9. Momentum and Collisions in One Dimension*


 Emery Gibbs
 2 years ago
 Views:
Transcription
1 9. Momentum and Collisions in One Dimension* The motion of objects in collision is difficult to analyze with force concepts or conservation of energy alone. When two objects collide, Newton s third law says that the force exerted by one on the other is equal and opposite to the force the other exerts on the one. That may sound strange. Imagine a headon collision between a small car and a truck. It may be hard to believe that the force of the car acting on the truck has the same magnitude as the force of the truck acting on the car. But according to the Newton s third law this must be the case. Why is it then the small car may get damaged seriously but perhaps not the truck? What is going on? In this lab, you will use the concept of linear momentum to analyze one dimensional collisions. You are going to analyze two types of headon collisions in one dimension using video capture for data taking. Learning Objectives: 1. Know what momentum is, be able to give a formula for it, and know why it has to be a vector quantity. 2. Know what it means for the total momentum of an isolated system to be conserved. 3. Be able to say under what conditions momentum is conserved and to explain why collisions always meet this criterion. 4. Know what in means for a collision to be elastic, inelastic or totally inelastic, including what is or isn t conserved in each case. 5. Be able to use conservation ideas to solve collision problems in a realistic context. Reading Assignment: Before you start the lab you should be familiar with the concepts of linear momentum, conservation of momentum, elastic collisions and inelastic collisions. Read these sections in your text. Knight, Jones & Field (161): Chapter 9 sections 9.1 through 9.6. Serway and Vullie (211): 6.1 Momentum and Impulse, 6.2 Conservation of Momentum and 6.3 Collisions. Serway and Jewett (251): 9.1 Linear Momentum, 9.2 Isolated System, 9.3 Non Isolated System, 9.4 Collision in One Dimension Before you come to the lab answer Prediction Questions below and all Prediction questions in Problems 1 through 3. You must have the solutions with you when you enter lab. 1. Here are some review questions. Answer based on your reading. (a) What is the momentum of a small object of mass m? Keep in mind that it s a vector, so you need to indicate that it is in your definition. Give a formula. (b) Consider a system of five small objects with masses labeled from m 1 to m 5. What do I mean by the total momentum of the system? Give a formula. * William A Schwalm
2 (c) A process, such as a collision takes place during some time interval. For a collision that interval is short. Consider a time t i before the process and a time t f after the process. Explain precisely what it means to say, The total momentum of the system is conserved during the process. Assuming this is true, explain exactly what it means, including an equation plus discussion. (d) Now here comes the main thing: From your reading, under what conditions is the total momentum of a system of objects conserved? (e) Thus, why is the total momentum conserved during collisions? (f) What is an elastic collision? What other thing is conserved, in addition to momentum, during an elastic collision? (g) An inelastic collision is one that is not elastic. However, what is a totally inelastic collision? 2. A ball is dropped to the ground. On the diagram to the right, draw all the force(s) acting on the ball as it is falling. Is there a net force acting on the ball as it falls? Is the momentum of the ball conserved (constant) as It falls? If you think momentum is conserved, state why. If not, see if you can describe a larger system that includes the ball plus something else, in which the total momentum is conserved. 3. A ball is dropped to the ground. The ball hits the ground and bounces up. It has the same speed just before it hits the ground and just after it bounces. Is the momentum of the ball conserved (constant) between just before it hits the ground and just after it bounces up from the ground? On the diagram to the right, draw arrows representing all the force(s) acting on the ball while it is in contact with the ground. 92
3 The following four questions refer to an elastic collision involving two lowfriction carts, A and B. Before the collision B is at rest and A comes from left to right with speed v 0. Afterward, A exits with velocity v 1 and B, leaves with velocity v 2 (points toward the right). 4. What does it mean when we say that a collision is elastic? 5. Use the two conservation equations that operate during an elastic collision to solve for the final velocity of cart B when the masses of carts are the same. Your equation that determine the final velocity of cart B should only depend on the initial velocity of cart A and the masses of the two cart s assuming there is no energy dissipation. Hint: You may find, looking at your energy equation, that there is a difference of squares. Notice that 2 2 x y x y x y. This may be of help. 6. Repeat problem 5 for the case when the masses of the carts are different. 93
4 7. Now let s see what would happen in an elastic collision between two objects of very different mass. As a sort of step 1 you should develop an estimate of what you think should happen, without calculating. Let s suppose as before that B is at rest before the collision and A comes in from the left and hits B. Ignoring the calculation you did, what do you reckon would happen if the moving object A is much lighter than the heavy object B? How about if A is much heavier than B? Write your predictions in two sentences. 8. So much for predicting. Now from your actual calculation in the problem 5 above determine the direction of motion of cart A and B after the collision in each of three cases: When cart A has a larger mass than cart B (ma > mb), when the carts have equal masses (ma = mb) and when cart A has a smaller mass than cart B (ma < mb). Is your calculation consistent with the prediction you made in the step 1 prediction in 7? Problem 1: Totally inelastic collisions Equipment: Dynamic cart (2) and track, weights, pc with logger pro, USB webcam. You will use the track and carts with which you are already familiar. For this problem, cart A is given an initial velocity toward a stationary cart B. Velcro pads at the end of each cart are used to get the carts to stick together after the collision. You will need video camera and a meter stick, a stopwatch, two end stops and extra masses to load on the carts. In the figure below the cart A is moving toward the cart B that is stationary. moving A stationary B Using symbols, calculate the final velocities of the carts as a function of the initial velocity of cart A and the masses of the two carts. 94
5 The question is: What is the final, mutual velocity of the two carts stuck together after the collision as a function of the initial velocity of A and of the two masses? More than just answering the equation algebraically by finding the final velocity we want to look into the situation in more detail. We want to know what is really happening during the collision process in a light of conservation of momentum or energy. Before starting the measurements answer the Prediction questions below. Prediction questions: In order to answer this question let s first work through the following prediction steps, based on your intuition, your reading and on prior knowledge. 1. Make a sketch that predicts how the carts move after the collision. Indicate the direction motion of the carts using the velocity vectors on your sketch. Explain your reasoning. 2. Write down the momentum conservation equation and identify all of the terms in the equation. There should be vector quantities involved, so be sure to indicate this. 3. Write down expressions for the total mechanical energy before and after the collision. Identify all the terms in the equation. Does the potential energy change during the collision? How about the kinetic energy? Is mechanical energy conserved here? 4. What conservation principle should you use to predict the final velocity of the stucktogether carts, or do you need two different equations combined? Why? (In other words, each conservation law comes with a set of conditions when it holds. Your choice of conservation laws should be based on conditions.) 5. You can now complete your prediction question for the problem. What are the direction and magnitude of the final velocity of the carts? 95
6 6. During an inelastic collision mechanical energy is lost. Why cannot all of the kinetic energy be lost in a totally inelastic collision? Exploration: It s important to get the track as level as possible. A carpenter s level is provided, which is somewhat useful, but whether a cart rolls is a more sensitive indication. Practice setting the A cart into motion in such a way that the two carts stick together after the collision. Also, after the collision carefully observe the carts to determine whether or not either cart leaves the grooves in the track. Adjust your procedure to minimize this effect so that your results are reliable. Try giving the cart A various amounts of initial velocity over the range that will give reliable results. Note the outcomes qualitatively. Keep in mind also that you want to choose an initial velocity that gives you a good video. Try varying the masses of the carts by transferring block of masses from one car to the other while keeping the total mass of the carts the same. Be sure the carts still move freely over the track. Decide what masses you will use in your final measurement. Measurement Plan: You should devise a plan for making the measurements you need in order to answer the question. This plan should say what data you need to collect, why these data are relevant, referring to the theory, and how you will make the measurements. You should design and draw a data table. You will use the video capture ideas you have learned. Record your plan here. Include details. For instance, it is best to use only several points just before the collision and several points just after the collision, rather than lots of points. Why is this? Measurement: Start the Logger Pro program and take a video of the collision. Examine your video and decide if you have enough frames to determine the velocities you need. Collect enough data to convince yourself (and others) of your conclusion about how the final velocity of both carts in this type of collision depends on the velocity of the initially moving cart, and on the masses of the carts. Analysis: Determine when the collision occurred by liking at the data plotted on the position versus time graph. Find the velocity and momentum of the carts just before and of the combined system just after the collision. Unfortunately there are several sources of error that enter in this experiment so the agreement may be only quantitative. However, you know how to get an estimate of the size of the error. 96
7 Figure out the initial and the final kinetic energy for each case. Calculate the mechanical energy dissipation during the collision. In other words, how much mechanical energy is lost? What fraction of the initial energy does this represent? Where do you figure the energy goes? Compare your findings with your predictions and find % difference for each case. This would be the percentage of what you find minus what you expect, with respect to what you expect. Problem 2: Almostelastic collision In an elastic collision, both momentum and kinetic energy are conserved. Question: Magnets are used as magnetic bumpers to get the carts bounce apart after the collision, hopefully without loosing much energy. To what extent can you create an elastic collision using carts? moving A stationary B Before starting the measurements answer the Prediction questions and go through the planning activities. Describe the final velocity of the cart B as a function of the initial velocity of cart A and the masses of the two carts for an elastic collision in each of the following 3 cases: (a) the moving cart m A has a larger mass than the stationary cart (ma > mb), (b) the masses of the cart s are equal (ma = mb), and (c) the moving cart has a smaller mass than the stationary cart (ma < mb). Discuss both magnitude and direction. 97
8 Prediction Questions: In order to answer this question do the following steps. 1. Make a sketch that shows the situation before the collision and another one for the situation after the collision for each of the three cases. Draw and label velocity vectors on your sketch. 2. Write down the momentum conservation equation for this situation. 3. Write down the energy conservation equation for this situation. Identify all the terms in the equation. Is any energy transferred into or out of the system? If so, how? Are you making terms in the equation. Is any energy transferred into or out of the system? If so, how? Are you making any approximations? 98
9 Measurement Plan: In group discussion, come up with a measurement plan. You know that you have to compare suchandsuch before and after the collision. To do that, what are all the data you need? For instance, do you need velocities? How do you plan to get them and so on? Design a data table to contain all the data you will need to solve this problem. Measurement: Collect enough data to convince yourself and others of your conclusion about how the final velocities of both carts in this type of collision depends on the velocity of the initially moving cart, the masses of the carts, and the energy efficiency of the collision. Also, you want to know about three cases, one with m A > m B, one with m A = m B, and one with m A < m b. Record the masses of the two carts. Make a video of their collision. Examine your video and decide if you have enough frames to determine the velocities you need. Are there any peculiarities in the data that might suggest that the data are unreliable? Analysis: Carry out the analysis of the graphical data as described in your measurement plan. You need to show how close (as a percent difference) the initial kinetic energy is to the final. You need to do this for each case, m A > m B, m A = m B, and m A < m b. 99
10 Discussion: If you find that energy is lost, where do you think it went? Also, from your analysis, to what extent can you tell, if the energies don t seem to be conserved, if they are really not conserved or if there is just a lot of uncertainty in the measurement? How can you tell? You need to respond to this. Conclusion: At the end of the lab period there will be a brief class discussion of how the lab activities relate to the learning objectives. Record here the most relevant points of that discussion. In addition, add your comments and your group s comments on each of the learning objectives. What are the objectives, in your words, and how do the activities get at each of them? 910
Gravity PreLab 1. Why do you need an inclined plane to measure the effects due to gravity?
AS 101 Lab Exercise: Gravity (Report) Your Name & Your Lab Partner s Name Due Date Gravity PreLab 1. Why do you need an inclined plane to measure the effects due to gravity? 2. What are several advantage
More informationPRELAB: NEWTON S 3 RD LAW AND MOMENTUM CONSERVATION
Newton s 3rd Law and Momentum Conservation, p./ PRELAB: NEWTON S 3 RD LAW AND MOMENTUM CONSERVATION Read over the lab and then answer the following questions about the procedures:. Write down the definition
More informationConservation of Momentum and Energy
Conservation of Momentum and Energy OBJECTIVES to investigate simple elastic and inelastic collisions in one dimension to study the conservation of momentum and energy phenomena EQUIPMENT horizontal dynamics
More informationLAB 4: MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS
1 Name Date Day/Time of Lab Partner(s) Lab TA LAB 4: MOMENTUM AND COLLISIONS NEWTON S THIRD LAW OBJECTIVES To examine actionreaction force pairs To examine collisions and relate the law of conservation
More informationNewton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass
Team: Newton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass Newton s Third Law is a deep statement on the symmetry of interaction between any two bodies in the universe. How is the pull of the earth on the moon
More informationFVCC Physics I Laboratory. Inelastic and Elastic Collisions
FVCC Physics I Laboratory Inelastic and Elastic Collisions J.K. Boger September 18, 2013 1 Objective To observe and take data on both inelastic and nearly elastic collisions. Test the law of conservation
More information6. Block and Tackle* Block and tackle
6. Block and Tackle* A block and tackle is a combination of pulleys and ropes often used for lifting. Pulleys grouped together in a single frame make up what is called a pulley block. The tackle refers
More informationNewton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass
Team: Newton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass Part I. Newton s Third Law Atomic Springs When you push against a wall, you feel a force in the opposite direction. The harder you push, the harder the
More informationACTIVITY SIX CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM ELASTIC COLLISIONS
1 PURPOSE ACTIVITY SIX CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM ELASTIC COLLISIONS For this experiment, the Motion Visualizer (MV) is used to capture the motion of two frictionless carts moving along a flat, horizontal
More informationExperiment 7 ~ Conservation of Linear Momentum
Experiment 7 ~ Conservation of Linear Momentum Purpose: The purpose of this experiment is to reproduce a simple experiment demonstrating the Conservation of Linear Momentum. Theory: The momentum p of an
More informationNewton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass
Team: Newton s Third Law, Momentum, Center of Mass Newton s Third Law is a deep statement on the symmetry of interaction between any two bodies in the universe. How is the pull of the earth on the moon
More informationConservation of Momentum and Energy
ASU University Physics Labs  Mechanics Lab 6 p. 1 Name: Section #: Date: Part 1 Collision 1 Conservation of Momentum and Energy For the first, inelastic collision of two carts with equal masses, how will
More informationPhysics Momentum and Impulse Car Safety Engineering (egg drop) Conservation of Momentum
Physics Momentum and Impulse Car Safety Engineering (egg drop) Intro to Momentum Conservation of Momentum Impulse Student Experience Students brainstorm the meaning of momentum. Students use different
More informationLecture PowerPoints. Chapter 7 Physics: Principles with Applications, 6 th edition Giancoli
Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 7 Physics: Principles with Applications, 6 th edition Giancoli 2005 Pearson Prentice Hall This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the
More informationConservation of Momentum Using PASCO TM Carts and Track to Study Collisions in One Dimension
14 Conservation of Conservation of Using PASCO TM Carts and Track to Study s in One Dimension OBJECTIVE Students will collide two PASCO TM carts on a track to determine the momentum before and after a
More informationName per due date mail box
Name per due date mail box Rolling Momentum Lab (1 pt for complete header) Today in lab, we will be experimenting with momentum and measuring the actual force of impact due to momentum of several rolling
More informationExperiment 2: Conservation of Momentum
Experiment 2: Conservation of Momentum Learning Goals After you finish this lab, you will be able to: 1. Use Logger Pro to analyze video and calculate position, velocity, and acceleration. 2. Use the equations
More informationChapter Assessment Concept Mapping. Mastering Concepts
launch point with horizontal momentum. Where does the vertical momentum come from as the athlete vaults over the crossbar? The vertical momentum comes from the impulsive force of Earth against the pole.
More informationChapter 7 Momentum and Impulse
Chapter 7 Momentum and Impulse Collisions! How can we describe the change in velocities of colliding football players, or balls colliding with bats?! How does a strong force applied for a very short time
More informationNotes on Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
Notes on Elastic and Inelastic Collisions In any collision of 2 bodies, their net momentus conserved. That is, the net momentum vector of the bodies just after the collision is the same as it was just
More informationExam Three Momentum Concept Questions
Exam Three Momentum Concept Questions Isolated Systems 4. A car accelerates from rest. In doing so the absolute value of the car's momentum changes by a certain amount and that of the Earth changes by:
More information1 of 6 10/17/2009 2:32 PM
1 of 6 10/17/2009 2:32 PM Chapter 9 Homework Due: 9:00am on Monday, October 19, 2009 Note: To understand how points are awarded, read your instructor's Grading Policy. [Return to Standard Assignment View]
More informationElastic and Inelastic Collisions
Elastic and Inelastic Collisions Different kinds of collisions produce different results. Sometimes the objects stick together. Sometimes the objects bounce apart. What is the difference between these
More informationLeaPS Workshop March 12, 2010 Morehead Conference Center Morehead, KY
LeaPS Workshop March 12, 2010 Morehead Conference Center Morehead, KY Word Bank: Acceleration, mass, inertia, weight, gravity, work, heat, kinetic energy, potential energy, closed systems, open systems,
More informationInstructor Now pick your pencils up and get this important equation in your notes.
Physics 605 Mechanical Energy (Read objectives on screen.) No, I haven t been playing with this toy the whole time you ve been gone, but it is kind of hypnotizing, isn t it? So where were we? Oh yes, we
More informationSTUDY GUIDE 3: Work, Energy, and Momentum. 18. Define power, and use the concept to solve problems involving the rate at which work is done.
PH1110 Objectives STUDY GUIDE 3: Work, Energy, and Momentum Term A03 15. Define work and calculate the work done by a constant force as the body on which it acts is moved by a given amount. Be able to
More informationLAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES
55 Name Date Partners LAB 6: GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies by the attraction
More informationLAB 6  GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES
L061 Name Date Partners LAB 6  GRAVITATIONAL AND PASSIVE FORCES OBJECTIVES And thus Nature will be very conformable to herself and very simple, performing all the great Motions of the heavenly Bodies
More informationWEEK 6: FORCE, MASS, AND ACCELERATION
Name Date Partners WEEK 6: FORCE, MASS, AND ACCELERATION OBJECTIVES To develop a definition of mass in terms of an object s acceleration under the influence of a force. To find a mathematical relationship
More informationOur Dynamic Universe
North Berwick High School Department of Physics Higher Physics Unit 1 Section 3 Our Dynamic Universe Collisions and Explosions Section 3 Collisions and Explosions Note Making Make a dictionary with the
More informationAP1 Oscillations. 1. Which of the following statements about a springblock oscillator in simple harmonic motion about its equilibrium point is false?
1. Which of the following statements about a springblock oscillator in simple harmonic motion about its equilibrium point is false? (A) The displacement is directly related to the acceleration. (B) The
More informationEducational Innovations
Educational Innovations Background Forces and Motion MAR600 Wall Coaster Motion is caused by forces. Motion can be described. Motion follows rules. There are many forces and principles involved with motion.
More information5 Day 5: Newton s Laws and Kinematics in 1D
5 Day 5: Newton s Laws and Kinematics in 1D date Friday June 28, 2013 Readings Knight Ch 2.47, Ch 4.6, 4.8 Notes on Newton s Laws For next time: Knight 5.38 lecture demo car on a track, freefall in
More informationMomentum and Energy. Ron Robertson
Momentum and Energy Ron Robertson Momentum Momentum is inertia in motion. Momentum = mass x velocity Unit kg meters/second Momentum is changed by force. The amount of momentum change is also affected by
More informationProof of the conservation of momentum and kinetic energy
Experiment 04 Proof of the conservation of momentum and kinetic energy By Christian Redeker 27.10.2007 Contents 1.) Hypothesis...3 2.) Diagram...7 3.) Method...7 3.1) Apparatus...7 3.2) Procedure...7 4.)
More informationKinetic Energy (A) stays the same stays the same (B) increases increases (C) stays the same increases (D) increases stays the same.
1. A cart full of water travels horizontally on a frictionless track with initial velocity v. As shown in the diagram, in the back wall of the cart there is a small opening near the bottom of the wall
More informationQUESTIONS : CHAPTER5: LAWS OF MOTION
QUESTIONS : CHAPTER5: LAWS OF MOTION 1. What is Aristotle s fallacy? 2. State Aristotlean law of motion 3. Why uniformly moving body comes to rest? 4. What is uniform motion? 5. Who discovered Aristotlean
More informationExperiment: Static and Kinetic Friction
PHY 201: General Physics I Lab page 1 of 6 OBJECTIVES Experiment: Static and Kinetic Friction Use a Force Sensor to measure the force of static friction. Determine the relationship between force of static
More informationFORCE AND MOTION LAB. 8 Exploratory Stations
FORCE AND MOTION LAB 8 Exploratory Stations LAB EXPLANATION AND EXPECTATIONS This is a rotating station lab You will be timed. When the timer goes off, move to the next station in numerical order. For
More informationAssignment Work (Physics) Class :Xi Chapter :04: Motion In PLANE
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. Assignment Work (Physics) Class :Xi Chapter :04: Motion In PLANE State law of parallelogram of vector addition and derive expression for resultant of two vectors
More informationChapter 2  Question Keys
Chapter 2  Question Keys 1. Shown below is a speedtime graph for a cart moving in front of the motion sensor. For convenience it has been divided into four sections (A,B,C,D). During each of the four
More informationPhysics 125 Practice Exam #3 Chapters 67 Professor Siegel
Physics 125 Practice Exam #3 Chapters 67 Professor Siegel Name: Lab Day: 1. A concrete block is pulled 7.0 m across a frictionless surface by means of a rope. The tension in the rope is 40 N; and the
More informationChapter 15 Collision Theory
Chapter 15 Collision Theory 151 Introduction 1 15 Reference Frames Relative and Velocities 1 151 Center of Mass Reference Frame 15 Relative Velocities 3 153 Characterizing Collisions 5 154 OneDimensional
More information2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration.
2.1 Force and Motion Kinematics looks at velocity and acceleration without reference to the cause of the acceleration. Dynamics looks at the cause of acceleration: an unbalanced force. Isaac Newton was
More informationDifferentiated Physics Practice Questions
Differentiated Physics Practice Questions Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A 100kg cannon at rest contains a 10kg cannon ball. When fired,
More informationPrinciples and Laws of Motion
2009 19 minutes Teacher Notes: Ian Walter DipAppChem; TTTC; GDipEdAdmin; MEdAdmin (part) Program Synopsis This program begins by looking at the different types of motion all around us. Forces that cause
More informationLab 8 Impulse and Momentum
b Lab 8 Impulse and Momentum What You Need To Know: The Physics There are many concepts in physics that are defined purely by an equation and not by a description. In some cases, this is a source of much
More informationPhysics 11 Fall 2012 Practice Problems 4  Solutions
Physics 11 Fall 01 Practice Problems 4  s 1. Under what conditions can all the initial kinetic energy of an isolated system consisting of two colliding objects be lost in a collision? Explain how this
More informationGravitational Potential Energy
Gravitational Potential Energy Consider a ball falling from a height of y 0 =h to the floor at height y=0. A net force of gravity has been acting on the ball as it drops. So the total work done on the
More informationA uranium nucleus (at rest) undergoes fission and splits into two fragments, one heavy and the other light. Which fragment has the greater speed?
A uranium nucleus (at rest) undergoes fission and splits into two fragments, one heavy and the other light. Which fragment has the greater speed? 1 2 PHYS 1021: Chap. 9, Pg 2 Page 1 1 A uranium nucleus
More informationActivity 5a Potential and Kinetic Energy PHYS 010. To investigate the relationship between potential energy and kinetic energy.
Name: Date: Partners: Purpose: To investigate the relationship between potential energy and kinetic energy. Materials: 1. Superballs, or hard bouncy rubber balls. Metre stick and tape 3. calculator 4.
More informationChapter 7: Momentum and Impulse
Chapter 7: Momentum and Impulse 1. When a baseball bat hits the ball, the impulse delivered to the ball is increased by A. follow through on the swing. B. rapidly stopping the bat after impact. C. letting
More informationPSS 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge
Chapter 27 Solutions PSS 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge Description: Knight ProblemSolving Strategy 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge is illustrated.
More informationName Partners Date. Energy Diagrams I
Name Partners Date Visual Quantum Mechanics The Next Generation Energy Diagrams I Goal Changes in energy are a good way to describe an object s motion. Here you will construct energy diagrams for a toy
More informationSample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam
Sample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam Sample Questions for the AP Physics 1 Exam Multiplechoice Questions Note: To simplify calculations, you may use g 5 10 m/s 2 in all problems. Directions: Each
More informationAP1 WEP. Answer: E. The final velocities of the balls are given by v = 2gh.
1. Bowling Ball A is dropped from a point halfway up a cliff. A second identical bowling ball, B, is dropped simultaneously from the top of the cliff. Comparing the bowling balls at the instant they reach
More informationPhysics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 6 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER
1 P a g e Work Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 6 WORK, ENERGY AND POWER When a force acts on an object and the object actually moves in the direction of force, then the work is said to be done by the force.
More informationLAB 06: Impulse, Momentum and Conservation
LAB 06: Impulse, Momentum and Conservation PURPOSE Investigate the relation between applied force and the change in momentum Investigate how the momentum of objects change during collisions BACKGROUND
More informationAppendix 12.A: OneDimensional Collision Between Two Objects General Case An extension of Example in the text.
Chapter 1 Appendices Appendix 1A: OneDimensional Collision Between Two Objects General Case An extension of Example 11 in the text Appendix 1B: TwoDimensional Elastic Collisions Between Two Objects with
More informationACTIVITY 1: Gravitational Force and Acceleration
CHAPTER 3 ACTIVITY 1: Gravitational Force and Acceleration LEARNING TARGET: You will determine the relationship between mass, acceleration, and gravitational force. PURPOSE: So far in the course, you ve
More informationPractice TEST. A The cart is at rest (constant speed of zero). The forces acting on it must be balanced for it to remain at rest.
Practice TEST 1. Shown below is a speedtime graph for a cart moving in front of the motion sensor. For convenience it has been divided into five sections (A,B,C,D,E). B C D A E During each of the five
More informationLaws of Motion, Velocity, Displacement, and Acceleration
Physical Science, Quarter 1, Unit 1.1 Laws of Motion, Velocity, Displacement, and Acceleration Overview Number of instructional days: 13 (1 day = 53 minutes) Content to be learned Add distance and displacement
More informationTo represent the fan cart, we will also use a box object. We will place the cart at the left end of the track to start.
Modeling motion with VPython Every program that models the motion of physical objects has two main parts: 1. Before the loop: The first part of the program tells the computer to: a. Create numerical values
More informationVectors and the Inclined Plane
Vectors and the Inclined Plane Introduction: This experiment is designed to familiarize you with the concept of force as a vector quantity. The inclined plane will be used to demonstrate how one force
More informationA Determination of g, the Acceleration Due to Gravity, from Newton's Laws of Motion
A Determination of g, the Acceleration Due to Gravity, from Newton's Laws of Motion Objective In the experiment you will determine the cart acceleration, a, and the friction force, f, experimentally for
More informationPhysics. Essential Question How can one explain and predict interactions between objects and within systems of objects?
Physics Special Note for the 201415 School Year: In 2013, the Maryland State Board of Education adopted the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS) that set forth a vision for science education where
More informationNewton s Third Law. Newton s Third Law of Motion. ActionReaction Pairs
Section 4 Newton s Third Law Reading Preview Key Concepts What is Newton s third law of motion? How can you determine the momentum of an object? What is the law of conservation of momentum? Key Terms momentum
More informationKEY NNHS Introductory Physics: MCAS Review Packet #1 Introductory Physics, High School Learning Standards for a Full FirstYear Course
Introductory Physics, High School Learning Standards for a Full FirstYear Course I. C O N T E N T S T A N D A R D S Central Concept: Newton s laws of motion and gravitation describe and predict the motion
More informationPhysics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 5 LAWS OF MOTION
1 P a g e Inertia Physics Notes Class 11 CHAPTER 5 LAWS OF MOTION The property of an object by virtue of which it cannot change its state of rest or of uniform motion along a straight line its own, is
More informationSTEM Fuse GAME:IT Unit 2
STEM Fuse GAME:IT Unit 2 Key formulas for math & physics calculations used in game development Definition of velocity Velocity is similar to speed but it has direction. Let's recap what a speed is. Speed
More informationPS5.1 Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object.
PS5.1 Explain the relationship among distance, time, direction, and the velocity of an object. It is essential for students to Understand Distance and Displacement: Distance is a measure of how far an
More informationLab M1: The Simple Pendulum
Lab M1: The Simple Pendulum Introduction. The simple pendulum is a favorite introductory exercise because Galileo's experiments on pendulums in the early 1600s are usually regarded as the beginning of
More information1. What would a graph showing balanced forces look like? Draw a position vs. time
Forces, Motion, and Investigation 5, 7, and 9 LT 1 I can use data to show what happens when a constant net force is applied to an object. 1. What would a graph showing balanced forces look like? Draw a
More informationSTATIC AND KINETIC FRICTION
STATIC AND KINETIC FRICTION LAB MECH 3.COMP From Physics with Computers, Vernier Software & Technology, 2000. INTRODUCTION If you try to slide a heavy box resting on the floor, you may find it difficult
More informationDefinition 8.1 Two inequalities are equivalent if they have the same solution set. Add or Subtract the same value on both sides of the inequality.
8 Inequalities Concepts: Equivalent Inequalities Linear and Nonlinear Inequalities Absolute Value Inequalities (Sections 4.6 and 1.1) 8.1 Equivalent Inequalities Definition 8.1 Two inequalities are equivalent
More informationChapter 4. Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion. continued
Chapter 4 Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion continued Clicker Question 4.3 A mass at rest on a ramp. How does the friction between the mass and the table know how much force will EXACTLY balance the gravity
More informationKinematics: The Gravity Lab Teacher Advanced Version (Grade Level: 8 12)
Kinematics: The Gravity Lab Teacher Advanced Version (Grade Level: 8 12) *** Experiment with Audacity and Excel to be sure you know how to do what s needed for the lab*** Kinematics is the study of how
More information1. Coordinates (x, t) in one frame are related to coordinates (x, t ) in another frame by the Lorentz transformation formulas.
Physics 00 Problem Set 7 Solution Quick overview: Although relativity can be a little bewildering, this problem set uses just a few ideas over and over again, namely. Coordinates x, t in one frame are
More informationExam 2 is at 7 pm tomorrow Conflict is at 5:15 pm in 151 Loomis
* By request, but I m not vouching for these since I didn t write them Exam 2 is at 7 pm tomorrow Conflict is at 5:15 pm in 151 Loomis There are extra office hours today & tomorrow Lots of practice exams
More information2. (P2.1 A) a) A car travels 150 km in 3 hours, what is the cars average speed?
Physics: Review for Final Exam 1 st Semester Name Hour P2.1A Calculate the average speed of an object using the change of position and elapsed time 1. (P2.1 A) What is your average speed if you run 140
More informationPhysics of Rocket Flight
Physics of Rocket Flight In order to understand the behaviour of rockets it is necessary to have a basic grounding in physics, in particular some of the principles of statics and dynamics. This section
More informationChapter 8 Conservation of Linear Momentum. Conservation of Linear Momentum
Chapter 8 Conservation of Linear Momentum Physics 201 October 22, 2009 Conservation of Linear Momentum Definition of linear momentum, p p = m v Linear momentum is a vector. Units of linear momentum are
More informationIn order to describe motion you need to describe the following properties.
Chapter 2 One Dimensional Kinematics How would you describe the following motion? Ex: random 1D path speeding up and slowing down In order to describe motion you need to describe the following properties.
More informationAP physics C Web Review Ch 6 Momentum
Name: Class: _ Date: _ AP physics C Web Review Ch 6 Momentum Please do not write on my tests Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The dimensional
More informationHOW TO SOLVE KINEMATICS PROBLEMS
HOW TO SOLVE KINEMATICS PROBLEMS To solve problems involving straight line motion with constant acceleration it is important to clearly identify what is known and what we are looking for and choose which
More informationChemical energy thread: Homework problems
Chemical energy thread: Homework problems The outofclass activities are intended to be done by students working together. These are intended to be challenging problems that require deep thought about
More informationLab 5: Projectile Motion
Description Lab 5: Projectile Motion In this lab, you will examine the motion of a projectile as it free falls through the air. This will involve looking at motion under constant velocity, as well as motion
More informationChapter 4. Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion
Chapter 4 Forces and Newton s Laws of Motion 4.1 The Concepts of Force and Mass A force is a push or a pull. Contact forces arise from physical contact. Actionatadistance forces do not require contact
More informationEnergy and Momentum Conservation The Ballistic Pendulum
Energy and Momentum Conservation The Ballistic Pendulum I. Introduction. In this experiment we will test the principles of conservation of energy and conservation of momentum. A ball is shot into a cup
More informationLab 2: Vector Analysis
Lab 2: Vector Analysis Objectives: to practice using graphical and analytical methods to add vectors in two dimensions Equipment: Meter stick Ruler Protractor Force table Ring Pulleys with attachments
More informationExplore 3: Crash Test Dummies
Explore : Crash Test Dummies Type of Lesson: Learning Goal & Instructiona l Objectives Content with Process: Focus on constructing knowledge through active learning. Students investigate Newton s first
More informationActivity P38: Conservation of Linear Momentum (Motion Sensors)
Name Class Date Activity P38: Conservation of Linear Momentum (Motion Sensors) Equipment Needed Qty Equipment Needed Qty Motion Sensor (CI6742) 2 Dynamics Cart (w/ Track) 2 Balance (SE8723) 1 2.2 m Track
More informationChapter 4 One Dimensional Kinematics
Chapter 4 One Dimensional Kinematics 41 Introduction 1 4 Position, Time Interval, Displacement 41 Position 4 Time Interval 43 Displacement 43 Velocity 3 431 Average Velocity 3 433 Instantaneous Velocity
More informationUnit 1/Module I Motions, Forces, and Energy
Timeline: 1 st /2 nd Quarter Big Idea: Motion, Forces, and Energy Unit 1/Module I Motions, Forces, and Energy TRANSFER Students will be able to independently use their learning to Recognize that an object
More informationExperiment #11 Faraday s Law Prelab
Experiment #11 Faraday s Law Prelab ** Disclaimer: This prelab hint is not to be copied, in whole or in part, unless a proper reference is made as to the source. (It is strongly recommended that you
More informationAP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations
AP Physics 1 and 2 Lab Investigations Student Guide to Data Analysis New York, NY. College Board, Advanced Placement, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks
More informationAP2 Fluids. Kinetic Energy (A) stays the same stays the same (B) increases increases (C) stays the same increases (D) increases stays the same
A cart full of water travels horizontally on a frictionless track with initial velocity v. As shown in the diagram, in the back wall of the cart there is a small opening near the bottom of the wall that
More informationStatic and Kinetic Friction. = k
Name Partner Names Static and Kinetic Friction New Concepts/Questions to ask yourself before lab: 1. What is friction? Explain the difference between static & kinetic friction using a real life example.
More informationPhysics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics  Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam
Physics 2A, Sec B00: Mechanics  Winter 2011 Instructor: B. Grinstein Final Exam INSTRUCTIONS: Use a pencil #2 to fill your scantron. Write your code number and bubble it in under "EXAM NUMBER;" an entry
More informationNewton s Wagon Newton s Laws
Newton s Wagon Newton s Laws What happens when you kick a soccer ball? The kick is the external force that Newton was talking about in his first law of motion. What happens to the ball after you kick it?
More information