Your years of toil Said Ryle to Hoyle Are wasted years, believe me. The Steady State Is out of date Unless my eyes deceive me.

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1 Your years of toil Said Ryle to Hoyle Are wasted years, believe me. The Steady State Is out of date Unless my eyes deceive me. My telescope Has dashed your hope; Your tenets are refuted. Let me be terse: Our Universe Grows daily more diluted! -George Gamow (once again taunting Fred Hoyle in poetry form) Here we discuss the Big Bang, the evidence for it and the early evolution of the Universe.

2 The Evolution of the Universe Above is a general evolutionary view of the Universe. We will covering it throughout these slides.

3 Standard Model of Particle Physics Before looking at the beginning of the Universe, it is worth mentioning that the early Universe had very different conditions than the present. Currently the Standard Model of Particle Physics is as shown above. Details are not important for our discussion here. Suffice it to say the electron and neutrino should be familiar. Particles such as the proton and neutron are made of a combination of 3 quarks. The force carriers are those responsible for the fundamental forces of nature. Photons carry the electromagnetic, gluons the strong nuclear, and the W and Z bosons the weak nuclear. Gravitons are a proposed particle responsible for gravity but it not currently included in the Standard Model.

4 Standard Model of Particle Physics In more extreme conditions the fundamental forces combine to form a single force. Particularly in environments of high temperature. As we will see the early Universe was very hot and very dense and all forces should have been unified. We have succeeded in unifying the electromagnetic and weak forces in particle collider experiments into what we call the electroweak force. The theory that would unify the strong with the electroweak is called the Grand Unified Theory (GUT). The even more difficult of adding gravity to the other 3 is often called the Theory of Everything. Model such as string theory are current attempts at such a theory. Such a model with give valuable information about the early Universe.

5 Fred Hoyle and the Steady State Supported a Steady State Universe Coined the term Big Bang Figured out stellar nucleosynthesis Before the Big Bang Theory was introduced the accepted model of the Universe was an infinite in both time and size, unchanging, non-evolving view with no beginning and no end. When the Big Bang was proposed, Fred Hoyle (and others) solidified this model into what was called the Steady State. Hoyle was a staunch supporter of the Steady State though gave the Big Bang its current name. This was meant as a bit of an insult to theory but it was circulated in the media and the name stuck. While Hoyle s Steady State eventually fell out of favor, he was a tremendous astronomer described stars a nuclear furnaces and explained how heavier elements are made in their interiors and in supernovae.

6 Olbers Paradox One problem with the Steady State is what is called Olbers Paradox. If stars were distributed uniformly in the Universe, infinitely far out, with no expansion, and the light had had an infinite amount of time to reach us, why do we see dark regions of the sky. With both infinite time and space the entire sky should be full. Even interstellar absorption doesn t solve the problem because with all the energy the gas should heat up and begin to glow themselves. While Olbers Paradox doesn t rule out the Steady State it is an intriguing thought.

7 George Lemaitre Derived Hubble s Law First measurement of Hubble s Constant Proposed the Big Bang Theory Astronomer and Catholic priest George Lemaitre was also an accomplished astronomer. Though not named after him, he derived Hubble s Law and gave us the first values of the Hubble Constant. He also noted from Hubble s observations that if everything (outside our galaxy s gravitational influence) is moving away from us, then running time backwards would result in things getting closer. This was his basis for what became the Big Bang. Here it should be said that the Big Bang is NOT a theory about the origin or evolution of life, about the formation of stars, planets or galaxies. In its current form it does not even involve an explosion as we think of it, but rather an expansion of the Universe, possibly from quantum instabilities. In the most simple form The Big Bang states that the Universe had a hot dense beginning.

8 Einstein to Lemaitre Your math is correct but your physics is abominable. At the time of its proposal, the Big Bang was not widely accepted. Einstein himself (a giant even in his own time) dismissed the theory and Lemaitre. Later it was realized that Einstein s general relativity predicts and evolving Universe! Einstein modified GR by adding a cosmological constant that would force the Universe to remain steady. As evidence came in Einstein removed the cosmological constant and admitted it was the biggest blunder of his career. Einstein, and science as a whole, did come to accept the Big Bang.

9 The Evolution of the Universe Now we have seen a hot dense state at the beginning. Shortly after we believe that there was a brief period of very rapid expansion called inflation. As the Universe grows the same amount of energy is spread over a smaller volume and the temperature drops. Matter begins to form and the Universe continues to cool. Eventually the temperature is low enough that atoms begin to form and electrons are captured by nuclei. Before this point the Universe is opaque to light. The afterglow pattern mentioned in the diagram acts as a wall of light that we can not see beyond by observing the electromagnetic spectrum. We will see this pattern again shortly.

10 George Gamow and Ralph Alpher Two of the biggest names in the early Big Bang theory are George Gamow and his student Ralph Alpher. As part of Alpher s graduate work a paper was published which recognized that the early Universe could act like the inside of a star. If we assume virtually all the matter was in hydrogen and allow the early Universe to fuse to helium, what would we expect the composition of the Universe to be? The answer turned out to be ~75% hydrogen, ~25%helium. Just what we see. This Big Bang Nucleosynthesis proved to be one of the big successes to the theory. Secondly Alpher later predicted the existence of the afterglow pattern we discussed. But because of the expansion of the Universe it should have cooled and redshifted; today it should be about 2.7K and be in the microwave range of the EM spectrum. The technology needed to test this did not exist at the time.

11 Arno Penzias and Robert Wilson Two astronomers at Bell Labs nearly 2 decades later built the first radio telescope. They turned it toward the sky and were dismayed to find a noise signal no matter where they pointed. They tried many thing, rewiring the telescope, running roosting pigeons off, pointing other places, all to no avail. Later they ran discovered this lost prediction made nearly 20 years ago of a radio signal that should permeate the entire Universe. They had discovered the afterglow which we call the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) Radiation. This was a major success for the Big Bang which predicted it, and a major blow to the Steady State which could not explain it.

12 The COsmic Background Explorer was launched to study the CMB. The all sky maps above of the CMB show an almost uniform distribution of temperatures in the sky. The different colors show hotter or cooler regions. The scale is stretched to highlight differences but it should be noted that the largest temperature differences are about 70 microkelvin (ie tiny). We later launched the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe to further explore this nonuniformities. The result was a higher resolution image that helps to highlight the origin of the large scale structure of the Universe. The red regions are higher temperature regions and thus high concentrations of mass. Try to follow the hotter regions and imagine this image in 3D. Can you see the filamentary structure that we ve seen previously? The large scale structure of the Universe is a result of early temperature fluctuations in the Universe. The Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)

13 COBE Results As another crowning achievement of science is this plot from COBE. The predictions were that the CMB should behave as a blackbody with a temperature of 2.7K. The red line is a plot for the blackbody radiation curve at 2.7K. The points are data collected by COBE. It is also worth stating that the scientists did not forget error bars. They are just so small that they are inside the data points. If ever there was a perfect agreement, this is it.

14 The Evolution of the Universe After the CMB there was a period of gradual expanding and cooling but not much else in the Universe. When the first stars began to form and reionize the Universe, we started to build up the structure that we see today and have covered in the rest of the course. It is worth noting that one of the other pieces of evidence that greatly hurt the Steady State and supported the Big Bang was Fred Hoyle s explanation of the nucleosynthesis of elements in stars. Combined with Big Bang nucleosynthesis this can reproduce the composition that we see today.

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