Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016. See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14"

Transcription

1 Astro 102 Test 5 Review Spring 2016 See Old Test 4 #16-23, Test 5 #1-3, Old Final #1-14 Sec 14.5 Expanding Universe Know: Doppler shift, redshift, Hubble s Law, cosmic distance ladder, standard candles, Hubble s constant Be able to answer: What 2 observations tell us the universe is expanding? How does an objects red or blueshift relate to the object s movement? How does a galaxy s speed relate to its distance? Does the universe have a center? If we know the Hubble constant, what do we know about the universe? Why is the cosmic distance ladder useful? What are some standard candles? What is look-back time? Chapter 15 Milky Way Section 15.1 Measuring Milky Way Know: globular clusters How can globular clusters help find distances? How far away is the center of the Milky Way? Where is the sun located in the Milky Way? What does the center of the Milky Way have to do with globular clusters? What are some physical characteristics of the Milky Way? Sec 15.2 Evolution of Milky Way Know: heavy elements Are the stars in globular clusters young or old? How do we know? Where are globular clusters found relative to the disk of the Milky Way? How are heavy elements formed? How does the amount of heavy elements in stars change over time? What were the first stars like? Sec 15.5 Galaxy formation Know: protogalaxies How do galaxies form? Which formed first, halo or disk objects? Is the Milky Way still forming stars? Is the Milky Way still growing? What is an example of a protogalaxy around today?

2 Chapter 16 Evolution of the Universe Sec 16.1 Big Bang Know: Big Bang, cosmological redshift, Hubble time Be able to answer: How does the value of the Hubble constant relate to the age of the universe? Where did the Big Bang happen? Do galaxies, stars, etc. expand as the universe expands? What did the universe look like in the past? What was the universe like at the moment of the Big Bang? What causes cosmological redshifts? Sec CMB Know: CMB What is a major prediction of the big bang theory that has been confirmed? What is the cause of the CMB? Who first saw the CMB? How? Why is the temp of the CMB only about 3K? Sec 16.3 Expansion is Speeding Up Know: dark energy, cosmological constant What are some possible fates of the universe? How does gravity affect the expansion of the universe? What things contribute gravity to the universe? If we only look at the amount of gravity in the universe, what is the fate of the universe? What is the evidence for dark energy? Or What is the universe doing that lead to the idea of dark energy? How does dark energy effect the expansion of the universe? If we include gravity and dark energy, what is the fate of the universe? Clicker Questions Ch A bright star is moving away from Earth. Which of the choices best completes the following statement describing the spectrum of this star? A(n) spectrum that is relative to an unmoving star. A. absorption, blueshifted B. emission, redshifted C. continuous, blueshifted D. absorption, redshifted E. continuous, redshifted ANS: D

3 3. The distances to galaxies used to establish Hubble s law are found from: A. radar B. parallax C. Main-sequence fitting D. Standard candles, such as supernovae D 4. The value of H0 is about 72 km/sec/mpc. Suppose it were twice as big. Compared to our current estimates, what would the age of the universe be? A. The same as now. B. Younger. C. Older. B Explanation: The rate of expansion determines when the Big Bang took place. A faster expansion would mean that the separation between objects would have gone to zero sooner in the past. Ch Imagine that you could travel at the speed of light. Starting from Earth, how long would it take you to travel to the center of the Milky Way Galaxy? a) 2 years b) 20 years c) 250 years d) 2,500 years e) 25,000 years ANS: E 2. Where is our Sun located in the Milky Way Galaxy? a) at the exact center b) near the center c) about half way between the center and the outer edge d) near the outer edge ANS: C 3. In general, the Milky Way a. Has the same chemical composition as time passes b. Has more abundant Hydrogen as time passes c. Has more abundant heavy elements as time passes d. Has less abundant heavy elements as time passes Ans: C 4. In the disk of the Milky Way, stars are and dust and gas are than in the halo. a. Younger; more diffuse b. Older; more diffuse c. Older; denser d. Younger; denser D

4 5. The Milky Way galaxy a. Has been exactly the same since it first formed b. Has only changed in number of stars since it first formed c. Is still evolving, consuming nearby galaxies d. Is finished evolving, and will not change any more C Ch Which of the following best describes the Big Bang? a) An outward explosion of matter and energy at the beginning of the universe that threw matter into empty space. b) An outward explosion of matter and energy at the beginning of the universe that threw matter into regions of space where other matter already existed. c) The expansion and cooling of the universe from an originally hot and dense state. d) More than one of the above. ANS: C 2. If you watched the history of the universe like a movie playing backward, what would you see? a) Objects getting farther apart. b) The universe becoming denser. c) The temperature of the universe decreasing. d) Regions of space becoming smaller. e) More than one of the above. ANS: E, (B and D are correct) 3. Name one fact below that by itself does NOT support our idea that the Big Bang happened. A. The existence of the cosmic background radiation. B. That 24% of matter is helium. C. That the universe is expanding. C Explanation: The mere existence of the expansion does not necessarily imply that the universe was once hot and dense. Perhaps the expansion is a recent phenomenon, or the combination of Omegas means that the average separation between matter was never small. The other two observations directly support the idea of the Big Bang. 4. If the fate of the universe were determined SOLELY by what we currently know to be the total mass of the universe in luminous and dark matter (excluding dark energy), astronomers would predict that we live in a universe that will: a. expand forever b. stop expanding and eventually collapse c. slow its expansion but never reverse it d. oscillate between expansion and collapse ANS: A 5. The overall density of the universe decides its ultimate fate, because the more matter in the universe: a. the more black holes will form, which will devour surrounding material more quickly. b. the more gravity there will be to pull the universe together. c. the more massive stars it will contain, and the faster it will evolve d. the more stars it will form over time and the longer the universe will last. Ans: B

5 6. When astronomers discovered that the universe was, they had to revive Einstein s cosmological constant. a. Accelerating b. Expanding c. Contracting d. Decelerating Ans: A

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment

Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016. Pre-course assessment Origins of the Cosmos Summer 2016 Pre-course assessment In order to grant two graduate credits for the workshop, we do require you to spend some hours before arriving at Penn State. We encourage all of

More information

What Are Stars? continued. What Are Stars? How are stars formed? Stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions.

What Are Stars? continued. What Are Stars? How are stars formed? Stars are powered by nuclear fusion reactions. What Are Stars? How are stars formed? Stars are formed from clouds of dust and gas, or nebulas, and go through different stages as they age. star: a large celestial body that is composed of gas and emits

More information

Lecture 15 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2015 Cosmology

Lecture 15 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2015 Cosmology Lecture 15 Fundamentals of Physics Phys 120, Fall 2015 Cosmology A. J. Wagner North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND 58108 Fargo, October 20, 2015 Overview A history of our view of the universe The Big

More information

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars

165 points. Name Date Period. Column B a. Cepheid variables b. luminosity c. RR Lyrae variables d. Sagittarius e. variable stars Name Date Period 30 GALAXIES AND THE UNIVERSE SECTION 30.1 The Milky Way Galaxy In your textbook, read about discovering the Milky Way. (20 points) For each item in Column A, write the letter of the matching

More information

Federation of Galaxy Explorers Space Science

Federation of Galaxy Explorers Space Science Federation of Galaxy Explorers Space Science Once Upon A Big Bang Learning Objectives: 1. Explain how the universe was created using the Big Bang theory. 2. Understand how the existence of Cosmic Background

More information

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Fate of the Universe. Chapter 23 Review Clickers

The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Fate of the Universe. Chapter 23 Review Clickers Review Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Fate of the Universe Doppler shifts can be measured with a) visible light. b) radio waves. c) microwaves. d) all

More information

PS 224, Fall 2014 HW 4

PS 224, Fall 2014 HW 4 1. True or False? Explain in one or two short sentences. (2x10 points) a. The fact that we have not yet discovered an Earth-size extrasolar planet in an Earth-like orbit tells us that such planets must

More information

Pretest Ch 20: Origins of the Universe

Pretest Ch 20: Origins of the Universe Name: _Answer key Pretest: _2_/ 58 Posttest: _58_/ 58 Pretest Ch 20: Origins of the Universe Vocab/Matching: Match the definition on the left with the term on the right by placing the letter of the term

More information

The Expanding Universe. Prof Jim Dunlop University of Edinburgh

The Expanding Universe. Prof Jim Dunlop University of Edinburgh The Expanding Universe Prof Jim Dunlop University of Edinburgh Cosmology: The Study of Structure & Evolution of the Universe Small & Hot Big & Cold Observational Evidence for the Expansion of the Universe

More information

Modeling Galaxy Formation

Modeling Galaxy Formation Galaxy Evolution is the study of how galaxies form and how they change over time. As was the case with we can not observe an individual galaxy evolve but we can observe different galaxies at various stages

More information

Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology

Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology The Nature of the Physical World Lecture 19 Big Bang Cosmology Arán García-Bellido 1 News Exam 2: you can do better! Presentations April 14: Great Physicist life, Controlled fusion April 19: Nuclear power,

More information

Modern Ways of Dating the Universe. Martha P. Haynes Goldwin Smith Professor of Astronomy Cornell University. CAU Study Tour June 2014

Modern Ways of Dating the Universe. Martha P. Haynes Goldwin Smith Professor of Astronomy Cornell University. CAU Study Tour June 2014 Modern Ways of Dating the Universe Martha P. Haynes Goldwin Smith Professor of Astronomy Cornell University CAU Study Tour June 2014 What does the night sky look like? The disk of the Milky Way, our galaxy

More information

Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution

Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution Chapter 15.3 Galaxy Evolution Elliptical Galaxies Spiral Galaxies Irregular Galaxies Are there any connections between the three types of galaxies? How do galaxies form? How do galaxies evolve? P.S. You

More information

The Expanding Universe

The Expanding Universe Stars, Galaxies, Guided Reading and Study This section explains how astronomers think the universe and the solar system formed. Use Target Reading Skills As you read about the evidence that supports the

More information

4 Formation of the Universe

4 Formation of the Universe CHAPTER 2 4 Formation of the Universe SECTION Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is the big bang theory? How

More information

4/27/ Unseen Influences in the Cosmos. Chapter 18: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Fate of the Universe.

4/27/ Unseen Influences in the Cosmos. Chapter 18: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Fate of the Universe. Lecture Outline 18.1 Unseen Influences in the Cosmos Chapter 18: Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and the Fate of the Universe Our goals for learning: What do we mean by dark matter and dark energy? What do we

More information

Cosmology - The Story of our Universe. Raghu Rangarajan Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad

Cosmology - The Story of our Universe. Raghu Rangarajan Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad Cosmology - The Story of our Universe Raghu Rangarajan Physical Research Laboratory Ahmedabad What is Cosmology? Study of our Universe today galaxies, clusters, superclusters Understanding the past history

More information

Why is the Night Sky Dark?

Why is the Night Sky Dark? Why is the Night Sky Dark? Cosmology Studies of the universe as a whole Today Brief history of ideas (Early Greeks Big Bang) The expanding universe (Hubble, Relativity, density & destiny) An alternative

More information

i>clicker Questions A scientific law is something that has been proven to be true. A. True B. False C. Only in experimental sciences.

i>clicker Questions A scientific law is something that has been proven to be true. A. True B. False C. Only in experimental sciences. A scientific law is something that has been proven to be true. A. True B. False C. Only in experimental sciences. i>clicker Questions The fifth planet from the sun, the sixth planet and the seventh planet

More information

1 A Solar System Is Born

1 A Solar System Is Born CHAPTER 3 1 A Solar System Is Born SECTION Formation of the Solar System BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: What is a nebula? How did our solar system

More information

The Origin, Evolution, and Fate of the Universe

The Origin, Evolution, and Fate of the Universe The Origin, Evolution, and Fate of the Universe Announcements n Homework # 8 is available as of this morning in OWL. Due date for is Friday Dec 9th n Exam # 3 will take place on Tuesday, December 6 th

More information

Chapter 15 Cosmology: Will the universe end?

Chapter 15 Cosmology: Will the universe end? Cosmology: Will the universe end? 1. Who first showed that the Milky Way is not the only galaxy in the universe? a. Kepler b. Copernicus c. Newton d. Hubble e. Galileo Ans: d 2. The big bang theory and

More information

Unit 1: Cosmology and Earth s Place in Space

Unit 1: Cosmology and Earth s Place in Space Unit 1: Cosmology and Earth s Place in Space Objectives: E5.1b - Describe how the Big Bang theory accounts for the formation of the universe. E5.1c - Explain how observations of the cosmic background radiation

More information

12-3. Spherical groups of millions of stars found in the Milky Way are called: a) novas b) globular clusters X c) open clusters d) galactic clusters

12-3. Spherical groups of millions of stars found in the Milky Way are called: a) novas b) globular clusters X c) open clusters d) galactic clusters Chapter 12 Quiz, Nov. 28, 2012, Astro 162, Section 4 12-1. Where in our Galaxy has a supermassive (or galactic) black hole been observed? a) at the outer edge of the nuclear bulge b) in the nucleus X c)

More information

Lecture 17: Dark Energy & The Big Bang

Lecture 17: Dark Energy & The Big Bang Lecture 17: Dark Energy & The Big Bang As with all course material (including homework, exams), these lecture notes are not be reproduced, redistributed, or sold in any form. Solution? ~1998 astronomers

More information

Measuring the mass of galaxies Luminous matter in a galaxy: stars (of different masses) gas (mostly hydrogen) Can detect these directly using optical

Measuring the mass of galaxies Luminous matter in a galaxy: stars (of different masses) gas (mostly hydrogen) Can detect these directly using optical Measuring the mass of galaxies Luminous matter in a galaxy: stars (of different masses) gas (mostly hydrogen) Can detect these directly using optical and radio telescopes - get an estimate of how much

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy. Our Home Away From Home

The Milky Way Galaxy. Our Home Away From Home The Milky Way Galaxy Our Home Away From Home Lecture 23-1 Galaxies Group of stars are called galaxies Our star, the Sun, belongs to a system called The Milky Way Galaxy The Milky Way can be seen as a band

More information

Astronomy 330. Outline. The Universe: Timeline. The Universe

Astronomy 330. Outline. The Universe: Timeline. The Universe Astronomy 330 This class (Lecture 5): The End of the Universe Outline! The probable fate of the Universe! Everything depends on Dark Energy! Star Formation.. today. Next Class: Molecular Clouds Presentation

More information

Astrophysics Syllabus

Astrophysics Syllabus Astrophysics Syllabus Center for Talented Youth Johns Hopkins University Text: Astronomy Today: Stars and Galaxies, Volume II Author: Chaisson and McMillan Course Objective: The purpose of this course

More information

What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey?

What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey? What is the Sloan Digital Sky Survey? Simply put, the Sloan Digital Sky Survey is the most ambitious astronomical survey ever undertaken. The survey will map one-quarter of the entire sky in detail, determining

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy. Studying Its Structure Mass and Motion of the Galaxy Metal Abundance and Stellar Populations Spiral Structure and Star Formation

The Milky Way Galaxy. Studying Its Structure Mass and Motion of the Galaxy Metal Abundance and Stellar Populations Spiral Structure and Star Formation The Milky Way Galaxy Studying Its Structure Mass and Motion of the Galaxy Metal Abundance and Stellar Populations Spiral Structure and Star Formation The Milky Way Almost everything we see in the night

More information

Unit 1.7: Earth and Space Science The Structure of the Cosmos

Unit 1.7: Earth and Space Science The Structure of the Cosmos Lesson Summary: This week students will search for evidence provided in passages that lend support about the structure and organization of the Cosmos. Then students will summarize a passage. Materials

More information

Transcript 22 - Universe

Transcript 22 - Universe Transcript 22 - Universe A few introductory words of explanation about this transcript: This transcript includes the words sent to the narrator for inclusion in the latest version of the associated video.

More information

The Origin and Evolution of the Universe

The Origin and Evolution of the Universe The Origin and Evolution of the Universe 9.7 People have been wondering about the Universe for a long time. They have asked questions such as Where did the Universe come from? How big is it? What will

More information

The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One

The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One The Birth of the Universe Newcomer Academy High School Visualization One Chapter Topic Key Points of Discussion Notes & Vocabulary 1 Birth of The Big Bang Theory Activity 4A the How and when did the universe

More information

The formation of the galaxy is believed to be similar to the formation of the solar system.

The formation of the galaxy is believed to be similar to the formation of the solar system. The formation of the galaxy is believed to be similar to the formation of the solar system. All the gas & dust collapsed into a disk. During the time that stars were being formed, our galaxy didn t have

More information

Our Expanding Universe: Humanity s changing vision of the cosmos

Our Expanding Universe: Humanity s changing vision of the cosmos Our Expanding Universe: Humanity s changing vision of the cosmos Structure and Evolution of the Universe Workshop What is Cosmology? The Study of the Universe: its structure, origin, evolution, and destiny

More information

SCIENCE 101 DISTANCES IN ASTRONOMY LECTURE NOTES

SCIENCE 101 DISTANCES IN ASTRONOMY LECTURE NOTES SCIENCE 0 DISTANCES IN ASTRONOMY LECTURE NOTES Distances in the Solar System Distance to Venus can be obtained using radar ranging Send signal, determine how long it takes to return Radio waves move at

More information

Origin of Our Universe

Origin of Our Universe Origin of Our Universe Before the Big Bang? As cosmologists begin to understand what happened just after the Big Bang, many are questioning what led up to the Big Bang (4 possibilities) 1. No previous

More information

Chapter 22 Review Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Birth of the Universe Pearson Education, Inc.

Chapter 22 Review Clickers. The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition. The Birth of the Universe Pearson Education, Inc. Review Clickers The Cosmic Perspective Seventh Edition The Birth of the Universe What do we know about the beginning of the universe? a) It was about 6000 years ago. b) It was billions of years ago. c)

More information

Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers

Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers Astronomy & Physics Resources for Middle & High School Teachers Gillian Wilson http://www.faculty.ucr.edu/~gillianw/k12 A cosmologist is.... an astronomer who studies the formation and evolution of the

More information

The parts of a nuclear fission reactor

The parts of a nuclear fission reactor P2 6.1a Student practical sheet The parts of a nuclear fission reactor Making uranium-235 split and produce energy is actually remarkably easy. The trick is to make it do so in a controllable way. Aim

More information

Astronomy 330. Outline. Big Bang. Putting it all together: ! The early Universe The origin of H! The probable fate of the Universe

Astronomy 330. Outline. Big Bang. Putting it all together: ! The early Universe The origin of H! The probable fate of the Universe Astronomy 330 Outline! The early Universe The origin of H! The probable fate of the Universe This class (Lecture 4): Origin of Elements Next Class: End of the Universe Presentation Synopsis due Thur. Music:

More information

Thursday, 14 March, 13

Thursday, 14 March, 13 The Hot Big Bang http://www.bayho.com/info/vote universe @ the big bang was dense at the Planck time (t ~ 10-43 sec) our visible universe was ~ 0.01 cm across (10 30 smaller) but any observer only sees

More information

In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees.

In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees. In studying the Milky Way, we have a classic problem of not being able to see the forest for the trees. A panoramic painting of the Milky Way as seen from Earth, done by Knut Lundmark in the 1940 s. The

More information

Big bang, red shift and doppler effect

Big bang, red shift and doppler effect Big bang, red shift and doppler effect 73 minutes 73 marks Page of 26 Q. (a) Scientists have observed that the wavelengths of the light from galaxies moving away from the Earth are longer than expected.

More information

Milky Way & Hubble Law

Milky Way & Hubble Law Milky Way & Hubble Law Astronomy 1 Elementary Astronomy LA Mission College Spring F2015 Quotes & Cartoon of the Day Happy Thanksgiving! Announcements 3rd midterm 12/3 I will drop the lowest midterm grade

More information

Your years of toil Said Ryle to Hoyle Are wasted years, believe me. The Steady State Is out of date Unless my eyes deceive me.

Your years of toil Said Ryle to Hoyle Are wasted years, believe me. The Steady State Is out of date Unless my eyes deceive me. Your years of toil Said Ryle to Hoyle Are wasted years, believe me. The Steady State Is out of date Unless my eyes deceive me. My telescope Has dashed your hope; Your tenets are refuted. Let me be terse:

More information

Learning Objectives. at the center of our Galaxy...why were they wrong? are globular clusters? Cepheid Variable stars?

Learning Objectives. at the center of our Galaxy...why were they wrong? are globular clusters? Cepheid Variable stars? Our Milky Way Learning Objectives! What is the Milky Way? The Herschels thought we were at the center of our Galaxy...why were they wrong?! How did Shapley prove we aren t at the center? What are globular

More information

Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room

Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room Welcome to Class 4: Our Solar System (and a bit of cosmology at the start) Remember: sit only in the first 10 rows of the room What is the difference between dark ENERGY and dark MATTER? Is Earth unique,

More information

Astro 102 Practice Test 3

Astro 102 Practice Test 3 Class: Date: Astro 102 Practice Test 3 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Interstellar gas clouds may collapse to form stars if they a. have

More information

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 23. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc.

Lecture Outlines. Chapter 23. Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Pearson Education, Inc. Lecture Outlines Chapter 23 Astronomy Today 7th Edition Chaisson/McMillan Chapter 23 The Milky Way Galaxy Units of Chapter 23 23.1 Our Parent Galaxy 23.2 Measuring the Milky Way Early Computers 23.3 Galactic

More information

A blue flame is hotter than a yellow one.

A blue flame is hotter than a yellow one. CHAPTER 19 1 Stars SECTION Stars, Galaxies, and the Universe BEFORE YOU READ After you read this section, you should be able to answer these questions: Why are stars different colors? How can scientists

More information

OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE

OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE Overview: Galaxies are classified by their morphology. Objectives: The student will: classify 15 images of distant galaxies using a galaxy classification table; sketch, classify

More information

Binary Stars. Binary Stars. Methods of Observation. Need to look for binary signatures. Only direct method of measuring star masses!!!

Binary Stars. Binary Stars. Methods of Observation. Need to look for binary signatures. Only direct method of measuring star masses!!! Binary Stars Two stars gravitationally bound after formation (~ 55% stars in MW) Each star orbits the center of mass (COM) ( balance point ) Stars of equal mass: COM equidistant from each star Binary Stars

More information

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System

UNIT V. Earth and Space. Earth and the Solar System UNIT V Earth and Space Chapter 9 Earth and the Solar System EARTH AND OTHER PLANETS A solar system contains planets, moons, and other objects that orbit around a star or the star system. The solar system

More information

The Fundamental Forces of Nature

The Fundamental Forces of Nature Gravity The Fundamental Forces of Nature There exist only four fundamental forces Electromagnetism Strong force Weak force Gravity Gravity 2 The Hierarchy Problem Gravity is far weaker than any of the

More information

3 HOW WERE STARS FORMED?

3 HOW WERE STARS FORMED? 3 HOW WERE STARS FORMED? David Christian explains how the first stars were formed. This two-part lecture begins by focusing on what the Universe was like in its first 200 million years of existence, a

More information

World of Particles Big Bang Thomas Gajdosik. Big Bang (model)

World of Particles Big Bang Thomas Gajdosik. Big Bang (model) Big Bang (model) What can be seen / measured? basically only light (and a few particles: e ±, p, p, ν x ) in different wave lengths: microwave to γ-rays in different intensities (measured in magnitudes)

More information

Milky Way Galaxy Determining the size/extent counting stars (doesn t work) Variable Stars Red Giants/Supergiants Instability Strip Hydrostatic

Milky Way Galaxy Determining the size/extent counting stars (doesn t work) Variable Stars Red Giants/Supergiants Instability Strip Hydrostatic Milky Way Galaxy Determining the size/extent counting stars (doesn t work) Variable Stars Red Giants/Supergiants Instability Strip Hydrostatic Equilibrium Cepheids characteristics Type I, II differences

More information

If we look into space and see stars that show a blue shift, what does this tell us about the stars motion?

If we look into space and see stars that show a blue shift, what does this tell us about the stars motion? Name: Quiz name: Review f or Test ate: 1. If we look into space and see stars that show a blue shift, what does this tell us about the stars motion? T hey are moving away from the Earth T hey are moving

More information

The Doppler Effect & Hubble

The Doppler Effect & Hubble The Doppler Effect & Hubble Objectives Explain the Doppler Effect. Describe Hubble s discoveries. Explain Hubble s Law. The Doppler Effect The Doppler Effect is named after Austrian physicist Christian

More information

Our Galaxy, the Milky Way

Our Galaxy, the Milky Way Our Galaxy, the Milky Way In the night sky, the Milky Way appears as a faint band of light. Dusty gas clouds obscure our view because they absorb visible light. This is the interstellar medium that makes

More information

Beginning of the Universe Classwork 6 th Grade PSI Science

Beginning of the Universe Classwork 6 th Grade PSI Science Beginning of the Universe Classwork Name: 6 th Grade PSI Science 1 4 2 5 6 3 7 Down: 1. Edwin discovered that galaxies are spreading apart. 2. This theory explains how the Universe was flattened. 3. All

More information

Our UNIVERSE: where it all came from.

Our UNIVERSE: where it all came from. Our UNIVERSE: where it all came from. QUESTIONS OF THE DAY. How did the Universe start? How did the Universe evolve up to the present day? What is the fate of our Universe? The theory of general relativity

More information

X-ray Astronomy Field Guide

X-ray Astronomy Field Guide X-ray Astronomy Field Guide The Milky Way The word galaxy comes from a Greek word meaning "milky circle" or, more familiarly, "milky way." The white band of light across the night sky that we call the

More information

FXA 2008. UNIT G485 Module 5 5.5.1 Structure of the Universe. Δλ = v λ c CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE. Candidates should be able to :

FXA 2008. UNIT G485 Module 5 5.5.1 Structure of the Universe. Δλ = v λ c CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE. Candidates should be able to : 1 Candidates should be able to : CONTENTS OF THE UNIVERSE Describe the principal contents of the universe, including stars, galaxies and radiation. Describe the solar system in terms of the Sun, planets,

More information

Knox Academy, Haddington. Our Dynamic Universe. 4. The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory

Knox Academy, Haddington. Our Dynamic Universe. 4. The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory Knox Academy, Haddington Our Dynamic Universe 4. The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory 2014 Our Dynamic Universe: The Expanding Universe and Big Bang Theory Contents Unit Specification... 2 Notes...

More information

The areas of Spaceport where you can find the answers are in capital letters and also in brackets. (Solar System Area)

The areas of Spaceport where you can find the answers are in capital letters and also in brackets. (Solar System Area) KEY STAGE 3 SPACEPORT Quiz The areas of Spaceport where you can find the answers are in capital letters and also in brackets. (Solar System Area) 1 Why do Astronauts experience feelings of weightlessness

More information

Interesting note: When the Big Bang theory came out, many Christians embraced it. Why?

Interesting note: When the Big Bang theory came out, many Christians embraced it. Why? Cosmology Interesting note: When the Big Bang theory came out, many Christians embraced it. Why? Because the prevailing scientific view about the Universe in the early 1900 s was: The Universe is infinite

More information

Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time

Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time Chapter 23 The Beginning of Time 23.1 The Big Bang Our goals for learning What were conditions like in the early universe? What is the history of the universe according to the Big Bang theory? What were

More information

Dark Matter and the Universe

Dark Matter and the Universe Dark Matter and the Universe Topic 1 Dark Matter, Dark Energy and the Cosmology Revolution What is the real structure of our Universe and how do we know it is so? Contents of Topic 1 This first Topic provides

More information

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping

California Standards Grades 9 12 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping California Standards Grades 912 Boardworks 2009 Science Contents Standards Mapping Earth Sciences Earth s Place in the Universe 1. Astronomy and planetary exploration reveal the solar system s structure,

More information

Modeling the Expanding Universe

Modeling the Expanding Universe H9 Modeling the Expanding Universe Activity H9 Grade Level: 8 12 Source: This activity is produced by the Universe Forum at NASA s Office of Space Science, along with their Structure and Evolution of the

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision

The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision The Milky Way Galaxy is Heading for a Major Cosmic Collision Roeland van der Marel (STScI) [based on work with a team of collaborators reported in the Astrophysical Journal July 2012] Hubble Science Briefing

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy Chapter 15

The Milky Way Galaxy Chapter 15 The Milky Way Galaxy Chapter 15 Topics to be covered: 1. Contents of our Galaxy: Interstellar Medium(ISM) and Stars. Nebulae 2. Distribution of galactic clusters and center of our Galaxy. 3. Structure

More information

STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves

STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves Name: Teacher: Pd. Date: STAAR Science Tutorial 30 TEK 8.8C: Electromagnetic Waves TEK 8.8C: Explore how different wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum such as light and radio waves are used to

More information

PROLOGUE: THE BIG PICTURE

PROLOGUE: THE BIG PICTURE 1 PROLOGUE: THE BIG PICTURE 1.1 In the Beginning As the Universe expands, galaxies get separated from one another, and the average density of matter over a large volume of space is reduced. If we imagine

More information

The Milky Way Galaxy. This is NOT the Milky Way galaxy! It s a similar one: NGC 4414.

The Milky Way Galaxy. This is NOT the Milky Way galaxy! It s a similar one: NGC 4414. The Milky Way Galaxy This is NOT the Milky Way galaxy! It s a similar one: NGC 4414. 1 The Milky Way Galaxy 2 Interactive version 3 Take a Giant Step Outside the Milky Way Artist's Conception Example (not

More information

Top 10 Discoveries by ESO Telescopes

Top 10 Discoveries by ESO Telescopes Top 10 Discoveries by ESO Telescopes European Southern Observatory reaching new heights in astronomy Exploring the Universe from the Atacama Desert, in Chile since 1964 ESO is the most productive astronomical

More information

7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D.

7. In which part of the electromagnetic spectrum are molecules most easily detected? A. visible light B. radio waves C. X rays D. 1. Most interstellar matter is too cold to be observed optically. Its radiation can be detected in which part of the electromagnetic spectrum? A. gamma ray B. ultraviolet C. infrared D. X ray 2. The space

More information

Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos

Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos Chapter 5 Light and Matter: Reading Messages from the Cosmos Messages Interactions of Light and Matter The interactions determine everything we see, including what we observe in the Universe. What is light?

More information

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation?

From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly orders the different categories of electromagnetic radiation? From lowest energy to highest energy, which of the following correctly

More information

Astronomy 100 Exam 2

Astronomy 100 Exam 2 1 Prof. Mo Exam Version A Astronomy 100 Exam 2 INSTRUCTIONS: Write your name and ID number on BOTH this sheet and the computer grading form. Use a #2 Pencil on the computer grading form. Be careful to

More information

Pillars of Standard Model. Homogeneity and Isotropy Night Sky is Dark

Pillars of Standard Model. Homogeneity and Isotropy Night Sky is Dark Pillars of Standard Model Homogeneity and Isotropy Night Sky is Dark Linear Expansion Light Element Abundances Microwave Background Radiation [+other large scale structures] Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy

More information

Faber-Jackson relation: Fundamental Plane: Faber-Jackson Relation

Faber-Jackson relation: Fundamental Plane: Faber-Jackson Relation Faber-Jackson relation: Faber-Jackson Relation In 1976, Faber & Jackson found that: Roughly, L! " 4 More luminous galaxies have deeper potentials Can show that this follows from the Virial Theorem Why

More information

A Universe of Galaxies

A Universe of Galaxies A Universe of Galaxies Today s Lecture: Other Galaxies (Chapter 16, pages 366-397) Types of Galaxies Habitats of Galaxies Dark Matter Other Galaxies Originally called spiral nebulae because of their shape.

More information

The Sun and Solar Energy

The Sun and Solar Energy I The Sun and Solar Energy One of the most important forces behind global change on Earth is over 90 million miles distant from the planet. The Sun is the ultimate, original source of the energy that drives

More information

WHAT EMERGED FROM THE BIG BANG?

WHAT EMERGED FROM THE BIG BANG? 2 WHAT EMERGED FROM THE BIG BANG? David Christian explains how the Big Bang theory developed during the 20th century. This three-part lecture focuses on how the evidence for the expansion of the Universe

More information

19. Our Galaxy The Milky Way Revealed. Our goals for learning: Regions of the Milky Way Galaxy. Regions of the Milky Way Galaxy

19. Our Galaxy The Milky Way Revealed. Our goals for learning: Regions of the Milky Way Galaxy. Regions of the Milky Way Galaxy 19. Our Galaxy The infinitude of creation is great enough to make a world, or a Milky Way of worlds, look in comparison with it what a flower or an insect does in comparison with the Earth. 19.1 The Milky

More information

Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth

Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth Week 1-2: Overview of the Universe & the View from the Earth Hassen M. Yesuf (hyesuf@ucsc.edu) September 29, 2011 1 Lecture summary Protein molecules, the building blocks of a living organism, are made

More information

Astro Lecture 15. Light and Matter (Cont d) 23/02/09 Habbal_Astro Lecture 15

Astro Lecture 15. Light and Matter (Cont d) 23/02/09 Habbal_Astro Lecture 15 Astro110-01 Lecture 15 Light and Matter (Cont d) 1 What have we learned? Three basic types of spectra continuous spectrum emission line spectrum absorption line spectrum Light tells us what things are

More information

T = m hc 2 k B = K

T = m hc 2 k B = K PHYSICS 43/53: Cosmology Midterm Exam Solution Key (06). [5 points] Short Answers (5 points each) (a) What are the two assumptions underlying the cosmological principle? i. The Universe is homogeneous

More information

11-2. What is the most dense element formed in the cores of any stars? a) helium b) lead c) iron X d) carbon

11-2. What is the most dense element formed in the cores of any stars? a) helium b) lead c) iron X d) carbon Quiz Oct 31 2012 Chapter 11 11-1. A nova is believed to occur when which of the following pairs of stars are in a binary system? a) white dwarf, main sequence star X b) white dwarf, neutron star c) neutron

More information

Unit 8 Lesson 3 The Sun. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company

Unit 8 Lesson 3 The Sun. Copyright Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company The Sun: The Center of Attention Where is the sun located? The sun rises every day in the east and appears to travel across the sky before it sets in the west. This led astronomers to believe the sun moved

More information

OUTLINE The Hubble parameter After these lectures, you should be able to: Define the Hubble parameter H Sketch a(t) for k>0, k=0, k<0 assuming Λ=0 Def

OUTLINE The Hubble parameter After these lectures, you should be able to: Define the Hubble parameter H Sketch a(t) for k>0, k=0, k<0 assuming Λ=0 Def Observational cosmology: The Friedman equations 2 Filipe B. Abdalla Kathleen Lonsdale Building G.22 http://zuserver2.star.ucl.ac.uk/~hiranya/phas3136/phas3136 OUTLINE The Hubble parameter After these lectures,

More information

The Universe. The Solar system, Stars and Galaxies

The Universe. The Solar system, Stars and Galaxies The Universe The Universe is everything. All us, the room, the U.S. the earth, the solar system, all the other stars in the Milky way galaxy, all the other galaxies... everything. How big and how old is

More information

MODULE P7: FURTHER PHYSICS OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE OVERVIEW

MODULE P7: FURTHER PHYSICS OBSERVING THE UNIVERSE OVERVIEW OVERVIEW More than ever before, Physics in the Twenty First Century has become an example of international cooperation, particularly in the areas of astronomy and cosmology. Astronomers work in a number

More information

The Hidden Lives of Galaxies. Jim Lochner, USRA & NASA/GSFC

The Hidden Lives of Galaxies. Jim Lochner, USRA & NASA/GSFC The Hidden Lives of Galaxies Jim Lochner, USRA & NASA/GSFC What is a Galaxy? Solar System Distance from Earth to Sun = 93,000,000 miles = 8 light-minutes Size of Solar System = 5.5 light-hours What is

More information

Carol and Charles see their pencils fall exactly straight down.

Carol and Charles see their pencils fall exactly straight down. Section 24-1 1. Carol is in a railroad car on a train moving west along a straight stretch of track at a constant speed of 120 km/h, and Charles is in a railroad car on a train at rest on a siding along

More information