Particulate matter sources in Helsinki area and effects on air quality - an overview

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1 Particulate matter sources in Helsinki area and effects on air quality - an overview Risto Hillamo 1, Topi Rönkkö 2 and Liisa Pirjola 3 1 Research and Development, Finnish Meteorological Institute 2 Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology 3 Metropolia University of Applied Sciences Joint study within the CLEEN/MMEA program, WP 4.5.2, Participating companies: Helsingin Energia, Proventia, Wärtsilä, Metso, Pegasor, HSY.

2 Background Several studies on particles in Helsinki air during past 2-3 years: - Particle number size distributions 1 5 nm: Black carbon: Particle composition and chemical particle size distribution: 1985 (campaigns) - Sources of organic carbon New online methods for chemical composition of particles since 26

3 In 26 Hussein T., Mølgaard B., Hannuniemi H., Martikainen J., Järvi L., Wegner T., Ripamonti G., Weber S., Vesala T. and Hämeri K. (213). Finger-Prints of Urban Particle Number Size Distribution in Helsinki Finland: Local versus Regional Characteristics. In print in Boreal Environmental Research.

4 Mixed fleet emission factors as derived from the particle flux measurements as a function of air temperature Ripamonti G., Järvi L., Mølgaard, M., Hussein T., Nordbo A. and Hämeri K. (213). The effect of local sources on aerosol particle number size distribution, concentrations and fluxes in Helsinki, Finland. In print in Tellus B.

5 Black carbon (BC) - Source of BC in Helsinki: diesel engines and wood combustion Vehicle number scaled ±.5 ±.5 ±.2 Järvi et al., Black carbon variations in Helsinki, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, , 28

6 Sources of organic carbon in Helsinki (Saarikoski et al., 28) - Based on one year daily (24 h) filter sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis Saarikoski et al. Atmos.Chem.Phys.,8, ,28

7 Activities in the MMEA workpackage (WP4.5.2) Emission measurements: coal combustion (CHP), HFO heat stations (oil burners), vehicles (dynamometer) Online chemistry measurements at stationary stations Mobile laboratory Aircraft

8 Set-up Particles in emissions SAMPLING (offline) CO 2 CO 2 Dekati FPS-4 ONLINE Dekati thermodenuder

9 Online chemistry measurement - For particles between 4 nm 1 µm (PM 1 ) - Extremely sensitive, particle chemical composition can be measured online in 1 s

10 Nano-Micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-moudi) OFFLINE sampling 5 Sample area on Al-foil - rotating stages - uniform deposit - 13 stages, cut-off s between 1 nm-1 µm:

11 Oil burner, HFO (Helsinki Energy) - 1 h sampling on polycarbonate film Elemental analysis by using ED-XRF Ion chromatography

12 Oil burner: time series - With SP-AMS using 5 min averaging time MW 47 MW organics nitrate sulfate ammonium chloride Mass concentration (µgm -3 ) TD 2 1: : 8: : 12:

13 From offline and online measurements Average chemical composition and particle size distribution From SP-AMS

14 Mass spectra particles + gas V gas difference V atomic mass: amu

15 dv/dlogda (µm 3 cm -3 ) Before (a) and after (b) desulphurization Coal combustion Helsinki Energy, Salmisaari CHP a) b) Mg K Na - NO 2-3 SO F - Cl - 4 other components Ca Zn Fe Al Cu Cd Co analyzed mass concentration 1.2 mg m -3 other components SO 4 2- Al Fe Na K Ca SMPS APS eye fit Da (µm) NO 3 - Cl - F - analyzed mass concentration.3 mg m -3

16 Mobile measurements (Sniffer) Composition SP-AMS, nanomoudi Black carbon (Aethalometer) Number concentration and size distribution NanoSMPS 3-6 nm ELPI ja EELPI, 7 nm 1 mm Surface area PPS-sensor (Pegasor) NSAM Pirjola et al., 24, 26, 212 Mass concentration PM2.5 TEOM DustTrak PM2.5 ja PM1 Volatility Thermodenuder 265 ºC Gas concentrations NO, NO2, CO, CO2 Weather+GPS Jarkko Niemi, HSY 16

17 Ntot Traffic particles in the Helsinki city centrum 22 nm 7 nm Particle number concentration averaged over all times Max 8x1 5 cm -3 (1 s). Average traffic density ~4 veh/day

18 µg/m3 µg/m3 Sniffer measurements Downtown Helsinki Vihdintie Stop at Roadside (Kehä III) Background site Vihdintie Downtown Helsinki 12 Black carbon Hydrocarbon fragment Organics : : 17: 18: Date and Time

19 Standing at 15 m from the roadside Kehä III 448 LD/hour 44 HD/hour

20 Particle number Low Flight: May 15, 213 High Wind direction Vertical profile over land Porvoo refinery Helsinki Coastal line Vertical profile over ocean

21 3 6.4 Sulfate 25 Altitude (m) concentration µg m Sulfate 3 Organics Altitude (m) concentration µg m Black carbon concentration µg m-3 25 Altitude (m) Sulfate concentration µg m :3 8: :5 9: 9:1 9:2 Date 9:3 9:4 9:5 1:

22 High time-resolved monitoring of particle chemical composition PM 1 (< 1 µm particles) 15 min time resolution

23 6 73 Loadings (ug/m3) Helsinki, Mannerheimintie: ACSM measurements NH4 Org SO4 NO3 Chl 2 1 6x mz6 mz Date Fragments from biomass burning 5x Date

24 mass ug/m3 PM 2.5 mass concentration vs. chemical mass closure (ACSM) PM2.5 ACSMtot+BC Org=75.51% SO4=9.57% NO3=9.12% NH4=5.41% Chl=.37% Avg. Total Loading: 11.22± 8.23 (mg/m 3 ) Date PM 2.5 : beta attenuation method ACSMtot: sum of all species measured with the ACSM BC: black carbon with optical method (not measured with the ACSM)

25 Conclusions In the MMEA workpackage we have created and tested a research environment where particles and some gases can be measured with advanced instrumentation from emissions and from atmosphere. Helsinki Metropolitan area is our test cube (approx. 2 km x 2 km x 3.5 km) where we at the end of the program know the major emissions and how they develop and distribute.

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