals but by a scientific community. One of the first groups to represent the scientific community was the Royal Society of London for Improving Natural Knowledge, founded in 1660.The group evolved from informal meetings where the members discussed and performed simple scientific experiments. Led by a soon-to-be-famous member named Isaac Newton, they began to explore the topic of motion and collisions. Drawing on previous work from the scientific community and his own observations, Newton deduced his three simple laws of motion. Newton s Second Law of Motion states that if you wish to accelerate something, you must apply a force to it. Newton s First Law of Motion then says, once an object is moving it will remain moving (unless friction or another outside force, like a wall, stops it).this is inertia of motion, or momentum. The momentum of a moving object is related to its mass and velocity.a moving object has a large momentum if it has a large mass, a large velocity, or both.a marble can be stopped more easily than a bowling ball. Both balls have momentum. However, the bowling ball 5

20 Momentum Bashing 2 TEACHER LESSON has more momentum than a marble. Momentum changes if the velocity and/or mass changes. (For more on momentum see background information from Lesson #4.) Materials needed For each group: ruler with center groove 4 marbles, same size 5-ounce (148 ml) paper cup scissors meter sticks (2) book to support track (3 4 cm height) Procedure 1. Explain how scientific knowledge changes by evolving over time, almost always building on earlier knowledge (refer to background information).tell students this lesson builds on their knowledge of force, inertia, and speed to better understand what happens in a crash. Begin the activity with a discussion of the following open-ended questions on momentum. Momentum is often used by sports commentators or political analysts to describe a team s or candidate s performance, yet in physics it has a specific meaning. Can they explain the difference? What determines if one car has more momentum than another in a two-car collision? 2. Explain that momentum has often been loosely defined as the amount of oomph or bashing power of a moving object. It is the measurement of an object s inertia in motion or more specifically, momentum = mass x velocity In this activity students will see how an object s mass affects its oomph or bashing power. 3. Distribute Momentum Bashing activity sheets and supplies to each group. Instruct each group to cut the section from their paper cup and set up their ramp. Long flat tables or tile floors work well for this activity. 6

### WATCH THIS ICON: View this short clip from the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety DVD called Understanding Car Crashes It s basic physics.

Lesson 3: Energy, Momentum, and Understanding Car Crashes Many of us have lost students to violent motor vehicle crashes. In the United States, motor vehicle crashes are the number one cause of death among

### Momentum Crash Course

Objective: To study momentum and its role in car crashes. Grade Level: 5-8 Subject(s): Science, Mathematics Prep Time: < 10 minutes Duration: One class period Materials Category: Household National Education

### Explore 3: Crash Test Dummies

Explore : Crash Test Dummies Type of Lesson: Learning Goal & Instructiona l Objectives Content with Process: Focus on constructing knowledge through active learning. Students investigate Newton s first

### STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws

Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 25 TEK 8.6C: Newton s Laws TEK 8.6C: Investigate and describe applications of Newton's law of inertia, law of force and acceleration, and law of action-reaction

### EGG ENGINEERING-SAVE THE EGG

EGG ENGINEERING-SAVE THE EGG MAKING AN EGG DROP PROTECTIVE DEVICE Experiment Objective: The aim of this project is to design a carrier that will prevent an egg from breaking when dropped from a certain

### Newton s Laws of Motion

Section 3.2 Newton s Laws of Motion Objectives Analyze relationships between forces and motion Calculate the effects of forces on objects Identify force pairs between objects New Vocabulary Newton s first

### Chapter 7: Momentum and Impulse

Chapter 7: Momentum and Impulse 1. When a baseball bat hits the ball, the impulse delivered to the ball is increased by A. follow through on the swing. B. rapidly stopping the bat after impact. C. letting

### Unit 3. Forces Part 2

Unit 3 Forces Part 2 1 Vocabulary: Force Acceleration Mass Net Force Balanced Forces Unbalanced Forces Friction Air resistance Gravity Weight Inertia Action Force Reaction Force Concepts: How does a force

### Newton s Wagon Newton s Laws

Newton s Wagon Newton s Laws What happens when you kick a soccer ball? The kick is the external force that Newton was talking about in his first law of motion. What happens to the ball after you kick it?

### Isaac Newton was a British scientist whose accomplishments included

80 Newton s Laws of Motion R EA D I N G Isaac Newton was a British scientist whose accomplishments included important discoveries about light, motion, and gravity. You may have heard the legend about how

### Newton s Toy Box HANDS-ON ACTIVITIES

TABLE OF CONTENTS ABOUT DELTA SCIENCE MODULES Program Introduction................... iii Teacher s Guide..................... iv Delta Science Readers............... vi Equipment and Materials Kit.........

### LAWS OF FORCE AND MOTION

reflect Does anything happen without a cause? Many people would say yes, because that often seems to be our experience. A cup near the edge of a table suddenly crashes to the fl oor. An apple falls from

### Our Dynamic Universe

North Berwick High School Department of Physics Higher Physics Unit 1 Section 3 Our Dynamic Universe Collisions and Explosions Section 3 Collisions and Explosions Note Making Make a dictionary with the

### Exampro GCSE Physics. P2 Momentum and Energy Calculations Self Study Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 110. Marks: 110.

Exampro GCSE Physics P2 Momentum and Energy Calculations Self Study Higher tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 0 Marks: 0 Comments: Page of 33 Q. The figure below shows a skateboarder jumping forwards

### M OTION. Chapter2 OUTLINE GOALS

Chapter2 M OTION OUTLINE Describing Motion 2.1 Speed 2.2 Vectors 2.3 Acceleration 2.4 Distance, Time, and Acceleration Acceleration of Gravity 2.5 Free Fall 2.6 Air Resistence Force and Motion 2.7 First

### Name per due date mail box

Name per due date mail box Rolling Momentum Lab (1 pt for complete header) Today in lab, we will be experimenting with momentum and measuring the actual force of impact due to momentum of several rolling

### ACTIVITY 1: Gravitational Force and Acceleration

CHAPTER 3 ACTIVITY 1: Gravitational Force and Acceleration LEARNING TARGET: You will determine the relationship between mass, acceleration, and gravitational force. PURPOSE: So far in the course, you ve

### Educational Innovations

Educational Innovations Background Forces and Motion MAR-600 Wall Coaster Motion is caused by forces. Motion can be described. Motion follows rules. There are many forces and principles involved with motion.

### 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction

CHAPTER 1 SECTION Matter in Motion 4 Gravity: A Force of Attraction BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is gravity? How are weight and mass different?

### Concept Review. Physics 1

Concept Review Physics 1 Speed and Velocity Speed is a measure of how much distance is covered divided by the time it takes. Sometimes it is referred to as the rate of motion. Common units for speed or

### Newton s Third Law. Newton s Third Law of Motion. Action-Reaction Pairs

Section 4 Newton s Third Law Reading Preview Key Concepts What is Newton s third law of motion? How can you determine the momentum of an object? What is the law of conservation of momentum? Key Terms momentum

### Physical Science Chapter 2. Forces

Physical Science Chapter 2 Forces The Nature of Force By definition, a Force is a push or a pull. A Push Or A Pull Just like Velocity & Acceleration Forces have both magnitude and direction components

### Instructor Now pick your pencils up and get this important equation in your notes.

Physics 605 Mechanical Energy (Read objectives on screen.) No, I haven t been playing with this toy the whole time you ve been gone, but it is kind of hypnotizing, isn t it? So where were we? Oh yes, we

### Honors FORCE Study Guide KEY

Honors FORCE Study Guide KEY Answer the following questions for each objective in your notebook: Objective 1: Students will know the different types of forces and how they affect the movement of objects.

### Exam Three Momentum Concept Questions

Exam Three Momentum Concept Questions Isolated Systems 4. A car accelerates from rest. In doing so the absolute value of the car's momentum changes by a certain amount and that of the Earth changes by:

### Industry Cluster: Sensors Title of PBL/Inquiry Unit: Egg-Stravaganza Vehicle Grade Level: Academic Content Area(s): Topic(s):

Industry Cluster: Sensors Title of PBL/Inquiry Unit: Egg-Stravaganza Vehicle Grade Level: Academic Content Area(s): Topic(s): 8 th or 9 th Science & Math Force, Motion, Engineering Design Process, Measurement,

### The Physics of Kicking a Soccer Ball

The Physics of Kicking a Soccer Ball Shael Brown Grade 8 Table of Contents Introduction...1 What actually happens when you kick a soccer ball?...2 Who kicks harder shorter or taller people?...4 How much

### Described by Isaac Newton

Described by Isaac Newton States observed relationships between motion and forces 3 statements cover aspects of motion for single objects and for objects interacting with another object An object at rest

### b. Velocity tells you both speed and direction of an object s movement. Velocity is the change in position divided by the change in time.

I. What is Motion? a. Motion - is when an object changes place or position. To properly describe motion, you need to use the following: 1. Start and end position? 2. Movement relative to what? 3. How far

### 2.2 NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION

2.2 NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) made a systematic study of motion and extended the ideas of Galileo (1564-1642). He summed up Galileo s observation in his three laws of motion

### Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion

Physics: Principles and Applications, 6e Giancoli Chapter 4 Dynamics: Newton's Laws of Motion Conceptual Questions 1) Which of Newton's laws best explains why motorists should buckle-up? A) the first law

### Newton s Laws Quiz Review

Newton s Laws Quiz Review Name Hour To be properly prepared for this quiz you should be able to do the following: 1) state each of Newton s three laws of motion 2) pick out examples of the three laws from

### PS-5.1 Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object.

PS-5.1 Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object. It is essential for students to Understand Distance and Displacement: Distance is a measure of how far an

### Name Date Class. The Nature of Force and Motion (pages ) 2. When one object pushes or pulls another object, the first object is

CHAPTER 4 MOTION AND FORCES SECTION 4 1 The Nature of Force and Motion (pages 116-121) This section explains how balanced and unbalanced forces are related to the motion of an object. It also explains

### PHYSICS MIDTERM REVIEW

1. The acceleration due to gravity on the surface of planet X is 19.6 m/s 2. If an object on the surface of this planet weighs 980. newtons, the mass of the object is 50.0 kg 490. N 100. kg 908 N 2. If

### Teaching Motion with the Air Puck

Name: Teaching Motion with the Air Puck Objective: In studying motion of objects, many times it is difficult to quantitatively measure objects on Earth because of ever-present friction issues. Often, our

### Activity 5a Potential and Kinetic Energy PHYS 010. To investigate the relationship between potential energy and kinetic energy.

Name: Date: Partners: Purpose: To investigate the relationship between potential energy and kinetic energy. Materials: 1. Super-balls, or hard bouncy rubber balls. Metre stick and tape 3. calculator 4.

### Reading Comprehension Skills Preview the Book How to Read Charts Cause and Effect

TM Red Edition Grade 3 4 reading level Purple Edition Grade 4 5 reading level Objectives Describe how forces can change the motion of objects. Explain what happens when many forces act on one object at

### Motion Commotion. Middle School TEKS. Vocabulary

Motion Commotion Middle School TEKS Sixth Grade: 6.8A, 6.8B, 6.8C, 6.8D Seventh Grade: 7.7A, 7.7C Eighth Grade: 8.6A, 8.6C Vocabulary acceleration, friction, gravity, inertia, kinetic energy, Newton s

### NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION

NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Background: Aristotle believed that the natural state of motion for objects on the earth was one of rest. In other words, objects needed a force to be kept in motion. Galileo studied

### Chapter 06 Multi-format Test

Name: Class: Date: Chapter 06 Multi-format Test Modified True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false. If false, change the identified word or phrase to make the statement true. 1. The inertia

### Chapter 7 Momentum and Impulse

Chapter 7 Momentum and Impulse Collisions! How can we describe the change in velocities of colliding football players, or balls colliding with bats?! How does a strong force applied for a very short time

### Teacher notes/ activities. Gravity is the attractive force between all objects in the universe. It is the force that pulls objects to the earth.

Gravity and forces unit Teacher notes/ activities Gravity is the attractive force between all objects in the universe. It is the force that pulls objects to the earth. Galileo, a famous Italian scientist

### EDUH 1017 - SPORTS MECHANICS

4277(a) Semester 2, 2011 Page 1 of 9 THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEY EDUH 1017 - SPORTS MECHANICS NOVEMBER 2011 Time allowed: TWO Hours Total marks: 90 MARKS INSTRUCTIONS All questions are to be answered. Use

### 9. The kinetic energy of the moving object is (1) 5 J (3) 15 J (2) 10 J (4) 50 J

1. If the kinetic energy of an object is 16 joules when its speed is 4.0 meters per second, then the mass of the objects is (1) 0.5 kg (3) 8.0 kg (2) 2.0 kg (4) 19.6 kg Base your answers to questions 9

### CHAPTER 2: NEWTON S 1 ST LAW OF MOTION-INERTIA 08/24/16

CHAPTER 2: NEWTON S 1 ST LAW OF MOTION-INERTIA 08/24/16 HISTORY OF IDEAS ABOUT MOTION Aristotle (384-322 BC) o Natural Motion An object will strive to get to its proper place determined by its nature or

### general, accidents caused by misjudging

Unit 3: The Effect of Natural Forces on your Vehicle Page 1 of 11 Purpose: Acquaint the student with some of the natural forces acting on a vehicle while stopping, maneuvering, and during a crash. Explain

### Free Fall: Observing and Analyzing the Free Fall Motion of a Bouncing Ping-Pong Ball and Calculating the Free Fall Acceleration (Teacher s Guide)

Free Fall: Observing and Analyzing the Free Fall Motion of a Bouncing Ping-Pong Ball and Calculating the Free Fall Acceleration (Teacher s Guide) 2012 WARD S Science v.11/12 OVERVIEW Students will measure

### Unit 3 Practice Test: Dynamics

Unit 3 Practice Test: Dynamics Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the common formula for work? a. W = F x c. W = Fd

### Educational Innovations

Educational Innovations NA-100/95S Newton s Apple grav i ty (gravitē) noun 1. The force that attracts a body toward the center of the earth, or toward any other physical body having mass. For most purposes

### Summary Notes. to avoid confusion it is better to write this formula in words. time

National 4/5 Physics Dynamics and Space Summary Notes The coloured boxes contain National 5 material. Section 1 Mechanics Average Speed Average speed is the distance travelled per unit time. distance (m)

### A Place Where Learning is Fun! Student Manual Elementary School

A Place Where Learning is Fun! Student Manual Elementary School 1 TO BE READ ON THE BUS ON YOUR WAY TO CAROWINDS! Your bus pulls up to the entrance of Carowinds and you are about to jump out of your seat

### Physics 125 Practice Exam #3 Chapters 6-7 Professor Siegel

Physics 125 Practice Exam #3 Chapters 6-7 Professor Siegel Name: Lab Day: 1. A concrete block is pulled 7.0 m across a frictionless surface by means of a rope. The tension in the rope is 40 N; and the

### A Place Where Learning is Fun! Student Manual Middle School

A Place Where Learning is Fun! Student Manual Middle School 1 TO BE READ ON THE BUS ON YOUR WAY TO CAROWINDS! Your bus pulls up to the entrance of Carowinds and you are about to jump out of your seat with

### Physics 11 Chapter 4 HW Solutions

Physics 11 Chapter 4 HW Solutions Chapter 4 Conceptual Question: 5, 8, 10, 18 Problems: 3, 3, 35, 48, 50, 54, 61, 65, 66, 68 Q4.5. Reason: No. If you know all of the forces than you know the direction

### Newton s Laws. Physics 1425 lecture 6. Michael Fowler, UVa.

Newton s Laws Physics 1425 lecture 6 Michael Fowler, UVa. Newton Extended Galileo s Picture of Galileo said: Motion to Include Forces Natural horizontal motion is at constant velocity unless a force acts:

### Section 3 Newton s Laws of Motion

Section 3 Newton s Laws of Motion Key Concept Newton s laws of motion describe the relationship between forces and the motion of an object. What You Will Learn Newton s first law of motion states that

### KEY NNHS Introductory Physics: MCAS Review Packet #1 Introductory Physics, High School Learning Standards for a Full First-Year Course

Introductory Physics, High School Learning Standards for a Full First-Year Course I. C O N T E N T S T A N D A R D S Central Concept: Newton s laws of motion and gravitation describe and predict the motion

### Chapter Assessment Concept Mapping. Mastering Concepts

launch point with horizontal momentum. Where does the vertical momentum come from as the athlete vaults over the crossbar? The vertical momentum comes from the impulsive force of Earth against the pole.

### Measurements of Speed. Speed. v = d t. PowerPoint Lectures to accompany Physical Science, 6e

PowerPoint Lectures to accompany Physical Science, 6e Chapter 2 Motion Homework: All the multiple choice questions in Applying the Concepts and Group A questions in Parallel Exercises. Motion is.. A change

### Lesson 1: Momentum & Impulse

Lesson 1: Momentum & Impulse How does a karate expert chop through cement blocks with a bare hand? Why does a fall onto a trampoline hurt less than onto a cement floor? Why do people in larger vehicles

Section Review Answers Chapter 12 Section 1 1. Answers may vary. Students should say in their own words that an object at rest remains at rest and an object in motion maintains its velocity unless it experiences

### Notes: Mechanics. The Nature of Force, Motion & Energy

Notes: Mechanics The Nature of Force, Motion & Energy I. Force A push or pull. a) A force is needed to change an object s state of motion. b) Net force- The sum (addition) of all the forces acting on an

### Explore 2: Gathering Momentum

Explore : Gathering Momentum Type of Lesson: Learning Goal & Instructional Objectives: Content with Process: Focus on constructing knowledge through active learning. In this investigation, students calculate

### LeaPS Workshop March 12, 2010 Morehead Conference Center Morehead, KY

LeaPS Workshop March 12, 2010 Morehead Conference Center Morehead, KY Word Bank: Acceleration, mass, inertia, weight, gravity, work, heat, kinetic energy, potential energy, closed systems, open systems,

### Key for Physics first semester final (questions , save honorable ones)

Key for Physics first semester final (questions 20-512, save honorable ones) 20. Reaction time only appears in the equation for reaction distance and therefore braking distance., which means it only affects

### PS-6.2 Explain the factors that determine potential and kinetic energy and the transformation of one to the other.

PS-6.1 Explain how the law of conservation of energy applies to the transformation of various forms of energy (including mechanical energy, electrical energy, chemical energy, light energy, sound energy,

### Momentum and Energy. Ron Robertson

Momentum and Energy Ron Robertson Momentum Momentum is inertia in motion. Momentum = mass x velocity Unit kg meters/second Momentum is changed by force. The amount of momentum change is also affected by

### Chapter 12 - Forces and Motion

Chapter 12 - Forces and Motion A. What is a force? 1. It is a push or pull. 2. Force can cause resting objects to move. 3. Force can cause acceleration by changing the object s speed or direction. 4. Newtons

### Force Concept Inventory

Revised form 081695R Force Concept Inventory Originally published in The Physics Teacher, March 1992 by David Hestenes, Malcolm Wells, and Gregg Swackhamer Revised August 1995 by Ibrahim Halloun, Richard

### NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION

Name Period Date NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION If I am anything, which I highly doubt, I have made myself so by hard work. Isaac Newton Goals: 1. Students will use conceptual and mathematical models to predict

### 356 CHAPTER 12 Bob Daemmrich

Standard 7.3.17: Investigate that an unbalanced force, acting on an object, changes its speed or path of motion or both, and know that if the force always acts toward the same center as the object moves,

### Work, Energy & Momentum Homework Packet Worksheet 1: This is a lot of work!

Work, Energy & Momentum Homework Packet Worksheet 1: This is a lot of work! 1. A student holds her 1.5-kg psychology textbook out of a second floor classroom window until her arm is tired; then she releases

### Conceptual Questions: Forces and Newton s Laws

Conceptual Questions: Forces and Newton s Laws 1. An object can have motion only if a net force acts on it. his statement is a. true b. false 2. And the reason for this (refer to previous question) is

### Car Crash Design Lab

Car Crash Design Lab This activity is designed to utilize your prior knowledge of physics and physical systems in order select critical safety features of a car. In this lab you are asked to select components

### Force. A force is a push or a pull. Pushing on a stalled car is an example. The force of friction between your feet and the ground is yet another.

Force A force is a push or a pull. Pushing on a stalled car is an example. The force of friction between your feet and the ground is yet another. Force Weight is the force of the earth's gravity exerted

### Newton s Third Law: Run and Jump

Chapter 2 Physics in Action SECTION 6 Newton s Third Law: Run and Jump Section Overview In this section, students analyze the forces involved in running, stopping, and jumping. To illustrate this concept,

### Lesson 3 - Understanding Energy (with a Pendulum)

Lesson 3 - Understanding Energy (with a Pendulum) Introduction This lesson is meant to introduce energy and conservation of energy and is a continuation of the fundamentals of roller coaster engineering.

### E Physics: A. Newton s Three Laws of Motion Activity: Newton s Third Law of Motion

Science as Inquiry: As a result of their activities in grades 5 8, all students should develop Understanding about scientific inquiry. Abilities necessary to do scientific inquiry: identify questions,

### Forces. Lecturer: Professor Stephen T. Thornton

Forces Lecturer: Professor Stephen T. Thornton Reading Quiz: Which of Newton s laws refers to an action and a reaction acceleration? A) First law. B) Second law. C) Third law. D) This is a trick question.

### Lecture Presentation Chapter 4 Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion

Lecture Presentation Chapter 4 Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion Suggested Videos for Chapter 4 Prelecture Videos Newton s Laws Forces Video Tutor Solutions Force and Newton s Laws of Motion Class Videos

### Conceptual Physics Fundamentals

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 4: NEWTON S LAWS OF MOTION Newton s Laws of Motion I was only a scalar until you came along and gave me direction. Barbara Wolfe This lecture will help you understand:

### Physics Midterm Review Packet January 2010

Physics Midterm Review Packet January 2010 This Packet is a Study Guide, not a replacement for studying from your notes, tests, quizzes, and textbook. Midterm Date: Thursday, January 28 th 8:15-10:15 Room:

### 1 of 6 10/17/2009 2:32 PM

1 of 6 10/17/2009 2:32 PM Chapter 9 Homework Due: 9:00am on Monday, October 19, 2009 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]

### Understanding the motion of the Universe. Motion, Force, and Gravity

Understanding the motion of the Universe Motion, Force, and Gravity Laws of Motion Stationary objects do not begin moving on their own. In the same way, moving objects don t change their movement spontaneously.

### Physics in action: Impulse

Physics in action: Impulse A very important application of impulse is improving safety and reducing injuries. In many cases, an object needs to be brought to rest from a certain initial velocity. This

### 8. As a cart travels around a horizontal circular track, the cart must undergo a change in (1) velocity (3) speed (2) inertia (4) weight

1. What is the average speed of an object that travels 6.00 meters north in 2.00 seconds and then travels 3.00 meters east in 1.00 second? 9.00 m/s 3.00 m/s 0.333 m/s 4.24 m/s 2. What is the distance traveled

### 2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration.

2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. Dynamics looks at the cause of acceleration: an unbalanced force. Isaac Newton was

### Sixty-seven deaths per week, nine per day, one every. Crash science addresses the leading cause of death of teens In the UnIted States

Crash science addresses the leading cause of death of teens In the UnIted States Linda Jones and Sixty-seven deaths per week, nine per day, one every two hours: Motor-vehicle crashes are the number one

### Chapter 4 Newton s Laws: Explaining Motion

Chapter 4 Newton s s Laws: Explaining Motion Newton s Laws of Motion The concepts of force, mass, and weight play critical roles. A Brief History! Where do our ideas and theories about motion come from?!

### Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton. Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight

Q: Who established the law of universal gravitation? A: Newton Q: What is a spring scale used for? A: To measure weight Q: What is the Law of Universal Gravitation? A: Everything in the universe has gravity.

### 5. Forces and Motion-I. Force is an interaction that causes the acceleration of a body. A vector quantity.

5. Forces and Motion-I 1 Force is an interaction that causes the acceleration of a body. A vector quantity. Newton's First Law: Consider a body on which no net force acts. If the body is at rest, it will

### Explore 1: Playing with Toy Cars

Explore 1: Playing with Toy Cars Type of Lesson: Content with Process: Focus is on constructing knowledge through active learning. Learning Goal & Instructional Objectives Students conduct experiments

### SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question.

Exam Name SHORT ANSWER. Write the word or phrase that best completes each statement or answers the question. 1) A person on a sled coasts down a hill and then goes over a slight rise with speed 2.7 m/s.

### Newton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass

Team: Newton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass Newton s Third Law is a deep statement on the symmetry of interaction between any two bodies in the universe. How is the pull of the earth on the moon

### Newton's First Law. Driving Questions. Background. Materials and Equipment. Safety. For each student or group: Name Period Date

Name Period Date Newton's First Law Driving Questions What factors affect the motion of objects? Aristotle (384 BC to 322 BC) believed that the natural state of an object was to be at rest and therefore

### The Laws of Newton. Overview. Venn Diagram Positioning. Time Required. Standards Addressed. Materials Required. The Laws of Newton [ 1 ]

The Laws of Newton Overview Gravity is one of the fundamental concepts of Physics. It is an abstract concept which can t be explained without the help of activities. Students in the middle grades need

### ACTIVITY SIX CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM ELASTIC COLLISIONS

1 PURPOSE ACTIVITY SIX CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM ELASTIC COLLISIONS For this experiment, the Motion Visualizer (MV) is used to capture the motion of two frictionless carts moving along a flat, horizontal