Rolf Baur, Raimund Herz & Ingo Kropp


 Clarence Davidson
 2 years ago
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2 COMPUTER AIDED REHABILITATION OF SEWER AND STORM WATER NETWORKS RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT PROJECT OF EUROPEAN COMMUNITY Lehrstuhl Stdtbuwesen Technsche Unverstät Dresden (TUD) Nürnberger Str. 31, Dresden Germny Tel ; Fx: ; Eml: CARE S Computer Aded REhbltton of Sewer networs. Decson Support Tools for Sustnble Wter Networ Mngement WP6 Multcrter Decson Support Demonstrtor D16 Procedure for choosng the rght sewer rehbltton technology Rolf Bur, Rmund Herz & Ingo Kropp Technsche Unverstät Dresden (TUD) wth contrbutons from Ldslv Tuhovc, Vldmr Sulcov (BUT Brno), Angel Vllnuev, Crlos Montero (CLABSA), Jonne Hulnce, John Cnt, Ross Crosbe, Amnd Bley (WRc), Cty Werey (Cemgref/ENGEES Strsbourg) Dresden, December 2003
3 D16 report CARES WP6
4 Tble of contents 1 Introducton Decson crter Requested nformton Development of crter ctlogue Survey on current prctce nd vlble technologes Cost evluton Structure of the decson procedure Defnton of decson crter Multcrter Evluton Methodology Methods Substtuton methods Elmnton Methods Blncng nd Rnng procedure ELECTRE procedure Concluson The Blncng nd Rnng Procedure (BRP) Prelmnry order of optons The blncng process Opertng comprsons n prs Solvng blncng problems Exmple pplcton of the BRP [Schmdt 2002] Procedure Development Rehbltton technology ctlogue Project descrpton nd decson crter Applcblty condtons for preelmnton Crter for rnng Worflow model Anlyss of development system Softwre desgn Testng Summry References...33 Appendx 1 Questonnre...35 Appendx 2 Economc Evluton of Rehbltton Technologes...51 Appendx 3 Methodologcl comprson: Applcton of n ELECTRE pproch...67
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6 1 Introducton The CARES project s funded by the Europen Communty nd ms to develop methods nd softwre tht wll enble engneers of the wter undertngs to estblsh nd mntn n effectve mngement of ther sewer nd storm wter networs, rehblttng the rght sewers t the rght tme. The results shll be dssemnted s mnul on Best Mngement Prctce (BMP) for sewer networ rehbltton. Ths project s orgnsed n the followng Worng Pcges (WP): WP1: Constructon of control pnel of performnce ndctors (PI) for rehbltton; WP2: Descrpton nd vldton of structurl condton; WP3: Descrpton nd vldton of hydrulc performnce; WP4: Rehbltton technology nformton system; WP5: Socoeconomc consequences; WP6: Multcrter decson support; WP7: Elborton of CARES prototype; WP8: Testng nd vldton of CAREW prototype; WP 9: Dssemnton; WP 10: Project mngement TUD s responsble for WP6, whch s dvded nto three subtss, ech one wth ts specfc objectve, schedule, delverbles nd methodology. Ts 6.1: Choosng the rght sewer rehbltton technque, n economc s well s techncl terms, s done from set of cnddtes fulfllng the requrements under specfc locl condtons. Drect rehbltton costs wll be systemtclly nlysed nd documented for vrety of open trenchng nd no dg rehbltton technologes. Beyond these drect costs, the support system wll hve to te nto ccount multtude of other fctors, whch re usully collected by wstewter compnes preprng publc tender on specfc rehbltton project. Although from fnncl vewpont, the wste wter compny would choose the lowest bd, t hs lso to consder externl costs tht re not chrged drectly to the wste wter compny, such s ncresed opertng costs nd trvel tmes for rod users. These costs re elborted n WP5. Subts 6.1 s scheduled for the frst yer of the project. Ts 6.2: Selectng costeffcent rehbltton projects s requred becuse the totl cost of ll vble rehbltton projects usully exceeds the vlble budget. So the projects must be rned by effcency crter n order to spend the money on those projects promsng the most postve effects. Cost reductons from shred costs due to smultneous rehbltton of dfferent systems wll led to n erler dte for optml cton. Other rehbltton projects my hve to be postponed due to lower costeffcency. The more effcent the projects re the more cn be spent on other rehbltton projects thus ncresng overll costeffcency. Wth regrd to the publc nterest, rehbltton projects should be rned on the bss of comprehensve set of crter nd procedure s well s results should be trnsprent nd esy to understnd by poltcl decson mers nd the publc. Multcrter methods wll be prepred for wstewter networ rehbltton projects, tested nd ncluded n CARES. Subts 6.2 s scheduled for the second yer of the project. 5
7 CARES D16 report Ts 6.3: Rehbltton progrmmes nd strteges re developed n n nterctve lernng process, where lterntves re compred, evluted nd mproved wth respect to ther costs nd effects n the short nd long run. Ths process needs support from specl longterm forecstng nd multcrter evluton tools. The forecstng tools developed n WP2 nd WP3 for the mterl nd hydrulc deterorton of sewers wll be complemented by forecstng procedures for the effects of specfc rehbltton progrmmes nd technologes on wde rnge of performnce ndctors s specfed n WP1. A procedure wll be estblshed tht llows forecstng nd evlutng the effects of sewer rehbltton progrmmes tht re defned for tme perod of 10 to 20 yers wth respect to nnul mlege nd technologes of rehbltton of specfc types of sewers. The procedure wll llow the clculton of the monetry nd nonmonetry, drect nd ndrect longterm effects. Rehbltton progrmmes wll be evluted ccordng to dynmc nvestment plnnng methodology. Whle the predefned lterntve rehbltton progrmmes my not fulfl ll networ performnce stndrds t mnmum rehbltton costs, some prmeters from the set of rehbltton optons my hve to be redefned n order to meet the performnce stndrds t cceptble costs. Ths wll be fcltted by n nterctve procedure to be ncluded n the CARES prototype. Subts 6.3 s scheduled for the thrd yer of the project. In Fgure 1, smplfed scheme of the generl decson frmewor for sewer rehbltton s drwn wth potentl nputs from other WP. Sewer dt bse Actul condton: Inspecton nd descrpton WP1, WP2.1 nspecton Hydrulc Aspects Hydrulc cpblty WP3 Envronmentl Aspects Envronmentl Impct WP3, WP5 Structure nd operton Structurl nd opertonl condton Trget defnton nd Performnce nlyss WP2.1, nspecton WP2 Condton evluton, clssfcton WP2.2 WP6.3 WP6.2 Prortes Condton forecst Rehbltton strteges WP6.1 WP3 Hydrulc rehbltton Structurl rehbltton Fgure 1: Generl scheme for nspecton, condton evluton nd rehbltton of sewer networs (followng ATV M 149 nd DIN EN 7525) Ths report refers to subts 6.1, the development of tool for choosng the rght rehbltton technology. 6
8 CARES D16 report Prtners nvolved n subts 6.1 were sed for specfc contrbutons: Survey n publc wors deprtments or utltes (CARES endusers) on the choce of rehbltton technology for specfc cses of deterorted sewers TU Brno, see Appendx 1  Cretng of stndrdsed dt set (text, fgures, grphs nd vdeos) of recently rehbltted sewers.  All 14 endusers should be sed to provde 2 or 3 well documented cses. The questonnre should be n Englsh nd trnslted by the prtners nto the lnguge of the enduser, nd the nswers retrnslted nto Englsh.  In ddton to specfc nformton on the project, endusers should gve resons why prtculr rehbltton technology ws chosen nd why other rehbltton technology cnddtes were rejected or not ten nto consderton. The contrbuton ws crred out n close cooperton wth TU Dresden nd CLABSA Rehbltton technology ctlogue nd crter CLABSA  Detled proposl of ctlogue wth rehbltton technologes nd ther ssocted chrcterstcs nd crtcl comprson wth the result of our nqury mong the CARES prtners nd endusers for decson crter  Contrbuton to the questonnre development for the cse studes (TU Brno) Economc evluton of rehbltton technologes WRc, see Appendx 2  Consderton of drect costs, development of reltve costs  Servce lfe expectnces (prolongton) for rehbltted sewers (dfferent rehbltton technologes)  Development of procedure for costeffectvenessnlyss ncludng netcptlvlues nd nnutes for rehbltton optons. Usng clssfcton codes for utomtc preelmnton of technologes TU Budpest Schedule: 18 th July 2003, nothng receved!!  We expect n expertse on the possbltes of usng the clssfcton codes (ccordng to EN nd other models for CCTV nspecton) for nocngout prtculr rehbltton technologes under specfc crcumstnces (stte of the sewer, envronment)  Comprson of the dfferent codng systems tht you hve evluted n subts 2.1 wth respect to the preelmnton of prtculr rehbltton technologes the bove mentoned ts. Methodologcl comprson: Applcton of n ELECTRE pproch Cemgref/ENGEES, see Appendx 3  Comprson of the results obtned n subts 6.1 wth n lterntve pproch, developed by Unversté Mrne l Vllée for selectng rehbltton technologes. Applcton of the method to preselected number of rehbltton projects wth gven constrnts. (schedule: Jnury 2004)  Lst of socoeconomc crter for the selecton of the rehbltton technology (WP5) 7
9 CARES D16 report 2 Decson crter The best rehbltton technology s chosen ccordng to ts sutblty t prtculr ste, nd ts reltve dvntges compred to other technologes. Thus, crter re requred for the elmnton of unsutble technologes, nd for the comprson of sutble technologes. Informton on rehbltton technologes s comng from RT dt bse developed under WP4. The descrpton of techncl nd envronmentl condtons of sewer ppe selected for rehbltton s comng from subts 6.2. The evluton of rehbltton technologes for the gven condtons s done wthn WP Requested nformton In frst survey n December 2002, the CARES prtners were sed for decson crter tht should be ncluded n WP6. Four types of nformton cn be dstngushed:  dt comng drectly from the enduser s sewer networ dt bse  nformton on the sewer s condton, ether comng from the sewer networ dt bse or from models developed n WP2  nformton on mpct to the urbn envronment nd the potentl rs of dmges, wth dt comng from the enduser s dt bse, muncpl dt bses (urbn GIS), or from clcultons of socl costs or the costs lely to rse from not rehblttng sewers (WP5)  nformton on the rehbltton optons, ncludng techncl pplcblty condtons, technology performnce, envronmentl mpct, drect cost nd servcelfe estmtes of the new sset From ths set of crter suggested for subts 6.1, expected delveres from other wor pcges were formulted nd crculted mong the prtners by postng t on the BSCW server (Wor s underwy to mtch nown tool specfctons to user requrements. The lst below wll be used s checlst nd proposed dt structures wll be crculted by WRc for prtner dscusson nd correcton n due course.): From enduser s dt bse (Informton should be stored n the prototype, WP7):  Cross secton of the sewer (dmeter, shpe, mterl)  Slope of the sewer  Combned sewer system or seprte sewer system (wstewter, storm wter)  Averge number of connectons per meter  Cross secton of the connectons (dmeter, shpe)  Dstnce between mnholes  Exstence of sngulrtes n the sewer nd type (rpds, flls, drops, chmbers, dversons, wers, )  Structurl sewer lods (sol lods, trffc lods, others)  Hydrulc sewer lods (pressure or grvty flow) Sewer condton nd deterorton rte (WP2) (From nspecton & clssfcton, WP2.1, nd from modellng, WP2.2)  CCTV clssfcton code nd dvce, how the code could be used for preselecton/elmnton of rehbltton technologes (WP2, contrbuton Budpest)  Detled descrpton of type nd ntensty of dmge (Mntennce records, e.g. blocges, collpses, desltng, tree roots etc, could result from CCTV nspecton, WP2)  Necessty of pror sewer mntennce (clensng, roots cuttng, etc.) nd ts cost  Condton grde of  Sewer  Mnholes 8
10 CARES D16 report  Servce connecton  CSO  Pumpng stton  Other nstlltons  Expected/remnng sewer lfe of the orgnl condut Sewer envronment (Informton from enduser s dtbse, stored n prototype (WP7, clssfcton/ nterpretton from WP5)  Locton (street type, trffc, vegetton, commercl res, presence of publc trnsport lnes, buldng densty, economc ctvty, conflcts wth other urbn nfrstructure)  Sol type  Wether condtons (tempertures, rn frequency) n the regon/seson t the tme of wors development  Recevng wters qulty (WP3, externl sources)  Groundwter level (rs of polluton of groundwter or wter dstrbuton networ,) reltve to sewer depth (WP3)  Rs of mosture/humdty on bsements or tunnels (exfltrton) (WP2 & WP5)  Infltrton (overlodng of tretment plnts nd ncresed polluton fter tretment n those cses wth nutrent removl) (WP2)  Socl sensblty (WP5)  Poltcl nd socl constrnts (WP5)  Tme constrnts (WP5)  Odour n the urbn envronment (.e. the degree of ventlton, WP2) Rehbltton technology (WP4) From CLABSA ctlogue of rehbltton technologes, ncludng nformton on:  Rnge of mngeble dmeters  Form of sewer profle  Type of curble dmge  Mterl of sewer  Reducton of hydrulc cpcty  (Reproducton of) sttc cpblty (does t meet the structurl requrements?)  Servce lfe expectton (ncresed for the use of the technque?)  Requrement of sewge bypss  Ground spce requrement  Mxmum length of rech  Servce lne connecton technology  Bendng restrnts  Certfcton of qulty of wor  Impct on groundwter (possble polluton of t, due to constructons wors, mterls used, )  Impct on tree roots  Perod of constructon wor  Durton of constructon wor  Nose emsson nd vbrton  Drect unt costs  Percentge of vertcl deformton the technque cn cope wth  Curng tme  Indrect unt costs mpcts (WP5)  Fesble lterntves (hydrulc rehbltton or opertonl mesures from WP3 or externl sources, ncludng costs)  Expected sewer lfe of the rehbltted condut 9
11 CARES D16 report 2.2 Development of crter ctlogue The frst objectve s to compre vlble nformton on rehbltton technologes reltve to descrpton of the project(s) proposed. Informton on rehbltton technologes wll come drectly (or v the CARES rehbltton mnger) from the ctlogue estblshed n WP4 by CLABSA. The project descrpton s ten from vrous sources (WP2, WP3, WP5 nd enduser s dt bse) n predefned formt v the CARES rehbltton mnger Survey on current prctce nd vlble technologes In close cooperton wth the prtners from TU Brno nd CLABSA, survey mong the ssocted endusers ws ntted, sng for the documentton of two or three recently termnted rehbltton projects n ther networs (see Appendx 1). Ths ws crred out due to the followng resons: 1. To fnd out whch decson crter re/were used by our endusers for choosng rehbltted sewer sectons. 2. To obtn descrptons of ppled rehbltton technologes nd resons for ther selecton. 3. To evlute the costs of the used rehbltton technology. Summry of survey results Coopertng endusers from 9 countres hve returned 11 flled questonnres provdng 27 descrbed projects (cse studes). The results of the survey gve n overvew on how rehbltton technologes re selected tody, The mjorty of the cse studes re exmples of the pplcton of trenchless technologes (Fgure 2). Type of rehbltton (ccordng number of occurrences nd sewer length) Number of occurrences Length Trenchless or dg method (ccordng number of occurrences nd sewer length) Number of occurrences Length 70% 60% 100% 90% percentge 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% repr renovton replcement clenng percentge 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% trenchless dg clenng Fgure 2: Type nd method of rehbltton for the 27 cse studes A more detled summry of the survey results s gven under Appendx 1. Rehbltton technologes Informton on the new technologes s comng from the ctlogue of rehbltton technologes (WP4), ncludng more thn 40 currently vlble rehbltton technologes (WP4_Rtchrt_v2.2.xls, posted on the BSCW server on the 6 th June 2003; the ltest verson of the RT chrt s consdered for the softwre). Hydrulc solutons for the rehbltton of the sewer networ must be ntegrted nto the ctlogue of rehbltton technologes. The optons for hydrulc rehbltton re the result of the hydrulc nlyss n WP3. Approprte descrptons of these rehbltton optons must be ntegrted nto the structure of the rehbltton technology ctlogue. 10
12 CARES D16 report In Tble 1, nformton stored n the rehbltton technology dtbse (WP4) s set n relton to requested nformton (ccordng to the lstng bove) for the descrpton of the projects. So fr, no cost nformton s vlble n the ctlogue of rehbltton technologes. Bsed on the fndngs documented n ppendx 2, Economc Evluton of Rehbltton Technologes, the ntegrton of costfctor mtrx s proposed for the pplcton of the dfferent rehbltton technologes under specfc envronmentl condtons. The costfctor mtrx wll be spredsheet developed by CLABSA under WP Cost evluton In generl, cost evluton should gve n economc justfcton of the rehbltton decson. Dfferent optons should be compred wth respect to the rto between costs nd servce lfe prolongton for repr, nd deprecton plus nterest for renovton nd replcement respectvely. Accordng to the three felds of nterest n the decson frmewor for sewer networ rehbltton, costng pproches wth dfferent levels of detl must be ncluded nto the decson process. The choce of the rght rehbltton technology requres very detled cost estmtes, potentlly lredy ten from dfferent prevous bds. For the prortston of projects, estmtes of men costs for dfferent rehbltton technologes under specfc condtons my be dequte. For the development of longterm strteges for nspecton nd rehbltton, unt costs for nspecton nd men costs for dfferent rehbltton technologes should be vlble. The most mportnt nfluencng fctors on the unt costs re, for exmple, dmeter, densty of servce connectons, lnd use bove nd under the ground (Fg.3). Fgure 3: Comprson of costs for lnng nd opencut technology under specfc condtons (MUVBW 2000) The cost comprson should comprse drect nd ndrect costs. Indrect costs of sewer rehbltton re mnly due to trffc devton nd busness nterruptons, or envronmentl mpcts, whch could be ether cptlsed by cost estmtes or drectly consdered, s s possble n the multcrter decson support methodology mentoned n secton 3. 11
13 CARES D16 report The nnuty of the rehbltton technology cn be clculted by dvdng ts drect costs by the servce lfe expectton. In costbeneft pproch wth ctul vlues, the nnuty s compred wth ncresng nnul mntennce nd repr costs of the sewer ppe (Fgure 4). Annul costs Annul mntennce nd repr Annuty of rehbltton nvestment Cost optmum Age n yers Fgure 4: Evluton of nvestments on ctul vlues Structure of the decson procedure Fgure 4 gves n overvew, how results from vrous WP re used n the decson for choosng the rght rehbltton technology n flow chrt ccordng to EN Crter for the selecton of the best rehbltton technology cn be dvded nto two groups: The frst group of crter s used for the preelmnton of rehbltton optons t prtculr ste. The second group of crter s used for the comprson of the remnng rehbltton optons. Accordngly, the procedure for choosng the rght rehbltton technology cn be dvded nto the followng steps: 1. Preelmnton The procedure of preelmnton cn be fcltted by comprng utomtclly pplcblty condtons nd performnce of the technologes wth the locl condtons t the ste chosen for rehbltton. The preelmnton cn be complemented by settng user defned elmnton crter (thresholds). 2. Rnng The multcrter evluton methodology for rnng rehbltton optons consders only the optons remnng fter preelmnton. The result wll be fnl overll order of rehbltton optons. 12
14 CARES D16 report Structurl rehbltton requred Loclsed dmge Recurrent loclsed dmge Extensve dmge no Is enlrgement of dschrge cpcty necessry? yes WP2.1, enduser, nspecton Is repr technclly possble? yes Is repr economclly justfble? no no Is reducton of dschrge cpcty permssble? WP3 no WP4 WP5 yes WP2, WP4 enduser, nspecton yes no Is renovton technclly possble? yes Is renovton economclly justfble? Would renovton reduce dschrge cpcty? no WP5 no yes WP5, WP6.1 yes yes Are other crter relevnt for renovton? no WP4 Repr Renovton Replcement Fgure 5: Choosng the rght rehbltton technology ccordng to EN nd use of results from CARES wor pcges Defnton of decson crter Accordng to the dentfed structure of the decson problem, crter re used for the process of preelmntng unsutble rehbltton technologes nd/or for the process of rnng the remnng rehbltton optons. In Tble 1, prelmnry lst of crter for preelmnton s gven, wth the tems ccordng to the rehbltton technology chrt developed n WP4, nd the respectve nformton on the prtculr rehbltton project. Crter for the preelmnton refer to the pplcblty condtons of technology under the gven nternl nd externl condtons. There re techncl, opertonl, nd envronmentl condtons. 13
15 Tble 1: Informton on rehbltton technology nd project descrpton (WP4_Rtchrt_v2.2.xls) Informton on the rehbltton technology Source: WP4_RTchrt Project descrpton Source: SRP output fle for nput to SRT Applcblty condtons 1 Dmeter (mn, mx) Dmeter (before, fter rehbltton) 2 Shpe (crculr, noncrculr, mnentry, nonmnentry) Shpe (crculr, eggshped, other noncrculr) 3 Asset type (sewer, mnhole, connecton) Sewer/Mnhole/Servce connecton 4 Sttc functon (structurl, selng) Restorton of lod berng cpcty requred (Yes/No) 5 Sutble mterl of current sset Mterl 6 Need to cut off servce connectons Number of servce connectons 7 Under groundwter level/lege dmssble Groundwter level, sewer level, Senstve to groundwter qulty? 8 Mnmum temperture 9 Sutble nd of sol Sol type 10 Worng spce requred Avlblty of worng spce n the urbn envronment of the sewer Technology performnce / chrcterstcs 11 Mxmum length Length 12 Worng speed (length/unts per dy) Tme constrnts (mx d) 13 New sset mterl Mterl 14 Dmeter fter rehbltton (not chnged, reduced, ncresed) 15 Hydrulc performnce fter rehbltton (dmeter, slope, roughness: not chnged, reduced, ncresed) New dmeter New dmeter, new slope, new roughness, Flure type 14
16 CARES D16 report 16 Dggng needs (wthout surfce dmge, pt dmge, trench) Avlblty of worng spce n the urbn envronment of the sewer, Number of servce connectons, Trffc lod n the locton, Exstng flor to be protected? Senstve buldngs or nfrstructure round? Nose nd tremor problem? Busness ctvtes ffected? 17 Processng through mnhole? Avlblty of worng spce n the urbn envronment of the sewer 18 Need of clensng 19 Dggng need for connectons renstll Number of servce connectons 20 Possblty of wor nterrupton 21 Excess ground permeblty durng groutng Senstve to groundwter qulty 22 Requres mn n underground 23 Strght/curved ln 24 Estmted servce lfe (prolongton) of rehbltted sset 25 Unt costs nd cost fctors (not yet ncluded n CLABSA tble) Envronmentl mpct 26 Structurl mpct on surroundng buldngs Senstve buldngs or nfrstructure round? 27 Envronmentl mpct (mterl, wors: none, low, grve) Exstng flor to be protected? Senstve to groundwter qulty? Nose nd tremor problem? 28 Impct on groundwter qulty Senstve to groundwter qulty? 29 Nose Nose nd tremor problem? 30 Dust Dust problem? 15
17 CARES D16 report 16
18 CARES D16 report 3 Multcrter Evluton Methodology The objectve of multcrter methodology for choosng the best rehbltton technology s to fnd trnstve 1 overll fnl order of fnte set of optons. Here, decson support method s sought whch selects the best rehbltton technology for sewer whch hs lredy been selected for rehbltton. Best, n ths context, could be nterpreted s the most costeffectve, or most prctcl or lest dsruptve method, or some other such crteron. The set of optons, ll rehbltton optons ncluded n the rehbltton technology (RT) dt bse (WP4), must be compred wth respect to number of crter j, by clcultng the vlues e j for ech technology (Fgure 6). Fgure 6: Impct mtrx 3.1 Methods Multcrter evluton methods cn be clssfed, ccordng to the prevlng weghng prncple, nto substtuton methods nd elmnton methods Substtuton methods A very populr multcrter technque, the method of verge weghtng, belongs to the substtuton methods, lso referred to s ggregton or scorng models. Here, the bndwdth of crter wthn the mpct mtrx (rrow b n Fgure 6) s reduced. The overll rnng of optons s bult n three steps: 1. Trnsformton of ll crter nto unform scle (normlston) 2. Dstrbuton of weghts,.e. reltve mportnce or exchnge rtos between crter 3. Aggregton wth utlty functon for the fnl rnng order Usully, ggregton methods re ppled usng, n most cses, monetry expresson or dmensonless pont scle for the normlston. In generl, the normlston nd the defnton of the utlty functon re prepred by n expert, wheres the only ntercton between the decsonmer nd the decson procedure s the ssgnment of weghts. The problem of these methods s the prorty nd weghtng of the ndvdul crter, snce overrtng nd underrtng of certn spects s most lely to hppen (Strssert 1984, Vnce 1992). 1 A fnl order of set of optons s sd to be trnstve f t meets the trnstvty condton (e.g. f A > B nd B > C, then A > C). It s sd to be lner f there s no cycle of preference nvolved (.e. A > B > C > A s cyclc nd therefore not lner. See lso secton ) 17
19 CARES D16 report Elmnton Methods The prncple of elmnton methods s to reduce the bndwdth of optons wth rguments (rrow () n the mpct mtrx, see Fgure 6) by excludng unsutble optons. There s no fnl evluton but stepwse threshold settng t prtculr crter for elmntng undsred optons. One of the dvntges of elmnton methods s the possblty tht crter cn hve dfferent dmensons. A very populr, nonformlsed verson of elmnton technques s the verbl dscusson / structured ntervew. The selecton procedure conssts of three elementry steps: 1. Settng threshold vlue t crteron C 1 2. Observng the consequences t ll other crter 3. Confrmng (or rejectng) the elmnton threshold nd settng the next threshold t the next crteron The process s repeted untl breoff lmt (e.g. gven budget) s reched. Wthn elmnton procedures, effect control nd resonng ntte process of blncng dvntges nd dsdvntges tht leds stepbystep to decson Blncng nd Rnng procedure The BRP (n Germny nown s FAR) presented by Strssert (1995) nd Köhl (1998) s new vrnt wthn the feld of semformlsed multcrter decson support methodologes. Bsc fetures of the pproch re the prwse comprsons of optons, mxed scles nd the soclled blncng prncple,.e. the blncng of vectors of dvntges nd dsdvntges (Strssert 2000: 1). For ny pr of optons the reltve dvntges nd dsdvntges re blnced nd, smultneously, the dfferent mportnce of the score s ten nto ccount. In chpter 3.2, the theoretcl frmewor of the pproch s brefly explned, followng Strssert (2000), who gves detled dervton nd descrpton of the method. The methodology hs been ppled n CAREW for the evluton of rehbltton strteges (Herz 2002) ELECTRE procedure ELECTRE ("ELmnton Et Chox Trdusnt L RElté "= elmnton nd choce trnsltng relty) s the French pproch to multcrter decson methodology, restrcted n the plnnng of engneerng nfrstructure projects, ts frst pprton beng n the sxtes. Most versons hve been developed by Bernrd Roy nd ssoctes (Roy 1993). The method mnpultes the crter nto concordnce nd, f evlutons re rcher thn ordnl rnngs, dscordnce mtrces. Optons re prwse judged. The concordnce set shows ll crter where n opton s preferred or equl to nother, whle the dscordnce set shows the reverse outrnng. Severl procedures re vlble for sortng, rnng, selectng. Contrry to the optmzton of n economc functon, the multcrter nlyss s not formlzed mthemtclly ndeed. It uses models bult prtlly on nevtbly restrctve mthemtcl hypotheses nd prtlly on nformton collected by the decsonmer. The mn chrcterstc of the nlytcl multcrter methods s to formlze the preprton of the decson by mprovng the trnsprency of the decson process nd by defnng nd clrfyng the decsonmer responsblty. In CAREW WP3 report Decson support for nnul rehbltton progrmmes (Le Guffre et l. 2002), t s sortng procedure tht ws ppled: ELECTRE tr. Here we propose rnng procedure ELECTRE II: 18
20 CARES D16 report The objectve of ELECTRE II (Cf. Appendx 3.I: Detls of the method) s to rn optons, snce "best" untl "less good". The pproch used by ELECTRE II s bsed on:  concordnce nd dscordnce concepts (llowng to te nto ccount the collectve selfrelnce of the decsonmer n fne wy),  two types of outrnng : strong nd we,  n outrnng lgorthm wth two smple orderng : drect nd reverse. An exmple of pplcton s presented n ppendx 3.II (Db, 2000) Concluson The substtuton methods offer logcl structure of procedures, whch determne unque result by mthemtcl opertons. However, methodologcl problems rse from the numercl scores nd weghts ssgned to ndvdul crter. They blur the contrbuton of ndvdul crter to the overll score by compenstng for smller nd lrger contrbutons from dfferent crter. However, there s no wy to blnce polluted wter wth clen r or destroyed nturl lndscpes wth quet vehcles. Another drwbc of ggregton procedures s ther lc of trnsprency n the decson process. Thus, pproches whch rely on ggregton re qute sutble for n evluton tht s bsed on crter whch re mesured on unform scle, e.g. n monetry terms, snce the blnce of costs nd benefts (or svngs), ppers to be rther ccurte. The dvntge of the concordnce nlyss (e.g. ELECTRE methods, Roy 1985) compred to scorng models s due to the comprson n prs of reltve dvntges nd dsdvntges of cnddte optons. There s no drect compenston of crter by utlty functon. However, number of model prmeters must be set/defned by the user (nmely ndces nd thresholds, nd the crter weghts). Multcrter decson problems where optons must be compred by chrcterstcs wth mxed scles re more lely supported by elmnton procedures tht evde the blcbox pproch of nontrnsprent nterdependences determned by crter weghts, normlston functons nd utlty functon For the evluton of rehbltton technologes n CARES, the formlsed blncng nd rnng procedure (Strssert 1995) ws chosen nd wll be compred wth n Electre procedure. Both methods wll begn wth preelmnton step. 19
21 CARES D16 report 3.2 The Blncng nd Rnng Procedure (BRP) Ths secton gves n overvew on the methodologcl pproch of the blncng nd rnng procedure. In the next chpter 3.3, the pproch s llustrted by n exmple crred out for the enduser n Dresden Prelmnry order of optons The procedure strts wth the mpct mtrx (Fgure 4). Ech crteron C yelds n ndvdul order of optons P j by mens of e j. For e 11 > e 12 > e 13, the rnng order of crteron C 1 s P 1, P 2, P 3. In generl, the rnng order of optons P j wll dffer for ll crter C. Technology optons Crter P 1 P 2 P 3 C 1 e 11 e 12 e 13 C 2 e 21 e 22 e 23 C 3 e 31 e 23 e 33 Fgure 7: Impct mtrx wth crter C nd technology optons P Now suppose tht the vlues e j show tht, for C 1, P 1 > P 2 > P 3. Then we cn wrte: C 1 : < P 1, P 2, P 3 >, nd smlrly for C 2 nd C 3, e.g. C 2 : < P 3, P 2, P 1 >, C 3 : < P 3, P 1, P 2 >, In n outrnng mtrx (Fgure 8), the number of pros nd cons re counted for ech opton. The mtrx n Fgure 8 shows tht opton P 1 s plced twce (.e. for two crter) before opton P 2, once before P 3, nd vce vers P 2 s plced once before opton P 1, nd P 3 s plced twce before opton P 1 (The tble must be red n rows). P 1 P 2 P 3 P 3 P 1 P 2 P P 3 * 2 2 P P 1 1 * 2 P P * Fgure 8: Outrnng mtrx Fgure 8b: Trngulr outrnng mtrx When the outrnng mtrx s set up, the optons must be reordered to cheve trngulr mtrx (Fgure 8b). Trngulrston s the systemtc reorderng of optons such tht out of set of p = j! orders, the sum of the vlues bove the mn dgonl s mxmsed. A stuton where only zero vlues re below the mn dgonl corresponds to strong trnstve overll fnl order of optons, or totl order structure. Normlly, ths totl order structure of optons does not exst ntlly (Vnce 1992, Strssert 2000). The outrnng mtrx reltes to the mjorty rule of countng votes (1 crteron 1 vote). In the context of the blncng prncple, the ssumpton of mjorty rule must be gven up. The outrnng mtrx s used nsted s prelmnry order of optons whch s then subject to screenng nd blncng process. 20
22 CARES D16 report The blncng process Frstly, new tble s ntroduced. In n dvntgesdsdvntges tble the crter C re combned wth the result of the pr wse comprson of optons P j /P (Fgure 9). The column hedngs contn ll possble comprsons n prs. For n optons the number of comprsons s z = n*(n1)/2. In our cse (n = 3), z = 3. P 1 /P 2 P 1 /P 3 P 2 /P 3 C 1 A P1C1 A P1C1 A P2C1 C 2 D P1C2 D P1C2 A P2C2 C 3 A P1C3 D P1C3 D P2C3 ΣA j ΣD j Fgure 9: Advntgesdsdvntges tble For ech comprson n prs, the scores of e j must be compred. The comprsons cn be mde ndependently from the crter s scles. They refer to qunttes, rnngs or frequences (crdnl, ordnl, nomnl scle). At the bottom of the tble two rows show the sum of dvntges ΣA j nd the sum of dsdvntges ΣD j by comprson. In the dvntgesdsdvntges tble, ech column represents seprte bnry decson problem: n the frst column, the comprson P 1 /P 2 of the two optons P 1 nd P 2, the queston s whether the two dvntges [ 1/2 A 1, 1/2 A 3 ] together re strctly superor (or not) to the dsdvntge 1/2 D 2. For Yes, P 1 s strctly superor to P 2. If respectvely the nswer s No, then P 2 s strctly superor to P 1. If the nswer to the queston: Are [A P1C1, A P1C3 ] strctly superor to D P1C2 s Yes, the dsdvntge 1/2 D 2 loses ts mportnce. Thus, ech comprson result s rted ccordng to boolen code (1,0), nd the results of ll comprsons cn be drwn to comptblty mtrx C (Fgure 10), nd f the comptblty mtrx s reordered, to the trngulr comptblty mtrx C T (Fgure 10b). P 1 P 2 P 3 P 1 P 3 P 2 P P P P P P Fgure 10: Comptblty mtrx C Fgure 10b: Trngulr comptblty mtrx C T The trngulr comptblty mtrx C T s representng strct totl order wth bnry relton, whch s symmetrc, complete nd trnstve (Vnce 1992). Wth ths mtrx, the overll fnl order of optons looed for s obtned,.e. <P 1, P 3, P 2 > (Strssert 2000) Opertng comprsons n prs In prctce, the number of rehbltton technologes to be compred cn esly be 5, 6 or more. Then the number of comprsons n prs z s 10, 15, or more, respectvely. Irrespectve the number of crter, the determnton of the order reltons could become clumsy job. 21
23 CARES D16 report Not necessrly ll possble comprsons n prs nd correspondng blncng problems must be crred out. For 4 strteges, the number of comprsons would be 10. The number of possble orders of optons s p = n! = 1*2*3*4 = 24. These orders re: P 1, P 2, P 3, P 4 P 2, P 1, P 3, P 4 P 3, P 1, P 2, P 4 P 4, P 1, P 2, P 3 P 1, P 2, P 4, P 3 P 2, P 1, P 4, P 3 P 3, P 1, P 4, P 2 P 4, P 1, P 3, P 2 P 1, P 3, P 2, P 4 P 2, P 3, P 1, P 4 P 3, P 2, P 1, P 4 P 4, P 2, P 1, P 1 P 1, P 3, P 4, P 2 P 2, P 3, P 4, P 1 P 3, P 2, P 4, P 1 P 4, P 2, P 3, P 3 P 1, P 4, P 2, P 3 P 2, P 4, P 1, P 3 P 3, P 4, P 1, P 2 P 4, P 3, P 1, P 2 P 1, P 4, P 3, P 2 P 2, P 4, P 3, P 1 P 3, P 4, P 2, P 1 P 4, P 3, P 2, P 1 If n  1 comprsons n prs re lredy executed, nd f ll optons re consdered n the blncng process, the remnng comprsons re gven mplctly. For exmple, f n  1 = 3 comprsons yeld the three orders <P 1, P 2 >, <P 1, P 4 > nd <P 3, P 2 >, then from the 24 orders bove, n frst step 12 re elmnted (ll orders where P 1 s before P 2 ), n second step 8, nd n thrd step 3 orders re elmnted, respectvely. Hence, only one sngle order, <P 1, P 4, P 3, P 2 >, remns, tht s the fnl order of optons. Intrnstvtes occur when the blncng result of three comprsons would gve rnngs of the form: <P 1, P 2 >, <P 2, P 3 > nd <P 3, P 1 >,.e. the crculr relton P 1 > P 2 > P 3 > P 1. Strssert (1999) gves n nlytc proof tht the number of comprsons n prs could be reduced down to mnmum of n 1 comprsons, nd methodology how to vod ntrnstvtes n the fnl order. For the preelmnton of optons, nocout crter re ntroduced (e.g. pplcblty condtons) Solvng blncng problems The soluton of the blncng problem s the comprson of two optons wth respect to the set of dvntges gnst the set of dsdvntges, presented n the dvntgesdsdvntges tble. Tht s the nswer to the queston: Are the dvntges [ 1/2 A 1, 1/2 A 3 ] strctly superor to the dsdvntge 1/2 D 2? The number of crter n ech comprson wth n equl score s not decsve. A domnnce chec loos for comprsons, where we hve only dvntges but no dsdvntges. Rnngs ncludng the nverse of such domnnce order cn be removed from the set of possble rnngs. 22
24 CARES D16 report 3.3 Exmple pplcton of BRP In Tble 2, the mpct mtrx of 4 optons nd 4 crter s shown. In the exmple the nocoutcrteron s mxmum of 250 /m for the costs. Thus, opton D would be excluded from the set of vlble optons. Tble 2: Impct mtrx e j Crter Optons j A B C D K 1 Costs 150 /m 200 /m 50 /m 300 /m K 2 Constructon tme 5 wees 10 wees 20 wees 30 wees K 3 Trffc dsturbnce medum very hgh low none K 4 Servce lfe 50 yers 50 yers 80 yers 120 yers Subsequently, for ech crteron rn wll be ssgned to the remnng optons. If there re equl crter vlues the optons get the sme rn (Tble 3). Tble 3: Rnng of optons Crter Optons j A Rn A B Rn B C Rn C K 1 Costs 150 /m /m /m 1. K 2 Constructon tme 5 wees wees wees 3. K 3 Trffc dsturbnce medum 2. very hgh 3. low 1. K 4 Servce lfe 50 yers yers yers 1. The domnnce test s next. For ths purpose, the ndvdul optons re compred n prs usng n dvntgedsdvntge tble. If there s one opton n ll crter better thn ny nother, tht opton wll be strctly superor to ll others n every possble order of optons. In the exmple opton A s strctly superor to B, whch mens opton B wll never be before opton A n the fnl rnng. There s no obvous strct superorty n the comprsons AC nd BC. The dvntgedsdvntge tble s shown below (Tble 4.) Tble 4: Advntgedsdvntge tble for the domnnce test Comprsons AB AC BC Crter K 1 Costs A A1 D A1 D B1 K 2 Constructon tme A A3 A A3 A B3 K 3 Trffc dsturbnce A A4 D A4 D B4 K 4 Servce lfe 0 5 D A5 D B5 Result A domntes B
25 CARES D16 report Three possbltes out of sx possble rnng orders (ABC, ACB, BAC, BCA, CAB, CBA) cn be elmnted becuse opton A domntes opton B nd thus B never wll be rned before A (BAC, BCA, CBA). Therefore two comprsons remn (AC, BC). In ths exmple there re no ntrnstvtes (tble 4, tble 5). Crter where the compred optons hve the sme vlue re not be ten nto consderton. Tble 5: Prwse comprson AC Crter A C K 2 Constructon tme 5 wees Advntge A 20 wees K 1 Costs 150 /m 50 /m Advntge C K 3 Trffc dsturbnce Medum Low Advntge C K 4 Servce lfe 50 yers 80 yers Advntge C Result Tble 6: Prwse comprson BC C s better thn A, becuse the dvntges of longer servce t 1/3 of costs prevl the dsdvntge of longer constructon tme, whch cuses only low trffc dsturbnces Crter B C K3 Constructon tme 10 wees Advntge B 20 wees K 1 Costs 200 /m 50 /m Advntge C K4 Trffc dsturbnce Very hgh Low Advntge C K5 Servce lfe 50 yers 80 yers Advntge C Result C s better thn B, Becuse the three dvntges (costs, servce lfe, low trffc dsturbnces) prevl the reltve smll dsdvntge of longer constructon tme (there re no tme constrnts here) At the end, the fnl rnng cn be stted, n ths exmple t s CAB. The procedure hs been fnshed. The procedure results ( C s better thn A nd C s better thn B ) re decsons, tht must be mde by the user, ncludng the reportng of the rgumentton. The utomtclly performed chec for ntrnstvtes vods nconsstent preferences, nd thus subjectve decsons. 24
26 CARES D16 report 4 Procedure Development The worng ttle of the pplcton for WP6 ts 1 ws WRP SRT Weghng nd Rnng Procedure for Sewer Rehbltton Technologes. In the fnl verson of the CARES prototype, the softwre wll be referred to s CARES  SRT. For the development of the procedure for prortsng rehbltton technology for selected rehbltton project, ts ntegrton nto the CARES frmewor must be defned. The dt nd nformton flow wll consst of four prncpl steps (Fgure 11): 1. A lst of prorty ppes s selected n WP6.2, nd trnsferred v the rehbltton mnger (WP7) to WP WP6.1 crres out preelmnton of rehbltton technologes, wth respect to ther specfc performnce nd the condtons t the prtculr ste. The ppe descrpton ncludng the lst of preselected rehbltton technologes s trnsferred v the rehbltton mnger (WP7) to WP4 nd WP5. 3. In WP4 nd WP5, drect costs nd socoeconomc crter re clculted for ech technology nd re dded to the ppe descrpton fle. The fle s redrected to WP6.1, gn v the rehbltton mnger (WP7). 4. Wth ll decson crter evluted now, 6.1 cn crry out the fnl rnng of potentl rehbltton technologes. 3 3b WP5 WP4 Clculton/estmton of soco economc crter Clculton of Drect costs Fnl rnng 4 WP6.2 1 Lst of prorty ppes WP7 WP6.1 2 Lst of preselected rehb technques Preelmnton of technques wth sutblty condtons For prtculr ppe Fgure 11: Dt nd nformton flow 4.1 Rehbltton technology ctlogue The rehbltton technology ctlogue whch s mported to the CARES SRT progrmme reles on the formt of the verson WP4_Rtchrt_v2.2.xls, posted on the BSCW server on the 6 th June The procedure wll be djusted to the ltest verson, s soon s the fnl structure s confrmed by WP4. The mport fles formt s csv (comm seprted vlues), wth one rehbltton opton per lne. A screenshot of n exmple mport fle s gven n Fgure 12 where the frst lne corresponds to the column numbers n the RT dt bse. The fle wll be mported from the CARES Rehbltton mnger. An updted exmple mport fle wll be posted on the BSCW server. 25
27 CARES D16 report Fgure 12: Screenshot of n exmple Rehbltton technology mport fle 4.2 Project descrpton nd decson crter A lst of projects for rehbltton s provded by the multcrter tool for the selecton nd prortston of effectve rehbltton projects (CARES SRP, to be developed under subts 6.2) Applcblty condtons for preelmnton The decson crter for the preelmnton of rehbltton technologes re orented towrds the pplcblty condtons ten from the RT chrt. Unnown tems re replced by queston mr (?). Irrelevnt felds re flled wth n sters (*). (1) stnds for Yes, (0) stnds for No. Ether sngle ppe or lst of ppes, selected by the multcrter tool of subts 6.2 for the prortston of rehbltton projects, cn be mported. Projects must be seprted by [strt] nd [end] secton n the mport fle. Unnown tems re replced by queston mr (?). Irrelevnt felds re flled wth n sters (*). (1) stnds for Yes, (0) stnds for No. The structure of the mport fle s shown n Fgure 13, nd n exmple mport fle s gven n Fgure 14. Updted exmple mport fles wll be posted on the BSCW server. Fgure 13: Structure of the project mport fle 26
28 CARES D16 report Fgure 14: Exmple project mport fle for one project Crter for rnng For the comprson of rehbltton optons, the drect unt costs nd servce lfe expectncy (or prolongton) of the rehbltton technology re consdered. Drect costs re clculted for dfferent externl condtons wth the costng tool provded by WP4. The servce lfe (prolongton) comes drectly from the rehbltton technology chrt. Thus, four economc crter cn be defned nd wrtten s follows: C1 drect costs n C2 servce lfe (prolongton) n yers C3 nnuty n /yer Impcts of rehbltton technologes on the envronment re ssessed wthn the defnton of socoeconomc crter. They re determned wthn n pplcton of WP5 (see CARES D13 Report "Rehbltton mpct on socoeconomc costs".): C4 Impct of nose C5 Impct of dust C6 Polluton of groundwter C7 Servce nterrupton C8 Rod/trffc dsturbnce C9 Loss of trde A set of less formlsed crter cover condtons of the ste, whch hve n nfluence on the decson for prtculr rehbltton technologes. These re: C10 number of servce connectons & reconnecton efforts of the technology C11 worng re requred by the technology & urbn envronment C12 urbn vegetton ffected by rehbltton The desgn of the BRP offers the possblty to ntegrte ddtonl crter lter on. 27
29 CARES D16 report 4.3 Worflow model After cretng rehbltton project, some generl nformton such s project nme nd descrpton must be gven. Subsequently, t s necessry to mport the rehbltton technology ctlogue, the project lst, nd to defne constrnts for the comprson. The nocoutchec s performed then. Automtclly those rehbltton technologes re elmnted, whch do not fulfl the requred pplcblty nd performnce condtons. In ddton, rehbltton technologes cn be elmnted ndvdully by the user. The next step s the utomtclly performed domnnce chec. The tool genertes now revsed mpct mtrx consstng of the remnng rehbltton technologes nd ll crter ncludng the ccordng presuggested rnngs. These rnngs cn be revsed by the user. Then, the weghng nd rnng process strts wth the frst comprson n pr. For ths purpose n dvntgedsdvntge tble s creted for ech comprson. Here, the user cn rrnge the order of crter nd determne the wnner. The user must confrm hs decson. Ths process wll be repeted untl the fnl rnng hs been fxed. Durng the process, CARES  SRT checs for ntrnstvtes. Fnshed decson runs cnnot be modfed ny more, but nlyzed. The prncpl worflow structure s shown n Fgure 15. Strt Import project dt from SRP (WP6 ts 2) Import rehb technology dt from RT dtbse (WP4) SRT project Defne project nformton Select rehb technologes for evluton Decson run Preelmnton Prwse comprson Chec for ntrnstvtes FINAL RANKING of Rehb technologes Fgure 15: Worflow structure chrt of CARES SRT 28
30 CARES D16 report 4.4 Anlyss of development system Before strtng the softwre development, the development system hd to be chosen. As there re vrous systems wth dfferent progrmmng lnguges vlble, t ws necessry to set up lst of generl fetures of the future softwre to evlute the development systems. The followng resons fnlly led to the decson n fvour of Borlnd Delph: Applctons desgned wth Borlnd Delph re compled nto executble fles. Therefore, code executon s fr fster thn n systems usng code nterpreters. Applctons desgned wth Borlnd Delph re stndlone nd do not need ddtonl softwre for executon. Ths prevents trouble n softwre usge nd mntennce f the ddtonl softwre s updted. Ths ensures the usblty of the softwre regrdless of softwre pcges nd softwre versons tht re nstlled n prllel. Furthermore, the requrements for the user re ept on modest level. The source code of Borlnd Delph s, wth mnor chnges, comptble to Borlnd Kylx, whch s development system for Lnux. Ths eses cross pltform development nd permts the development of Lnux versons of the softwre f there s need for t. Borlnd Delph ncludes the mghty reltonl clentserver dtbse system Interbse whch cn be run s destop system s well. Interbse s vlble s n open source (Frebrd) nd cuses lmost no costs n softwre cquston. Borlnd Delph s lredy the system chosen for the development of the Rehbltton Strtegy Evlutor of CAREW whch pples the sme underlyng decson methodology. 4.5 Softwre desgn Besde typcl dt mngement fcltes, the generl desgn of the CARES SRT softwre conssts of two mn screens. The frst one provdes nformton on the rehbltton project, ncludng ppe chrcterstcs, flure specfcton, nd descrpton of the envronment (Fgure 16). Here, the preselecton of sutble technologes s crred out. Ppe nformton Flure nformton Envronmentl nformton Fgure 16: CARES SRT project descrpton screen On the second screen, the remnng rehbltton technologes re lsted wth ther dvntges nd dsdvntges, nd the rnng process s crred out (Fgure 17). A more detled descrpton of the softwre s ncluded n the softwre hndboo. 29
31 CARES D16 report Technology nformton Prwse comprson Fgure 17: CARES SRT rnng procedure screen 4.6 Testng By the survey mong the CARES endusers, 27 cse studes were collected. They wll be the frst test cses for the CARES SRT pplcton. The ELECTRE II pproch mentoned n Appendx 3 wll be ppled to these test cses s well, nd results wll be compred. 30
32 CARES D16 report 5 Summry Ths report refers to subts 6.1 Choosng the rght rehbltton technology for sewer ppes of the CARES project. The developed procedure reles on the ccess on the rehbltton technology (RT) dt bse, developed under WP4. Crter for the elmnton nd rnng of rehbltton technologes re ether drectly ten from the RT dt bse, or estmted by procedures provded wthn WP5. The methodology chosen for the CARES SRT s the blncng nd rnng procedure. It hs been progrmmed nd wll be ntegrted n the CARES Rehbltton Mnger. The procedure comes to ts lmts for lrger number of optons, due to the ncresng number of comprsons. The blncng nd rnng procedure shows ts dvntges n the comprson of optons by crter tht re mesured on dfferent scles. It mproves the structure of nformton used n the decson process, nd supports the decson by cler presentton of rguments nd checng for ntrnstvtes wthn the decson chn. Alterntvely, concordnce nlyss ws nvestgted by the prtner Cemgref/ENGEES n Strsbourg wth Mrne L Vllée Unversty (subcontrctor of Cemgref). Ths pplcton provdes n nd outputfle specfctons smlr to the CARES  SRT. Due to the report s erly schedule wthn the project, some of the detled techncl specfctons, notbly dt formts, re of prelmnry nture, nd wll be updted wthn the progress of the CARES project. A descrpton of the softwre for choosng the rght rehbltton technology CARES SRT wll be vlble s hndboo together wth the softwre. All worng steps re explned n detl to ese the frst usge. The hndboo wll be PDF fle ncluded n the softwre pcge. 31
33 CARES D16 report 32
34 CARES D16 report 6 References Bur, R., I. Kropp und R. Herz, Eds. (2003): Rehbltton mngement of urbn nfrstructure networs. Proceedngs of the 17 th Europen Junor Scentst Worshop  EJSW  (3.7. Sept. 2003), Dresden, 211 pp ISBN Db Y., Mornd D. (2000). Mutcrter choce of rehbltton technques for smll urbn sewers VI Interntonl ppelne constructon congress (proceedngs). pp Herz, R. (2002): Softwre for strtegc networ rehbltton nd nvestment plnnng. Interntonl conference. Computer Aded Rehbltton of Wter Networs CAREW. Dresden, 1. November 2002, pp Herz, R., R. Bur, A. Lpow nd I. Kropp (2003): WP4 Strtegc plnnng nd nvestment: Development of the Rehb Strtegy Evlutor softwre. D11 report. CAREW (Computer Aded Rehbltton of Wter networs), EU project under the 5 th Frmewor Progrm, contrct n EVK1CT , 18p + Annex Herz, R. nd I. Kropp (2002): WP4 Strtegc plnnng nd nvestment: Development of the Rehb strtegy mnger softwre. D10 report. CAREW (Computer Aded Rehbltton of Wter networs), EU project under the 5 th Frmewor Progrm, contrct n EVK1CT , 26 p. + Annex Le Guffre P., R. Bur, K. Lffréchne nd Mrcello Schtt (2002): Survey of multcrter technques nd selecton of relevnt procedures. D7 report. CAREW (Computer Aded Rehbltton of Wter networs), EU project under the 5 th Frmewor Progrm, contrct n EVK1CT , 26 p. + Annex Plener, T. (2003): Multrterelles Auswhlverfhren zur Bestmmung der bestgeegneten Snerungstechn für ndvduelle Abwssernäle. PhD thess, TU Dresden, 187p. Plener, T. (2002): Computer ded decson support on choosng the rght technology for sewer rehbltton. Wter Scence nd Technology, 46, 67, Roy, B. (1985): Méthodologe multcrtère d de à l décson. Economc. Prs Roy B., nd D. Bouyssou (1993): Ade multcrtère à l décson: méthodes et cs, Economc, Prs. Schmdt, T. (2002): Rechnergestütztes Abwägungsverfhren für Infrstrutur Rehblttonsprojete mt ener Anwendung uf de Auswhl des besten Snerungsverfhrens für enen Abwssernl unter spezfschen örtlchen Rndbedngungen. Dplom thess, TU Dresden, 98p. Strssert, G. (2000): The blncng prncple, strct superorty reltons, nd trnstve overll fnl order of optons. Dsussonspper Nr.34, Insttut für Regonlwssenschft der Unverstät Krlsruhe. 19p. Strssert, G. (1995): Ds Abwägungsproblem be multrterellen Entschedungen. Grundlgen und Lösungsnstz unter besonderer Berücschtgung der Regonlplnung. Peter Lng Verlg, Frnfurt m Mn. Strssert, G. (1984): Entscheden über Alterntven ohne SuperZelfunton: Schrttwese und ntertv. Ene Neuorenterung multdmensonler Entschedungstechn. IfR Dsussonspper Nr.14, Insttut für Regonlwssenschft, Unverstät Krlsruhe Vnce, Ph. (1992): Multcrter decson d. John Wley. Chchester, UK, 154p 33
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