# Explore 2: Gathering Momentum

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1 Explore : Gathering Momentum Type of Lesson: Learning Goal & Instructional Objectives: Content with Process: Focus on constructing knowledge through active learning. In this investigation, students calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, and force using data they collect in experiments. Students make connections between speed and acceleration and learn how they are used to calculate momentum and force. Instructional Objectives:. Students calculate the speed of an object using the appropriate formula with data gathered in the laboratory and printed information.. Students calculate the acceleration of an object using the appropriate formula with data gathered in the laboratory and printed information.. Students calculate momentum of an object using the appropriate formula with data gathered in laboratory and printed information. 4. Students calculate the force of an object using the appropriate formula with data gathered in the laboratory and printed information. d s = t vi a = t p = mv F = ma Key Question: How does an increase in mass affect the momentum of a car as it hits an object? IPC Content TEKS: 4A Calculate speed, momentum, acceleration, and force in systems such as in moving toys, and machines. Related Process TEKS: () Scientific processes. The student, for at least 40% of instructional time, conducts field and laboratory investigations using safe, environmentally appropriate, and ethical practices () Scientific processes. The student uses scientific methods during field and laboratory investigations. () Scientific processes. The student uses critical thinking and scientific problem solving to make informed decisions. The student is expected to: (A) demonstrate safe practices during field and laboratory investigations; and (B) make wise choices in the use and conservation of resources and the disposal or recycling of materials. The student is expected to: (A) plan and implement experimental procedures including asking questions, formulating testable hypotheses, and selecting equipment and technology; (B) collect data and make measurements with precision; (C) organize, analyze, evaluate, make inferences, and predict trends from data; and (D) communicate valid conclusions. The student is expected to: (A) analyze, review, and critique scientific explanations, including hypotheses and theories, as to their strengths and weaknesses using scientific evidence and information; (B) draw inferences based on data related to promotional materials for products and services; (C) evaluate the impact of research on scientific thought, society, and the environment; (D) describe connections between physics and chemistry and future careers; and (E) Research and describe the history of physics, chemistry, and contributions of scientists.

2 To the Teacher: This investigation includes calculations of speed, momentum, acceleration, and force. The students collect data and use the information to make the calculations. They make connections between speed and acceleration and learn how they are used to calculate momentum and force. Momentum can be also be referenced when discussing driving and safety. Once the students understand that mass is a factor that affects momentum, they can better understand why it is important not to cut in front of a large truck. If a small car is in front of a large truck and the car s driver suddenly slams on the brakes, the large truck cannot stop as quickly as the car and a crash may result. A small car has less momentum than a large truck when both are traveling at the same velocity. On a similar note, a small car going very fast has a great deal of momentum because, as its velocity increases, its momentum increases. Blocks or other heavy objects can replace the milk cartons used in this investigation. Fill the milk cartons only half full with sand. If the carton has too much mass, the car may not have enough momentum to move it. The students measure the mass of the car in grams, therefore they will need to convert to kilograms prior to doing the calculations. As the students conduct the investigation, they observe that as the mass of the car increases, the distance the milk carton moves increases. A NOTE ABOUT CALCULATIONS: The investigation is designed without the use of photogates or other technology that could determine the instantaneous velocity of the car at impact. Therefore students must calculate the final velocity using data obtained during this investigation. This calculated final velocity will be used to calculate both momentum and acceleration. IF PHOTOGATES ARE AVAILABLE, CONSIDER MODIFYING THE LAB TO ELIMINATE THIS CALCULATION OF FINAL VELOCITY. vi Use formula for average velocity. vaverage =. Calculate average speed as they did in the first investigation.. Multiply the average speed by. Example: A car starts from rest and rolls down a.0 meter incline taking.68 seconds. d m Step : Calculate average speed s = = = 0.6 m/s t.68 s Step : Calculate final velocity. 0.6 m/s =. m/s when v = 0 You can walk the student through this additional calculation to assure it is mathematically correct. The formula for average velocity is not on the state provided formula chart so the students may not understand the concept fully, however they should understand the concept of average (7 th grade math TEKS). This procedure is conceptually identical to the situation where a student has taken two quizzes and has a 45 average. He knows he received a 0 on the first one, what did he receive on the second? TEACHING SUGGESTION: If possible, have a discussion with the students prior to giving out the lab sheet about how THEY would put together a lab to investigate the problem. The class may have great suggestions to test the momentum in addition to that given on the lab sheet. Try and guide them in the right direction as to plausible experiments. If the students have a difficult time arriving at a suitable solution to the problem, then provide the lab sheet for them to use. Continue guiding the students in the right direction so they can strengthen their process skills in conducting investigations using their own suggestions rather than a provided lab sheet. f i vaverage = or, rearranging v = v = s average Multiple Intelligences: Logical- Mathematical Intelligence Spatial Intelligence Bodily- Kinesthetic Intelligence Consists of the ability to detect patterns, reason deductively and think logically. This intelligence is most often associated with scientific and mathematical thinking. Gives one the ability to manipulate and create mental images in order to solve problems. This intelligence is not limited to visual domains Gardner notes that spatial intelligence is also formed in blind children. Is the ability to use one's mental abilities to coordinate one's own bodily movements. This intelligence challenges the popular belief that mental and physical activities are unrelated.

3 Materials: Hall s carriage car (can easily add mass to it) Stopwatch Meter stick Ramp Blocks/books Milk carton half filled with sand or other heavy object SAFETY NOTE: See Texas Science Safety Manual for lab and investigation guidelines: Engagement: Engage the students in a conversation about traveling on a freeway or busy road. Inquire if anyone is taking or has taken the driver s education test for his/her driver s license. Discuss the rules concerning following distance at different speeds. Focus on the interactions between large vehicles such as semis/tractor trailers and small cars. Guide students in making predictions as to the rules of pulling in front of vehicles and following too closely. Facilitation Questions:. How many feet should you stay behind another vehicle on the freeway?. What happens if you don t see the car in front of you as it brakes?. What could happen if you cut off a semi in busy traffic on the freeway? 4. Which vehicle can stop faster, a small car or a semi? Explore:. With the ramp flat on a table or floor, place the back of the car's wheels at one end of the ramp and measure the distance from the front of the car to the end of the ramp. Record this as distance car travels on the data sheet.. Raise the ramp up on the blocks. Place the milk carton at the bottom of the ramp positioning a meter stick just behind and offset from the milk carton so that when the carton is hit, it will move without disturbing the meter stick. Milk Distance Car Travels Meter stick. the empty car and record your results on the data sheet. 4. Place the back of the car's wheels at the top end of the ramp. 5. Release the car as you start the stopwatch. Stop timing when the car hits the milk carton. Record this time on the data sheet. 6. Observe the car and the milk carton as the car hits the milk carton. Record your observations. Measure the distance the milk carton moved after being hit and record this distance. 7. Complete three trials using the same mass. Record all data. 8. Add a 00 gram load to the car. Record the combined mass of the car and its load. Repeat steps Add another 00 gram load to the car (00 gram total load). Record the combined mass of the car and its load then repeat steps 4-7.

4 Distance car traveled Data Table Empty car Car + 00 g load Car + 00 g load (g) Trial Time (s) Average time for all trials = Distance milk carton moved (m) Average = Average = Average = Explain:. Convert mass from grams to kilograms (000 g = kg) and record in the Data Table.. Calculate the average time for all trials and record in the Data Table.. Calculate the average distance the milk carton moved for each mass and record in the Data Table. 4. Write the final velocity in the chart below. The final velocity is the same for each car. 5. Calculate the final velocity of the car (the velocity at impact). 6. Step : Calculate the average speed of the car using the formula: s = d or t distance car traveled average speed = average time for all trials Step : Make sure that the final velocity has been entered in the correct column. 7. Calculate Momentum. Step : Copy the values for mass to the table below. Step : Enter the final velocity into the table. It is the same for all. Step : Calculate the momentum of each of the three cars at impact using the formula p = mv or momentum = (mass in kg) (final velocity in m/s). Empty car Car + 00 g Car + 00 g Final velocity (m/s) Momentum (kg-m/s)

5 vi 8. Calculate acceleration using the formula a =. The initial velocity is the velocity of the car at t rest at the top of the ramp, in other words, 0 m/s. The final velocity you calculated above and the change in time is what you measured. Use the average time of all the trials. 9. Calculate the force applied to the milk carton. Step : Copy the values for mass to the table below. Step : Enter the acceleration into the table. It is the same for all. Step : Calculate the force with which each of the car configuration hits the milk carton using the formula F = ma. Car Empty car (no mass added) 00 grams added 00 grams added Acceleration (m/s ) Force (N) ANALYSIS/CONCLUSIONS:. What observations did you make about the movement of the milk carton? As the mass of the car and its load increased, the distance the carton moved increased.. Why were three trials done for each part of this experiment? In case some of the measurements were wrong, doing more than one measurement makes the data more accurate.. What observations did you make about the movement of the car during collision? The car jumped backward after collision with the milk carton. 4. Which car had the greatest momentum? The car with the greatest mass had the greatest momentum. 5. What is the relationship between mass and momentum? As the mass increases, the momentum increases. 6. What do you predict would happen to the distance the milk carton would move if you added another 00 grams of mass to the car? The carton would move farther as the mass increased. 7. Which car had the greatest force on the milk carton? The car with the greatest mass had the greatest force. 8. Define the Law of Conservation of Momentum. How would this law apply to what you observed as the cars hit into the barriers? The Law of Conservation of Momentum states that the total momentum before the collision equals the total momentum after the collision unless other forces (such as friction) are involved. In this exploration, the energy of the car's momentum (mass times velocity) was transferred to the barrier and the barrier moved. Elaborate: Ask students to use knowledge learned in this investigation to write a convincing paragraph explaining why it is important not to cut in front of large vehicles and then brake sharply.

6 Evaluate: Use the rubric below to evaluate student performance during the exploration activity. POINTS 4 Excellent Scientific Accuracy I used the appropriate tools and measured accurately. I used the appropriate formulas and calculated correctly. Reasoning Communication Collaboration I made many connections between the calculations and related to daily life. I answered questions using complete sentences and proper grammar. My classmates understood what I was explaining. I worked well with my teammates, each person had a job and I was a very active participant. Good I measured accurately. I used the correct formulas but made errors in my calculations. I made a connection between the calculations and related to daily life. I tried to use proper grammar and vocabulary words. My classmates had a difficult time understanding what I was saying. I assisted my group but could have done more to help the team. Fair I measured accurately. I didn t use the correct formulas and had errors in my calculations. I struggled to understand and found it difficult to make connections to daily life. I used a few vocabulary words and tried to use proper grammar. My classmates did not understand what I was explaining. I did a small amount of work and tried to work together. Poor I had a difficult time measuring and the measurements are not accurate. I didn t use the correct formulas and calculations were incorrect. I could not relate the concepts from the investigation to daily life. I used incorrect grammar and didn t include scientific vocabulary to explain myself. I was not an active participant in the group. Subtotal: Subtotal: Subtotal: Subtotal: TOTAL: /6pts Sample TAKS Items:. Which of the following objects would have the greatest momentum if they were all moving with the same velocity? A B C D. Calculate the velocity of a train that is headed south and has a mass of 4500 kilograms and whose momentum is 879,000 kg m/sec. A 95 m/s South B 8745 m/s South C 885 m/s North D 9556 m/s North

7 . Calculate the momentum of an 85 kilogram person skating on roller blades and traveling at a velocity of 5 m/s. A 7 kg m/s B 80 kg m/s C 90 kg m/s D 45 kg m/s Some students conducted a laboratory investigation to determine if the height of a ramp affects the momentum of a toy car. They set up the experiment similar to the picture. They used one book for trial, two books for trial, three books for trial, and 4 books for trial 4. They collected the data given in the table. Trial Distance traveled Time to travel (m) (s) book books books books 5..7 Average speed (m/s) 4. For which trial did the car have the greatest average speed? A book B books C books D 4 books 5. For which trial did the car have the least momentum at the bottom of the ramp? A book B books C books D 4 books 6. Which statement best supports the relationship between mass and momentum when the velocity is constant? A As the mass increases, the momentum decreases. B As the mass increases, the momentum increases. C As the mass decreases, the momentum decreases. D There is no relationship between mass and momentum. References/Resources/Websites:

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