Lecture 3: Force of Interest, Real Interest Rate, Annuity

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Lecture 3: Force of Interest, Real Interest Rate, Annuity"

Transcription

1 Lecture 3: Force of Interest, Real Interest Rate, Annuty Goals: Study contnuous compoundng and force of nterest Dscuss real nterest rate Learn annuty-mmedate, and ts present value Study annuty-due, and compare wth annuty-mmedate Learn contnuous annuty and perpetuty. Suggested Textbook Readngs: Chapter 1: ; Chapter 2: Practce Problems: All exercses n and $ 2.1, wthout an astersk, and Secton 2.2: 1-5, 7-10, 12-17

2 Lecture 3: Force of Interest, Real Interest Rate, Annuty 2 Contnuous Compoundng At nomnal rate (m), the accumulated value of an ntal nvestment of a dollar after a year s ) m a(m) = (1 + (m) m Wth fxed (m), the more often compoundng takng place durng the year, the larger the accumulated value s. Example 1: Suppose that the nterest s compounded contnuously. Fnd the accumulated value a(m) when m. Force of Interest If the nterest s compounded contnuously, the accumulated amount functon A(t) s a contnuous functon of t. The nomnal rate s called the force of nterest and denoted by δ t (sometmes ( ) ). The notaton ( ) makes sense, snce we can thnk of the force of nterest as the lmt as the number of tmes we credt the compound nterest goes to nfnty. that s, δ t = ( ) = lm m (m). Force of Interest For an nvestment that grows accordng to accumulated amount functon A(t), the force of nterest at tme t, s defned to be δ t = A (t) A(t)

3 Lecture 3: Force of Interest, Real Interest Rate, Annuty 3 Example 2: (Example 1.13, page 40) Derve an expresson for δ t f accumulaton s based on 1. smple nterest at annual rate, and 2. compound nterest at annual rate. Force of Interest and Accumulaton functon We can recover the accumulaton functon from the force of nterest δ t = A (t) A(t). We may also calculate the nterest earned from tme t = 0 to tme t = n from the force of nterest δ t. Inflaton, Real Rate of Interest Inflaton s the growth n prces from year to year. It s generally measured va the rate of change n the prce of a basket of goods. The rate of nflaton s denoted by r. Real rate of nterest Wth annual nterest rate and annual nflaton rate r, the real rate f nterest for the year s real = value of amount of real return (yr-end dollars) value of nvested amount (yr-end dollars) = r 1 + r Note that when r s small, r s a good estmate for the real rate of nterest.

4 Lecture 3: Force of Interest, Real Interest Rate, Annuty 4 Annutes An annuty s a fnte sequence of payments made at fxed perods of tme over a gven nterval. The fxed perods of tme that we consder wll always be of equal length. Example 3: Smth wants to save $100 each month for a vacaton n the summer of At the end of each month he makes deposts nto an account earnng a nomnal rate of (12) = 9% startng from May 31, How much wll Smth have saved after hs last depost on Aprl 30, 2013? Geometrc Sequence Annuty-Immedate 1 + x + x x n 1 = xn 1 x 1 = 1 xn 1 x The seres of payments n the example s referred to as an accumulated annuty-mmedate. The notaton s n s used to express the accumulated value at the tme of (and ncludng) the fnal payment of a seres of payment of 1 each made at equally spaced ntervals of tme, where the rate of nterest per payment perod s. s n = (1 + ) n 1 + (1 + ) n (1 + ) + 1 = (1 + )n 1 The notaton s n can be used to express the accumulated value of an annuty f the followng condtons are satsfed: 1. the payments are of equal amount; 2. the payments are made at equal ntervals of tme, wth the same frequency as the nterest rate s compounded; 3. the accumulated value s found at the tme of and ncludng the fnal payment.

5 Lecture 3: Force of Interest, Real Interest Rate, Annuty 5 Example 4: (Example 3 contnued) If (12) = 9%, how much wll Smth have to save each month to reach $2000 on Aprl 30, 2013? Present value of an annuty Example 5: Suppose Smth has decded to borrow money to go on vacaton now. If he has to pay back bank $110 each month startng one month from now for 12 months to pay back the loan. How much money dd Smth borrow? Suppose (12) = 9%. Present value of an n-payment annuty-mmedate of 1 per perod The symbol a n s used to denote the present value of a seres of equally spaced payments of amount 1 each when the valuaton pont s one payment perod before the payments begn. a n = v + v v n = 1 vn In order to use the above notaton and formula, the followng condtons have to be satsfed. 1. the n payments are of equal amount; 2. the payments are made at equal ntervals of tme, wth the same frequency as the nterest rate s compounded; 3. the valuaton pont s one perod before the frst payment s made.

6 Lecture 3: Force of Interest, Real Interest Rate, Annuty 6 More Annutes Example 6: Smth wants to take a vacaton n May, Startng from May 31, 2011, he deposts $100 each month from hs monthly paycheck nto an account earnng nomnal rate (12) = 9%. He was lad off on August 31, 2012 when he made hs fnal depost. If the money he has deposted contnues to accumulate untl Aprl 30, 2013, what s the balance n the account at that tme? Example 7: Smth bought a large TV on January 1, He worked out the fnancng so that he does not have to pay for the frst 12 months, and then pays $50 at the end of each month for 36 months (hs frst depost s on January 31, 2013). If (12) = 9%, what s the prce of the TV? Such an annuty s called a deferred annuty. The present value of a k-perod deferred, n-payments annuty of 1 per perod s v k a n = a n+k a k

7 Lecture 3: Force of Interest, Real Interest Rate, Annuty 7 Annuty-Due Another form of annuty s that of annuty-due. Total of n equal payments occur at tme 0, 1, 2,, n 1. In the case of present value, the annuty-due refers to the valuaton at the tme of the frst payment, and n the case of future value (accumulated value), the annuty-due refers to the valuaton one perod after the last payment. Annuty-Due For n-payment annutes wth payment of amount 1 each, the annutydue present value s at the tme of the frst payment, ä n = 1 + v + v v n 1 = 1 vn 1 v = 1 vn d and the accumulated value s one perod after the fnal payment, s n = (1 + ) + (1 + ) (1 + ) n = (1 + )n 1 d where d s the dscount rate correspondng to. Annuty-Immedate v.s. Annuty-Due Annuty-Immedate Annuty-Due Present value a n = 1 vn ä n = 1 vn d Accumulate Value s n = (1 + )n 1 s n = (1 + )n 1 d

8 Lecture 3: Force of Interest, Real Interest Rate, Annuty 8 Dfferng nterest and payment perods It may happen that the quoted nterest rate has a compoundng perod that doesn t concde wth the annuty payment perod. For the purpose of evaluaton we can fnd the nterest rate per payment perod that s equvalent to the quoted nterest rate, or fnd the equvalent payment n each quoted nterest perod. Example 8: (Example 2.12 (a)) On the last day of March, June, September and December, Smth makes a depost of $1000 nto a savng account that earns nomnal rate (12) = 9%. The frst depost s on Mar 31, 1995 and the last s December 31, What s the balance on January 1, 2011? m-thly payable annutes Example 9: (Example 2.12 (b)) In the above example, f the nterest rate s quoted at an effectve annual rate of 10%, what s the balance n Smth s account on January 1, 2011? m thly payable annuty-mmedate If the effectve annual nterest rate s, and m payments of X are made each year, then the accumulated value over n years s Ks (m) n = K (1 + )n 1 (m) = Ks n (m) where K = mx. The present value of ths seres of payments s Ka (m) n = Ka n (m)

9 Lecture 3: Force of Interest, Real Interest Rate, Annuty 9 Perpetutes If an annuty has no end pont, t s called a perpetuty. We cannot fnd the future value of a perpetuty, but we can always calculate the present value. Annuty-mmedate: a = lm n a n = 1 Smlarly, for annuty-due: ä = 1 d and for m thly payable annuty-mmedate: a (m) = 1 (m) Contnuous Annuty If payments are made more frequently, t s more convenent to approxmate the calculaton by assumng the payments are made contnuously. The accumulated value of the contnuous annuty, pad at 1 per perod for n perods, denoted by s n, s s n = δ s n Smlarly a n = δ a n. If accumulaton s based on force of nterest δ r, then and s n δr = n 0 a n δr = n 0 e R t 0 δr dr dt e R n t δr dr dt. Also s n δr = a n δr e R t 0 δr dr.

Lecture 3: Annuity. Study annuities whose payments form a geometric progression or a arithmetic progression.

Lecture 3: Annuity. Study annuities whose payments form a geometric progression or a arithmetic progression. Lecture 3: Annuty Goals: Learn contnuous annuty and perpetuty. Study annutes whose payments form a geometrc progresson or a arthmetc progresson. Dscuss yeld rates. Introduce Amortzaton Suggested Textbook

More information

Solution: Let i = 10% and d = 5%. By definition, the respective forces of interest on funds A and B are. i 1 + it. S A (t) = d (1 dt) 2 1. = d 1 dt.

Solution: Let i = 10% and d = 5%. By definition, the respective forces of interest on funds A and B are. i 1 + it. S A (t) = d (1 dt) 2 1. = d 1 dt. Chapter 9 Revew problems 9.1 Interest rate measurement Example 9.1. Fund A accumulates at a smple nterest rate of 10%. Fund B accumulates at a smple dscount rate of 5%. Fnd the pont n tme at whch the forces

More information

Time Value of Money. Types of Interest. Compounding and Discounting Single Sums. Page 1. Ch. 6 - The Time Value of Money. The Time Value of Money

Time Value of Money. Types of Interest. Compounding and Discounting Single Sums. Page 1. Ch. 6 - The Time Value of Money. The Time Value of Money Ch. 6 - The Tme Value of Money Tme Value of Money The Interest Rate Smple Interest Compound Interest Amortzng a Loan FIN21- Ahmed Y, Dasht TIME VALUE OF MONEY OR DISCOUNTED CASH FLOW ANALYSIS Very Important

More information

Section 5.4 Annuities, Present Value, and Amortization

Section 5.4 Annuities, Present Value, and Amortization Secton 5.4 Annutes, Present Value, and Amortzaton Present Value In Secton 5.2, we saw that the present value of A dollars at nterest rate per perod for n perods s the amount that must be deposted today

More information

Section 5.3 Annuities, Future Value, and Sinking Funds

Section 5.3 Annuities, Future Value, and Sinking Funds Secton 5.3 Annutes, Future Value, and Snkng Funds Ordnary Annutes A sequence of equal payments made at equal perods of tme s called an annuty. The tme between payments s the payment perod, and the tme

More information

10.2 Future Value and Present Value of an Ordinary Simple Annuity

10.2 Future Value and Present Value of an Ordinary Simple Annuity 348 Chapter 10 Annutes 10.2 Future Value and Present Value of an Ordnary Smple Annuty In compound nterest, 'n' s the number of compoundng perods durng the term. In an ordnary smple annuty, payments are

More information

Level Annuities with Payments Less Frequent than Each Interest Period

Level Annuities with Payments Less Frequent than Each Interest Period Level Annutes wth Payments Less Frequent than Each Interest Perod 1 Annuty-mmedate 2 Annuty-due Level Annutes wth Payments Less Frequent than Each Interest Perod 1 Annuty-mmedate 2 Annuty-due Symoblc approach

More information

Simple Interest Loans (Section 5.1) :

Simple Interest Loans (Section 5.1) : Chapter 5 Fnance The frst part of ths revew wll explan the dfferent nterest and nvestment equatons you learned n secton 5.1 through 5.4 of your textbook and go through several examples. The second part

More information

In our example i = r/12 =.0825/12 At the end of the first month after your payment is received your amount in the account, the balance, is

In our example i = r/12 =.0825/12 At the end of the first month after your payment is received your amount in the account, the balance, is Payout annutes: Start wth P dollars, e.g., P = 100, 000. Over a 30 year perod you receve equal payments of A dollars at the end of each month. The amount of money left n the account, the balance, earns

More information

Section 2.2 Future Value of an Annuity

Section 2.2 Future Value of an Annuity Secton 2.2 Future Value of an Annuty Annuty s any sequence of equal perodc payments. Depost s equal payment each nterval There are two basc types of annutes. An annuty due requres that the frst payment

More information

FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS. A Practical Guide for Actuaries. and other Business Professionals

FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS. A Practical Guide for Actuaries. and other Business Professionals FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS A Practcal Gude for Actuares and other Busness Professonals Second Edton CHRIS RUCKMAN, FSA, MAAA JOE FRANCIS, FSA, MAAA, CFA Study Notes Prepared by Kevn Shand, FSA, FCIA Assstant

More information

Finite Math Chapter 10: Study Guide and Solution to Problems

Finite Math Chapter 10: Study Guide and Solution to Problems Fnte Math Chapter 10: Study Gude and Soluton to Problems Basc Formulas and Concepts 10.1 Interest Basc Concepts Interest A fee a bank pays you for money you depost nto a savngs account. Prncpal P The amount

More information

7.5. Present Value of an Annuity. Investigate

7.5. Present Value of an Annuity. Investigate 7.5 Present Value of an Annuty Owen and Anna are approachng retrement and are puttng ther fnances n order. They have worked hard and nvested ther earnngs so that they now have a large amount of money on

More information

10. (# 45, May 2001). At time t = 0, 1 is deposited into each of Fund X and Fund Y. Fund X accumulates at a force of interest

10. (# 45, May 2001). At time t = 0, 1 is deposited into each of Fund X and Fund Y. Fund X accumulates at a force of interest 1 Exam FM questons 1. (# 12, May 2001). Bruce and Robbe each open up new bank accounts at tme 0. Bruce deposts 100 nto hs bank account, and Robbe deposts 50 nto hs. Each account earns an annual e ectve

More information

8.4. Annuities: Future Value. INVESTIGATE the Math. 504 8.4 Annuities: Future Value

8.4. Annuities: Future Value. INVESTIGATE the Math. 504 8.4 Annuities: Future Value 8. Annutes: Future Value YOU WILL NEED graphng calculator spreadsheet software GOAL Determne the future value of an annuty earnng compound nterest. INVESTIGATE the Math Chrstne decdes to nvest $000 at

More information

An Overview of Financial Mathematics

An Overview of Financial Mathematics An Overvew of Fnancal Mathematcs Wllam Benedct McCartney July 2012 Abstract Ths document s meant to be a quck ntroducton to nterest theory. It s wrtten specfcally for actuaral students preparng to take

More information

3. Present value of Annuity Problems

3. Present value of Annuity Problems Mathematcs of Fnance The formulae 1. A = P(1 +.n) smple nterest 2. A = P(1 + ) n compound nterest formula 3. A = P(1-.n) deprecaton straght lne 4. A = P(1 ) n compound decrease dmshng balance 5. P = -

More information

0.02t if 0 t 3 δ t = 0.045 if 3 < t

0.02t if 0 t 3 δ t = 0.045 if 3 < t 1 Exam FM questons 1. (# 12, May 2001). Bruce and Robbe each open up new bank accounts at tme 0. Bruce deposts 100 nto hs bank account, and Robbe deposts 50 nto hs. Each account earns an annual effectve

More information

1. Math 210 Finite Mathematics

1. Math 210 Finite Mathematics 1. ath 210 Fnte athematcs Chapter 5.2 and 5.3 Annutes ortgages Amortzaton Professor Rchard Blecksmth Dept. of athematcal Scences Northern Illnos Unversty ath 210 Webste: http://math.nu.edu/courses/math210

More information

Using Series to Analyze Financial Situations: Present Value

Using Series to Analyze Financial Situations: Present Value 2.8 Usng Seres to Analyze Fnancal Stuatons: Present Value In the prevous secton, you learned how to calculate the amount, or future value, of an ordnary smple annuty. The amount s the sum of the accumulated

More information

A) 3.1 B) 3.3 C) 3.5 D) 3.7 E) 3.9 Solution.

A) 3.1 B) 3.3 C) 3.5 D) 3.7 E) 3.9 Solution. ACTS 408 Instructor: Natala A. Humphreys SOLUTION TO HOMEWOR 4 Secton 7: Annutes whose payments follow a geometrc progresson. Secton 8: Annutes whose payments follow an arthmetc progresson. Problem Suppose

More information

Thursday, December 10, 2009 Noon - 1:50 pm Faraday 143

Thursday, December 10, 2009 Noon - 1:50 pm Faraday 143 1. ath 210 Fnte athematcs Chapter 5.2 and 4.3 Annutes ortgages Amortzaton Professor Rchard Blecksmth Dept. of athematcal Scences Northern Illnos Unversty ath 210 Webste: http://math.nu.edu/courses/math210

More information

On some special nonlevel annuities and yield rates for annuities

On some special nonlevel annuities and yield rates for annuities On some specal nonlevel annutes and yeld rates for annutes 1 Annutes wth payments n geometrc progresson 2 Annutes wth payments n Arthmetc Progresson 1 Annutes wth payments n geometrc progresson 2 Annutes

More information

Mathematics of Finance

Mathematics of Finance 5 Mathematcs of Fnance 5.1 Smple and Compound Interest 5.2 Future Value of an Annuty 5.3 Present Value of an Annuty;Amortzaton Chapter 5 Revew Extended Applcaton:Tme, Money, and Polynomals Buyng a car

More information

Section 2.3 Present Value of an Annuity; Amortization

Section 2.3 Present Value of an Annuity; Amortization Secton 2.3 Present Value of an Annuty; Amortzaton Prncpal Intal Value PV s the present value or present sum of the payments. PMT s the perodc payments. Gven r = 6% semannually, n order to wthdraw $1,000.00

More information

Mathematics of Finance

Mathematics of Finance Mathematcs of Fnance 5 C H A P T E R CHAPTER OUTLINE 5.1 Smple Interest and Dscount 5.2 Compound Interest 5.3 Annutes, Future Value, and Snkng Funds 5.4 Annutes, Present Value, and Amortzaton CASE STUDY

More information

Texas Instruments 30X IIS Calculator

Texas Instruments 30X IIS Calculator Texas Instruments 30X IIS Calculator Keystrokes for the TI-30X IIS are shown for a few topcs n whch keystrokes are unque. Start by readng the Quk Start secton. Then, before begnnng a specfc unt of the

More information

Texas Instruments 30Xa Calculator

Texas Instruments 30Xa Calculator Teas Instruments 30Xa Calculator Keystrokes for the TI-30Xa are shown for a few topcs n whch keystrokes are unque. Start by readng the Quk Start secton. Then, before begnnng a specfc unt of the tet, check

More information

Financial Mathemetics

Financial Mathemetics Fnancal Mathemetcs 15 Mathematcs Grade 12 Teacher Gude Fnancal Maths Seres Overvew In ths seres we am to show how Mathematcs can be used to support personal fnancal decsons. In ths seres we jon Tebogo,

More information

EXAMPLE PROBLEMS SOLVED USING THE SHARP EL-733A CALCULATOR

EXAMPLE PROBLEMS SOLVED USING THE SHARP EL-733A CALCULATOR EXAMPLE PROBLEMS SOLVED USING THE SHARP EL-733A CALCULATOR 8S CHAPTER 8 EXAMPLES EXAMPLE 8.4A THE INVESTMENT NEEDED TO REACH A PARTICULAR FUTURE VALUE What amount must you nvest now at 4% compoune monthly

More information

FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS

FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS 3 LESSON FINANCIAL MATHEMATICS Annutes What s an annuty? The term annuty s used n fnancal mathematcs to refer to any termnatng sequence of regular fxed payments over a specfed perod of tme. Loans are usually

More information

A Master Time Value of Money Formula. Floyd Vest

A Master Time Value of Money Formula. Floyd Vest A Master Tme Value of Money Formula Floyd Vest For Fnancal Functons on a calculator or computer, Master Tme Value of Money (TVM) Formulas are usually used for the Compound Interest Formula and for Annutes.

More information

Compound Interest: Further Topics and Applications. Chapter 9

Compound Interest: Further Topics and Applications. Chapter 9 9-2 Compound Interest: Further Topcs and Applcatons Chapter 9 9-3 Learnng Objectves After letng ths chapter, you wll be able to:? Calculate the nterest rate and term n ound nterest applcatons? Gven a nomnal

More information

AS 2553a Mathematics of finance

AS 2553a Mathematics of finance AS 2553a Mathematcs of fnance Formula sheet November 29, 2010 Ths ocument contans some of the most frequently use formulae that are scusse n the course As a general rule, stuents are responsble for all

More information

Recurrence. 1 Definitions and main statements

Recurrence. 1 Definitions and main statements Recurrence 1 Defntons and man statements Let X n, n = 0, 1, 2,... be a MC wth the state space S = (1, 2,...), transton probabltes p j = P {X n+1 = j X n = }, and the transton matrx P = (p j ),j S def.

More information

Mathematics of Finance

Mathematics of Finance CHAPTER 5 Mathematcs of Fnance 5.1 Smple and Compound Interest 5.2 Future Value of an Annuty 5.3 Present Value of an Annuty; Amortzaton Revew Exercses Extended Applcaton: Tme, Money, and Polynomals Buyng

More information

In our example i = r/12 =.0825/12 At the end of the first month after your payment is received your amount owed is. P (1 + i) A

In our example i = r/12 =.0825/12 At the end of the first month after your payment is received your amount owed is. P (1 + i) A Amortzed loans: Suppose you borrow P dollars, e.g., P = 100, 000 for a house wth a 30 year mortgage wth an nterest rate of 8.25% (compounded monthly). In ths type of loan you make equal payments of A dollars

More information

Time Value of Money Module

Time Value of Money Module Tme Value of Money Module O BJECTIVES After readng ths Module, you wll be able to: Understand smple nterest and compound nterest. 2 Compute and use the future value of a sngle sum. 3 Compute and use the

More information

Properties of American Derivative Securities

Properties of American Derivative Securities Capter 6 Propertes of Amercan Dervatve Securtes 6.1 Te propertes Defnton 6.1 An Amercan dervatve securty s a sequence of non-negatve random varables fg k g n k= suc tat eac G k s F k -measurable. Te owner

More information

Graph Theory and Cayley s Formula

Graph Theory and Cayley s Formula Graph Theory and Cayley s Formula Chad Casarotto August 10, 2006 Contents 1 Introducton 1 2 Bascs and Defntons 1 Cayley s Formula 4 4 Prüfer Encodng A Forest of Trees 7 1 Introducton In ths paper, I wll

More information

9.1 The Cumulative Sum Control Chart

9.1 The Cumulative Sum Control Chart Learnng Objectves 9.1 The Cumulatve Sum Control Chart 9.1.1 Basc Prncples: Cusum Control Chart for Montorng the Process Mean If s the target for the process mean, then the cumulatve sum control chart s

More information

Interest Rate Fundamentals

Interest Rate Fundamentals Lecture Part II Interest Rate Fundamentals Topcs n Quanttatve Fnance: Inflaton Dervatves Instructor: Iraj Kan Fundamentals of Interest Rates In part II of ths lecture we wll consder fundamental concepts

More information

Interest Rate Futures

Interest Rate Futures Interest Rate Futures Chapter 6 6.1 Day Count Conventons n the U.S. (Page 129) Treasury Bonds: Corporate Bonds: Money Market Instruments: Actual/Actual (n perod) 30/360 Actual/360 The day count conventon

More information

Intra-year Cash Flow Patterns: A Simple Solution for an Unnecessary Appraisal Error

Intra-year Cash Flow Patterns: A Simple Solution for an Unnecessary Appraisal Error Intra-year Cash Flow Patterns: A Smple Soluton for an Unnecessary Apprasal Error By C. Donald Wggns (Professor of Accountng and Fnance, the Unversty of North Florda), B. Perry Woodsde (Assocate Professor

More information

Multiple discount and forward curves

Multiple discount and forward curves Multple dscount and forward curves TopQuants presentaton 21 ovember 2012 Ton Broekhuzen, Head Market Rsk and Basel coordnator, IBC Ths presentaton reflects personal vews and not necessarly the vews of

More information

Chapter 4 Financial Markets

Chapter 4 Financial Markets Chapter 4 Fnancal Markets ECON2123 (Sprng 2012) 14 & 15.3.2012 (Tutoral 5) The demand for money Assumptons: There are only two assets n the fnancal market: money and bonds Prce s fxed and s gven, that

More information

benefit is 2, paid if the policyholder dies within the year, and probability of death within the year is ).

benefit is 2, paid if the policyholder dies within the year, and probability of death within the year is ). REVIEW OF RISK MANAGEMENT CONCEPTS LOSS DISTRIBUTIONS AND INSURANCE Loss and nsurance: When someone s subject to the rsk of ncurrng a fnancal loss, the loss s generally modeled usng a random varable or

More information

Answer: A). There is a flatter IS curve in the high MPC economy. Original LM LM after increase in M. IS curve for low MPC economy

Answer: A). There is a flatter IS curve in the high MPC economy. Original LM LM after increase in M. IS curve for low MPC economy 4.02 Quz Solutons Fall 2004 Multple-Choce Questons (30/00 ponts) Please, crcle the correct answer for each of the followng 0 multple-choce questons. For each queston, only one of the answers s correct.

More information

Hedging Interest-Rate Risk with Duration

Hedging Interest-Rate Risk with Duration FIXED-INCOME SECURITIES Chapter 5 Hedgng Interest-Rate Rsk wth Duraton Outlne Prcng and Hedgng Prcng certan cash-flows Interest rate rsk Hedgng prncples Duraton-Based Hedgng Technques Defnton of duraton

More information

ADVA FINAN QUAN ADVANCED FINANCE AND QUANTITATIVE INTERVIEWS VAULT GUIDE TO. Customized for: Jason (jason.barquero@cgu.edu) 2002 Vault Inc.

ADVA FINAN QUAN ADVANCED FINANCE AND QUANTITATIVE INTERVIEWS VAULT GUIDE TO. Customized for: Jason (jason.barquero@cgu.edu) 2002 Vault Inc. ADVA FINAN QUAN 00 Vault Inc. VAULT GUIDE TO ADVANCED FINANCE AND QUANTITATIVE INTERVIEWS Copyrght 00 by Vault Inc. All rghts reserved. All nformaton n ths book s subject to change wthout notce. Vault

More information

= i δ δ s n and PV = a n = 1 v n = 1 e nδ

= i δ δ s n and PV = a n = 1 v n = 1 e nδ Exam 2 s Th March 19 You are allowe 7 sheets of notes an a calculator 41) An mportant fact about smple nterest s that for smple nterest A(t) = K[1+t], the amount of nterest earne each year s constant =

More information

Multivariate EWMA Control Chart

Multivariate EWMA Control Chart Multvarate EWMA Control Chart Summary The Multvarate EWMA Control Chart procedure creates control charts for two or more numerc varables. Examnng the varables n a multvarate sense s extremely mportant

More information

Nasdaq Iceland Bond Indices 01 April 2015

Nasdaq Iceland Bond Indices 01 April 2015 Nasdaq Iceland Bond Indces 01 Aprl 2015 -Fxed duraton Indces Introducton Nasdaq Iceland (the Exchange) began calculatng ts current bond ndces n the begnnng of 2005. They were a response to recent changes

More information

Traffic-light a stress test for life insurance provisions

Traffic-light a stress test for life insurance provisions MEMORANDUM Date 006-09-7 Authors Bengt von Bahr, Göran Ronge Traffc-lght a stress test for lfe nsurance provsons Fnansnspetonen P.O. Box 6750 SE-113 85 Stocholm [Sveavägen 167] Tel +46 8 787 80 00 Fax

More information

THE DISTRIBUTION OF LOAN PORTFOLIO VALUE * Oldrich Alfons Vasicek

THE DISTRIBUTION OF LOAN PORTFOLIO VALUE * Oldrich Alfons Vasicek HE DISRIBUION OF LOAN PORFOLIO VALUE * Oldrch Alfons Vascek he amount of captal necessary to support a portfolo of debt securtes depends on the probablty dstrbuton of the portfolo loss. Consder a portfolo

More information

Number of Levels Cumulative Annual operating Income per year construction costs costs ($) ($) ($) 1 600,000 35,000 100,000 2 2,200,000 60,000 350,000

Number of Levels Cumulative Annual operating Income per year construction costs costs ($) ($) ($) 1 600,000 35,000 100,000 2 2,200,000 60,000 350,000 Problem Set 5 Solutons 1 MIT s consderng buldng a new car park near Kendall Square. o unversty funds are avalable (overhead rates are under pressure and the new faclty would have to pay for tself from

More information

Extending Probabilistic Dynamic Epistemic Logic

Extending Probabilistic Dynamic Epistemic Logic Extendng Probablstc Dynamc Epstemc Logc Joshua Sack May 29, 2008 Probablty Space Defnton A probablty space s a tuple (S, A, µ), where 1 S s a set called the sample space. 2 A P(S) s a σ-algebra: a set

More information

Joe Pimbley, unpublished, 2005. Yield Curve Calculations

Joe Pimbley, unpublished, 2005. Yield Curve Calculations Joe Pmbley, unpublshed, 005. Yeld Curve Calculatons Background: Everythng s dscount factors Yeld curve calculatons nclude valuaton of forward rate agreements (FRAs), swaps, nterest rate optons, and forward

More information

An Alternative Way to Measure Private Equity Performance

An Alternative Way to Measure Private Equity Performance An Alternatve Way to Measure Prvate Equty Performance Peter Todd Parlux Investment Technology LLC Summary Internal Rate of Return (IRR) s probably the most common way to measure the performance of prvate

More information

IS-LM Model 1 C' dy = di

IS-LM Model 1 C' dy = di - odel Solow Assumptons - demand rrelevant n long run; assumes economy s operatng at potental GDP; concerned wth growth - Assumptons - supply s rrelevant n short run; assumes economy s operatng below potental

More information

Small pots lump sum payment instruction

Small pots lump sum payment instruction For customers Small pots lump sum payment nstructon Please read these notes before completng ths nstructon About ths nstructon Use ths nstructon f you re an ndvdual wth Aegon Retrement Choces Self Invested

More information

I = Prt. = P(1+i) n. A = Pe rt

I = Prt. = P(1+i) n. A = Pe rt 11 Chapte 6 Matheatcs of Fnance We wll look at the atheatcs of fnance. 6.1 Sple and Copound Inteest We wll look at two ways nteest calculated on oney. If pncpal pesent value) aount P nvested at nteest

More information

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (PYC 304-C) Lecture 12

PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (PYC 304-C) Lecture 12 14 The Ch-squared dstrbuton PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH (PYC 304-C) Lecture 1 If a normal varable X, havng mean µ and varance σ, s standardsed, the new varable Z has a mean 0 and varance 1. When ths standardsed

More information

IDENTIFICATION AND CORRECTION OF A COMMON ERROR IN GENERAL ANNUITY CALCULATIONS

IDENTIFICATION AND CORRECTION OF A COMMON ERROR IN GENERAL ANNUITY CALCULATIONS IDENTIFICATION AND CORRECTION OF A COMMON ERROR IN GENERAL ANNUITY CALCULATIONS Chrs Deeley* Last revsed: September 22, 200 * Chrs Deeley s a Senor Lecturer n the School of Accountng, Charles Sturt Unversty,

More information

The Application of Fractional Brownian Motion in Option Pricing

The Application of Fractional Brownian Motion in Option Pricing Vol. 0, No. (05), pp. 73-8 http://dx.do.org/0.457/jmue.05.0..6 The Applcaton of Fractonal Brownan Moton n Opton Prcng Qng-xn Zhou School of Basc Scence,arbn Unversty of Commerce,arbn zhouqngxn98@6.com

More information

ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL FLOWS

ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL FLOWS ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL FLOWS AND INVESTMENTS II 4 Annutes Only rarely wll one encounter an nvestment or loan where the underlyng fnancal arrangement s as smple as the lump sum, sngle cash flow problems

More information

2.4 Bivariate distributions

2.4 Bivariate distributions page 28 2.4 Bvarate dstrbutons 2.4.1 Defntons Let X and Y be dscrete r.v.s defned on the same probablty space (S, F, P). Instead of treatng them separately, t s often necessary to thnk of them actng together

More information

Stress test for measuring insurance risks in non-life insurance

Stress test for measuring insurance risks in non-life insurance PROMEMORIA Datum June 01 Fnansnspektonen Författare Bengt von Bahr, Younes Elonq and Erk Elvers Stress test for measurng nsurance rsks n non-lfe nsurance Summary Ths memo descrbes stress testng of nsurance

More information

Rate Monotonic (RM) Disadvantages of cyclic. TDDB47 Real Time Systems. Lecture 2: RM & EDF. Priority-based scheduling. States of a process

Rate Monotonic (RM) Disadvantages of cyclic. TDDB47 Real Time Systems. Lecture 2: RM & EDF. Priority-based scheduling. States of a process Dsadvantages of cyclc TDDB47 Real Tme Systems Manual scheduler constructon Cannot deal wth any runtme changes What happens f we add a task to the set? Real-Tme Systems Laboratory Department of Computer

More information

A Model of Private Equity Fund Compensation

A Model of Private Equity Fund Compensation A Model of Prvate Equty Fund Compensaton Wonho Wlson Cho Andrew Metrck Ayako Yasuda KAIST Yale School of Management Unversty of Calforna at Davs June 26, 2011 Abstract: Ths paper analyzes the economcs

More information

1 Approximation Algorithms

1 Approximation Algorithms CME 305: Dscrete Mathematcs and Algorthms 1 Approxmaton Algorthms In lght of the apparent ntractablty of the problems we beleve not to le n P, t makes sense to pursue deas other than complete solutons

More information

Present Values and Accumulations

Present Values and Accumulations Present Values an Accumulatons ANGUS S. MACDONALD Volume 3, pp. 1331 1336 In Encyclopea Of Actuaral Scence (ISBN -47-84676-3) Ete by Jozef L. Teugels an Bjørn Sunt John Wley & Sons, Lt, Chchester, 24 Present

More information

DEFINING %COMPLETE IN MICROSOFT PROJECT

DEFINING %COMPLETE IN MICROSOFT PROJECT CelersSystems DEFINING %COMPLETE IN MICROSOFT PROJECT PREPARED BY James E Aksel, PMP, PMI-SP, MVP For Addtonal Informaton about Earned Value Management Systems and reportng, please contact: CelersSystems,

More information

Power-of-Two Policies for Single- Warehouse Multi-Retailer Inventory Systems with Order Frequency Discounts

Power-of-Two Policies for Single- Warehouse Multi-Retailer Inventory Systems with Order Frequency Discounts Power-of-wo Polces for Sngle- Warehouse Mult-Retaler Inventory Systems wth Order Frequency Dscounts José A. Ventura Pennsylvana State Unversty (USA) Yale. Herer echnon Israel Insttute of echnology (Israel)

More information

Professor Iordanis Karagiannidis. 2010 Iordanis Karagiannidis

Professor Iordanis Karagiannidis. 2010 Iordanis Karagiannidis Fnancal Modelng Notes Basc Excel Fnancal Functons Professor Iordans Karagannds Excel Functons Excel Functons are preformatted formulas that allow you to perform arthmetc and other operatons very quckly

More information

Lossless Data Compression

Lossless Data Compression Lossless Data Compresson Lecture : Unquely Decodable and Instantaneous Codes Sam Rowes September 5, 005 Let s focus on the lossless data compresson problem for now, and not worry about nosy channel codng

More information

SPEE Recommended Evaluation Practice #6 Definition of Decline Curve Parameters Background:

SPEE Recommended Evaluation Practice #6 Definition of Decline Curve Parameters Background: SPEE Recommended Evaluaton Practce #6 efnton of eclne Curve Parameters Background: The producton hstores of ol and gas wells can be analyzed to estmate reserves and future ol and gas producton rates and

More information

Documentation about calculation methods used for the electricity supply price index (SPIN 35.1),

Documentation about calculation methods used for the electricity supply price index (SPIN 35.1), STATISTICS SWEDEN Documentaton (6) ES/PR-S 0-- artn Kullendorff arcus rdén Documentaton about calculaton methods used for the electrct suppl prce ndex (SPIN 35.), home sales (HPI) The ndex fgure for electrct

More information

Traffic-light extended with stress test for insurance and expense risks in life insurance

Traffic-light extended with stress test for insurance and expense risks in life insurance PROMEMORIA Datum 0 July 007 FI Dnr 07-1171-30 Fnansnspetonen Författare Bengt von Bahr, Göran Ronge Traffc-lght extended wth stress test for nsurance and expense rss n lfe nsurance Summary Ths memorandum

More information

Uncrystallised funds pension lump sum payment instruction

Uncrystallised funds pension lump sum payment instruction For customers Uncrystallsed funds penson lump sum payment nstructon Don t complete ths form f your wrapper s derved from a penson credt receved followng a dvorce where your ex spouse or cvl partner had

More information

CHAPTER 18 INFLATION, UNEMPLOYMENT AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY. Themes of the chapter. Nominal rigidities, expectational errors and employment fluctuations

CHAPTER 18 INFLATION, UNEMPLOYMENT AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY. Themes of the chapter. Nominal rigidities, expectational errors and employment fluctuations CHAPTER 18 INFLATION, UNEMPLOYMENT AND AGGREGATE SUPPLY Themes of the chapter Nomnal rgdtes, expectatonal errors and employment fluctuatons The short-run trade-off between nflaton and unemployment The

More information

Linear Circuits Analysis. Superposition, Thevenin /Norton Equivalent circuits

Linear Circuits Analysis. Superposition, Thevenin /Norton Equivalent circuits Lnear Crcuts Analyss. Superposton, Theenn /Norton Equalent crcuts So far we hae explored tmendependent (resste) elements that are also lnear. A tmendependent elements s one for whch we can plot an / cure.

More information

Lecture 2: Absorbing states in Markov chains. Mean time to absorption. Wright-Fisher Model. Moran Model.

Lecture 2: Absorbing states in Markov chains. Mean time to absorption. Wright-Fisher Model. Moran Model. Lecture 2: Absorbng states n Markov chans. Mean tme to absorpton. Wrght-Fsher Model. Moran Model. Antonna Mtrofanova, NYU, department of Computer Scence December 8, 2007 Hgher Order Transton Probabltes

More information

The OC Curve of Attribute Acceptance Plans

The OC Curve of Attribute Acceptance Plans The OC Curve of Attrbute Acceptance Plans The Operatng Characterstc (OC) curve descrbes the probablty of acceptng a lot as a functon of the lot s qualty. Fgure 1 shows a typcal OC Curve. 10 8 6 4 1 3 4

More information

Trivial lump sum R5.0

Trivial lump sum R5.0 Optons form Once you have flled n ths form, please return t wth your orgnal brth certfcate to: Premer PO Box 2067 Croydon CR90 9ND. Fll n ths form usng BLOCK CAPITALS and black nk. Mark all answers wth

More information

Stock Profit Patterns

Stock Profit Patterns Stock Proft Patterns Suppose a share of Farsta Shppng stock n January 004 s prce n the market to 56. Assume that a September call opton at exercse prce 50 costs 8. A September put opton at exercse prce

More information

SUPPLIER FINANCING AND STOCK MANAGEMENT. A JOINT VIEW.

SUPPLIER FINANCING AND STOCK MANAGEMENT. A JOINT VIEW. SUPPLIER FINANCING AND STOCK MANAGEMENT. A JOINT VIEW. Lucía Isabel García Cebrán Departamento de Economía y Dreccón de Empresas Unversdad de Zaragoza Gran Vía, 2 50.005 Zaragoza (Span) Phone: 976-76-10-00

More information

What is Candidate Sampling

What is Candidate Sampling What s Canddate Samplng Say we have a multclass or mult label problem where each tranng example ( x, T ) conssts of a context x a small (mult)set of target classes T out of a large unverse L of possble

More information

Aryabhata s Root Extraction Methods. Abhishek Parakh Louisiana State University Aug 31 st 2006

Aryabhata s Root Extraction Methods. Abhishek Parakh Louisiana State University Aug 31 st 2006 Aryabhata s Root Extracton Methods Abhshek Parakh Lousana State Unversty Aug 1 st 1 Introducton Ths artcle presents an analyss of the root extracton algorthms of Aryabhata gven n hs book Āryabhatīya [1,

More information

YIELD CURVE FITTING 2.0 Constructing Bond and Money Market Yield Curves using Cubic B-Spline and Natural Cubic Spline Methodology.

YIELD CURVE FITTING 2.0 Constructing Bond and Money Market Yield Curves using Cubic B-Spline and Natural Cubic Spline Methodology. YIELD CURVE FITTING 2.0 Constructng Bond and Money Market Yeld Curves usng Cubc B-Splne and Natural Cubc Splne Methodology Users Manual YIELD CURVE FITTING 2.0 Users Manual Authors: Zhuosh Lu, Moorad Choudhry

More information

DI Fund Sufficiency Evaluation Methodological Recommendations and DIA Russia Practice

DI Fund Sufficiency Evaluation Methodological Recommendations and DIA Russia Practice DI Fund Suffcency Evaluaton Methodologcal Recommendatons and DIA Russa Practce Andre G. Melnkov Deputy General Drector DIA Russa THE DEPOSIT INSURANCE CONFERENCE IN THE MENA REGION AMMAN-JORDAN, 18 20

More information

Interest Rate Forwards and Swaps

Interest Rate Forwards and Swaps Interest Rate Forwards and Swaps Forward rate agreement (FRA) mxn FRA = agreement that fxes desgnated nterest rate coverng a perod of (n-m) months, startng n m months: Example: Depostor wants to fx rate

More information

Faraday's Law of Induction

Faraday's Law of Induction Introducton Faraday's Law o Inducton In ths lab, you wll study Faraday's Law o nducton usng a wand wth col whch swngs through a magnetc eld. You wll also examne converson o mechanc energy nto electrc energy

More information

Chapter 4 ECONOMIC DISPATCH AND UNIT COMMITMENT

Chapter 4 ECONOMIC DISPATCH AND UNIT COMMITMENT Chapter 4 ECOOMIC DISATCH AD UIT COMMITMET ITRODUCTIO A power system has several power plants. Each power plant has several generatng unts. At any pont of tme, the total load n the system s met by the

More information

Underwriting Risk. Glenn Meyers. Insurance Services Office, Inc.

Underwriting Risk. Glenn Meyers. Insurance Services Office, Inc. Underwrtng Rsk By Glenn Meyers Insurance Servces Offce, Inc. Abstract In a compettve nsurance market, nsurers have lmted nfluence on the premum charged for an nsurance contract. hey must decde whether

More information

Solutions to First Midterm

Solutions to First Midterm rofessor Chrstano Economcs 3, Wnter 2004 Solutons to Frst Mdterm. Multple Choce. 2. (a) v. (b). (c) v. (d) v. (e). (f). (g) v. (a) The goods market s n equlbrum when total demand equals total producton,.e.

More information

Addendum to: Importing Skill-Biased Technology

Addendum to: Importing Skill-Biased Technology Addendum to: Importng Skll-Based Technology Arel Bursten UCLA and NBER Javer Cravno UCLA August 202 Jonathan Vogel Columba and NBER Abstract Ths Addendum derves the results dscussed n secton 3.3 of our

More information

Ring structure of splines on triangulations

Ring structure of splines on triangulations www.oeaw.ac.at Rng structure of splnes on trangulatons N. Vllamzar RICAM-Report 2014-48 www.rcam.oeaw.ac.at RING STRUCTURE OF SPLINES ON TRIANGULATIONS NELLY VILLAMIZAR Introducton For a trangulated regon

More information

The Cox-Ross-Rubinstein Option Pricing Model

The Cox-Ross-Rubinstein Option Pricing Model Fnance 400 A. Penat - G. Pennacc Te Cox-Ross-Rubnsten Opton Prcng Model Te prevous notes sowed tat te absence o arbtrage restrcts te prce o an opton n terms o ts underlyng asset. However, te no-arbtrage

More information

) of the Cell class is created containing information about events associated with the cell. Events are added to the Cell instance

) of the Cell class is created containing information about events associated with the cell. Events are added to the Cell instance Calbraton Method Instances of the Cell class (one nstance for each FMS cell) contan ADC raw data and methods assocated wth each partcular FMS cell. The calbraton method ncludes event selecton (Class Cell

More information