4 BEFORE THERE WAS A UNIVERSE, THERE WAS.. One single, infinitesimally small, dense and hot point Then, for reasons that are unknown, that point, expanded with energy that is unfathomable Time and Space began with this event
5 Universe started from a single point, and has been expanding ever since Expansion happened approx billion years ago Expansion contained all of the ENERGY in space
6 NOT A BIG BANG NOT AN EXPLOSION! the matter is all actually standing still while space itself expands dragging the matter with it
7 HOW DO WE KNOW IT STARTED FROM A SINGLE POINT? Objects are currently moving away from each other today, then, they must have been closer together yesterday, and the day before that and so on
9 THE FURTHER GALAXIES ARE AWAY FROM EARTH, THE FASTER THEY ARE MOVING AWAY Known as Hubbles law Therefore, the closer these galaxies were to time of the big bang So, information from these galaxies gives us knowledge about the beginning of time!
12 AS THE UNIVERSE EXPANDS, IT COOLS Universe has cooled from degrees to 3 degrees Kelvin in 15 billion years (K = C+273)
13 AS THE UNIVERSE EXPANDED, IT COOLED Energy that was released from cooling formed matter. (Matter and energy are related, E=mc 2 ) The universe expanded, cooled then formed matter.
16 WHAT TRIGGERED THE BIG BANG? Scientists disagree on what started the big bang: Was it the edge of another expanding universe? What it radiation from another big bang hitting the tiny spot that triggered it? Was it the result of radiation from a supernova? No one, as of yet, knows for sure
17 IF WE DON T KNOW WHAT CAUSED THE BIG BANG, DOES THAT MEAN THE THEORY IS NOT VALID? Theories don t try to explain everything, just what evidence is available and pertinent the theory of Gravity doesn t explain where mass came from The Germ theory of disease transmission doesn t explain where germs came from Atomic theory doesn t state where atoms come from
18 LESSON CHECK On a separate piece of paper, do the following: Describe how the universe was prior to the big bang Describe why galaxies that are further away from Earth are moving faster than Earth Describe the universe today
19 CREATE YOUR OWN BIG BANG
20 EVIDENCE FOR THE BIG BANG THEORY Red Shift of GALAXIES Radiation left over from the Big Bang Composition of matter in the universe
21 REMEMBER THE EM SPECTRUM??? a process in which photons (energy packets) travel do not need to travel through a medium All types of waves travel at the speed of light
22 RED SHIFT
23 AS AN OBJECT MOVES AWAY, THE WAVELENGTH IT EMITS LENGTHENS
24 DOPPLER EFFECT
25 WHAT HAPPENS TO THE WAVELENGTH (COLOR) AS OBJECTS MOVE AWAY? (LOOKING ONLY AT THE VISIBLE PORTION OF THE SPECTRUM)
26 RED SHIFT The electromagnetic radiation emitted by a moving object also exhibits the Doppler effect. Redshift, a phenomenon of electromagnetic waves such as light in which spectral lines are shifted to the red end of the spectrum.
27 RED SHIFT Object moving closer light waves pushed together wavelength shorter appears blue Object moving away light waves stretched out longer wavelength appears red What color do you think galaxies appear from earth? Object moving away, appears RED Object moving towards, appears BLUE
28 RED SHIFT OF GALAXIES Astronomers observe galaxies are all red shifted from Earth What does this say about the galaxies in relation to Earth? Therefore, all galaxies are moving away from earth Therefore, the universe is expanding
29 WAIT A MINUTE!! WHAT IS A GALAXY!?! a massive, system consisting of stars, stellar remnants, gas and dust and dark matter (more on dark matter later!) Examples of galaxies range from dwarfs with as few as ten million (10 7 ) stars, to giants with one hundred trillion (10 14 ) stars, each orbiting their galaxy's own center of mass Galaxies are held together by gravity Supermassive black holes reside at the center of most galaxies.
30 THE ANDROMEDA GALAXY OUR CLOSEST NEIGHBOR 2.5 MILLION LIGHTS YEAR AWAY
31 A VIEW OF 15% OF THE GALAXIES THAT S 3 MILLION GALAXIES REDSHIFTED
33 LESSON CHECK Take 3 minutes to discuss with your table partner how the red shift of galaxies can be used as evidence to support the theory of the big bang
34 COSMIC BACKGROUND MICROWAVE RADIATION 1964 by Penzias and Wilson a faint background glow, almost exactly the same in all directions, that is not associated with any star, galaxy, or other object
35 COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND RADIATION Radiation believed to be left over from the Big Bang
36 WHERE DOES THIS RADIATION COME FROM? As the universe expands, the space between the photons that the expansion created grows As the space between the photons continues to grow, the wavelength of those photons also increases. This wavelength is in the microwave range (.05-1cm)
39 IMAGE FROM WMAP
40 SOUND OF COSMIC BACKGROUND RADIATION of Cosmic Radiation Evidence of the big bang
41 Cosmic Background Microwave Radiation
42 LESSON CHECK Take 3 minutes to discuss with your table partner how cosmic background microwave radiation can be used as evidence to support the theory of the big bang
43 EVIDENCE - TAKING A CLOSER LOOK redshift slinky lab
44 COMPOSITION OF MATTER IN THE UNIVERSE Helium Deuterium (H-2, an isotope of hydrogen)
45 HELIUM IN THE UNIVERSE By observing ultraviolet light, astronomers found helium in the early Universe. Helium forms when deuterium fuses with another deuterium (H-2 and H-2 forming Helium) for this to happen, it must be super HOT! (around 10 billion Kelvin)
46 BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHESIS H-2 FUSING TO FORM HELIUM
47 HELIUM FROM FUSION IN STARS Helium is formed in the core of stars during fusion The fusion reaction releases energy in the form of photons Stars and hydrogen bombs are the only things we know of that make helium in the today s universe.
48 HELIUM MADE DURING STAR FORMATION 1960: spectroscopic studies of stars showed that the helium accounted for 20-30% of the mass of stars, the rest (70-80%) being mostly hydrogen. However, 24% of the matter in the entire universe is due to Helium star formation of Helium couldn t account for all that Helium! Some, if not most, of the helium must have existed before star formation.
49 HELIUM WAS MADE DURING THE BIG BANG physicists calculated that roughly 1/4 of mass was converted into helium during the big bang, while the rest remained as hydrogen. 1970s: spectroscopic studies of other galaxies have confirmed that the majority of the observed helium did exist before any star formation.
50 DEUTERIUM IN THE UNIVERSE 1973: studies of absorption spectra of nearby stars showed that interstellar medium (material between stars) contains deuterium.
51 DEUTERIUM AN ISOTOPE OF HYDROGEN H-2 Deuterium, unlike helium, is not produced in stars at all. In stars, deuterium quickly fuses to make Helium At temperatures above about one million degrees K, deuterium breaks down into protons and neutrons. Astronomers in the early 1970s realized that no known process in the present universe could have produced deuterium.
52 DEUTERIUM IN THE UNIVERSE At the time of the big bang, temperatures and densities were lowered so quickly, there would have been no time for the deuterium to break down, so the deuterium present to day could have only formed during the big bang.
53 HELIUM AND DEUTERIUM the abundance of helium and existence of deuterium provide strong evidence that the universe began with a hot, violent expansion consistent with the big bang model.
54 THE MYSTERY OF DARK MATTER THIS IS NOT ORDINARY MATTER! Today astronomers believe that around three quarters of the mass of the Universe consists of dark matter, a substance quite different from the ordinary matter that makes up atoms and the familiar world around us. Dark matter only interacts with gravity, which means it neither reflects, emits or obstructs light (or indeed any other type of electromagnetic radiation). Because of this, it cannot be observed directly. Dark matter remains a mystery today!
55 THE BIGGER MYSTERY: DARK ENERGY Hubble studies of the expansion rate of the Universe have found that the expansion is actually speeding up. Astronomers have explained this using the theory of dark energy, as a sort of negative gravity that pushes the Universe apart ever faster. Dark energy is an even bigger mystery than dark matter!
57 LESSON CHECK Take 3 minutes to discuss with your table partner how the composition of the universe can be used as evidence to support the theory of the big bang
59 READING ASSIGNMENT: FLEX BOOK: CHAPTER 1 AND 2
60 THE ORIGIN OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM - THE NEBULAR THEORY
62 Collapsing Clouds of Gas and Dust 1 billion years after the Big Bang Clouds of gases (Helium and Hydrogen) and dust begin to clump together and collapse called a NEBULA
64 CLOUD BEGINS TO CONTRACT Force of gravity is greater than gas pressure, so cloud begins to contract The cloud is initially spinning slowly. Due to angular momentum, the cloud spins faster as it contracts.
65 THE SPINNING NEBULA FLATTENS Force of gravity, gas pressure and rotation
67 CONDENSATION OF PROTOSUN AND PROTOPLANETS Instabilities in collapsing rotation cloud cause local regions to contract. (Due to gravity) Protosuns and protoplanets become the sun and planets in our solar system
69 CENTRAL BULGE CONTINUES TO COLLAPSE Gravity causes bulge to continue to collapse Temperatures inside bulge get extremely hot several million degrees Hydrogen begins to fuse to form helium which releases enormous amounts of energy a star (our sun) is born
70 NEBULAR HYPOTHESIS OF SOLAR SYSTEM FORMATION.
71 From start to finish, it took something like 10 million years to form the sun and planets from a collapsing cloud of gas, and this is not very long at all!!
72 HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE PICS
73 THE MILKY WAY GALAXY
74 THE MILKY WAY GALAXY
75 THE FATE OF THE MILKY WAY
76 READING ASSIGNMENT: FLEX BOOK: CHAPTER 3
77 READING ASSIGNMENT: FLEX BOOK: CHAPTER 4
78 OUR SOLAR SYSTEM
79 AGENDA Where is our solar system Characteristics of the planets in our solar system
80 SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun Eight Planets One dwarf planet Sixty-one satellites of the planets Many Comets and asteroids NORM HERR (SAMPLE FILE) 11/15/99
81 SUN 75% hydrogen and 25% helium by mass Sun converts hydrogen to helium in its core Differential rotation equator the surface rotates once every 25.4 days near the poles it's as much as 36 days Core conditions temperature is 15.6 million Kelvin pressure is 250 billion atmospheres NORM HERR (SAMPLE FILE) 11/15/99
82 MERCURY Orbit highly eccentric perihelion 46 million km aphelion it is 70 million km One full day-night cycle takes 179 earth days Temperatures vary from -173 C 427 C NORM HERR (SAMPLE FILE) 11/15/99
83 VENUS Volcanism Rotates backwards Dense Atmosphere Hot 480 C 90x atmospheric pressure compared to Earth NORM HERR (SAMPLE FILE) 11/15/99
84 EARTH Moon is 1/6 mass of earth period of rotation: 24 hours period of orbit days NORM HERR (SAMPLE FILE) 11/15/99
85 MARS Solid carbon dioxide is found at the poles Mars is known as the Red Planet ½ the size of Earth NORM HERR (SAMPLE FILE) 11/15/99
86 ASTEROID BELT Contains lumps of rocks and metal Several million asteroids
87 JUPITER Largest Planet - Jupiter contains over 70% of the mass in the solar system outside the Sun It is about 11 times the radius and 330 times the mass of the earth. Jupiter is not a solid body, but instead is a ball of gas and liquid (mostly hydrogen and helium) Great Red Spot 63 Moons Takes 12 years to rotate around the Sun
88 SATURN Gas giant. Strong surface winds (1500 mile/hour). Less dense than water. Has rings made up of ice, dust and rocks 29 years to rotate one time around the Sun Atmosphere is Helium Has 60 moons Titan is its largest (larger than Mercury) NORM HERR (SAMPLE FILE) 11/15/99
89 URANUS Rolls on its axis, doesn t spin Methane Atmosphere NORM HERR (SAMPLE FILE) 11/15/99
90 NEPTUNE Wind speeds of 1000km/hour Ice Volcanoes Note the apparent storms NORM HERR (SAMPLE FILE) 11/15/99
91 PLUTO Pluto is a dwarf planet 1/5 the mass of Earth s Moon Orbit is inclined 17deg to the ecliptic, so it goes farther above and below the plane than of the other planets
92 HOW CAN WE REMEMBER THE ORDER OF THE PLANETS? My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nine Pizzas More?
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