Particulate matter sources in Helsinki area and effects on air quality - an overview

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Particulate matter sources in Helsinki area and effects on air quality - an overview"

Transcription

1 Particulate matter sources in Helsinki area and effects on air quality - an overview Risto Hillamo 1, Topi Rönkkö 2 and Liisa Pirjola 3 1 Research and Development, Finnish Meteorological Institute 2 Department of Physics, Tampere University of Technology 3 Metropolia University of Applied Sciences Joint study within the CLEEN/MMEA program, WP 4.5.2, Participating companies: Helsingin Energia, Proventia, Wärtsilä, Metso, Pegasor, HSY.

2 Background Several studies on particles in Helsinki air during past 2-3 years: - Particle number size distributions 1 5 nm: Black carbon: Particle composition and chemical particle size distribution: 1985 (campaigns) - Sources of organic carbon New online methods for chemical composition of particles since 26

3 In 26 Hussein T., Mølgaard B., Hannuniemi H., Martikainen J., Järvi L., Wegner T., Ripamonti G., Weber S., Vesala T. and Hämeri K. (213). Finger-Prints of Urban Particle Number Size Distribution in Helsinki Finland: Local versus Regional Characteristics. In print in Boreal Environmental Research.

4 Mixed fleet emission factors as derived from the particle flux measurements as a function of air temperature Ripamonti G., Järvi L., Mølgaard, M., Hussein T., Nordbo A. and Hämeri K. (213). The effect of local sources on aerosol particle number size distribution, concentrations and fluxes in Helsinki, Finland. In print in Tellus B.

5 Black carbon (BC) - Source of BC in Helsinki: diesel engines and wood combustion Vehicle number scaled ±.5 ±.5 ±.2 Järvi et al., Black carbon variations in Helsinki, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 8, , 28

6 Sources of organic carbon in Helsinki (Saarikoski et al., 28) - Based on one year daily (24 h) filter sampling and subsequent laboratory analysis Saarikoski et al. Atmos.Chem.Phys.,8, ,28

7 Activities in the MMEA workpackage (WP4.5.2) Emission measurements: coal combustion (CHP), HFO heat stations (oil burners), vehicles (dynamometer) Online chemistry measurements at stationary stations Mobile laboratory Aircraft

8 Set-up Particles in emissions SAMPLING (offline) CO 2 CO 2 Dekati FPS-4 ONLINE Dekati thermodenuder

9 Online chemistry measurement - For particles between 4 nm 1 µm (PM 1 ) - Extremely sensitive, particle chemical composition can be measured online in 1 s

10 Nano-Micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (nano-moudi) OFFLINE sampling 5 Sample area on Al-foil - rotating stages - uniform deposit - 13 stages, cut-off s between 1 nm-1 µm:

11 Oil burner, HFO (Helsinki Energy) - 1 h sampling on polycarbonate film Elemental analysis by using ED-XRF Ion chromatography

12 Oil burner: time series - With SP-AMS using 5 min averaging time MW 47 MW organics nitrate sulfate ammonium chloride Mass concentration (µgm -3 ) TD 2 1: : 8: : 12:

13 From offline and online measurements Average chemical composition and particle size distribution From SP-AMS

14 Mass spectra particles + gas V gas difference V atomic mass: amu

15 dv/dlogda (µm 3 cm -3 ) Before (a) and after (b) desulphurization Coal combustion Helsinki Energy, Salmisaari CHP a) b) Mg K Na - NO 2-3 SO F - Cl - 4 other components Ca Zn Fe Al Cu Cd Co analyzed mass concentration 1.2 mg m -3 other components SO 4 2- Al Fe Na K Ca SMPS APS eye fit Da (µm) NO 3 - Cl - F - analyzed mass concentration.3 mg m -3

16 Mobile measurements (Sniffer) Composition SP-AMS, nanomoudi Black carbon (Aethalometer) Number concentration and size distribution NanoSMPS 3-6 nm ELPI ja EELPI, 7 nm 1 mm Surface area PPS-sensor (Pegasor) NSAM Pirjola et al., 24, 26, 212 Mass concentration PM2.5 TEOM DustTrak PM2.5 ja PM1 Volatility Thermodenuder 265 ºC Gas concentrations NO, NO2, CO, CO2 Weather+GPS Jarkko Niemi, HSY 16

17 Ntot Traffic particles in the Helsinki city centrum 22 nm 7 nm Particle number concentration averaged over all times Max 8x1 5 cm -3 (1 s). Average traffic density ~4 veh/day

18 µg/m3 µg/m3 Sniffer measurements Downtown Helsinki Vihdintie Stop at Roadside (Kehä III) Background site Vihdintie Downtown Helsinki 12 Black carbon Hydrocarbon fragment Organics : : 17: 18: Date and Time

19 Standing at 15 m from the roadside Kehä III 448 LD/hour 44 HD/hour

20 Particle number Low Flight: May 15, 213 High Wind direction Vertical profile over land Porvoo refinery Helsinki Coastal line Vertical profile over ocean

21 3 6.4 Sulfate 25 Altitude (m) concentration µg m Sulfate 3 Organics Altitude (m) concentration µg m Black carbon concentration µg m-3 25 Altitude (m) Sulfate concentration µg m :3 8: :5 9: 9:1 9:2 Date 9:3 9:4 9:5 1:

22 High time-resolved monitoring of particle chemical composition PM 1 (< 1 µm particles) 15 min time resolution

23 6 73 Loadings (ug/m3) Helsinki, Mannerheimintie: ACSM measurements NH4 Org SO4 NO3 Chl 2 1 6x mz6 mz Date Fragments from biomass burning 5x Date

24 mass ug/m3 PM 2.5 mass concentration vs. chemical mass closure (ACSM) PM2.5 ACSMtot+BC Org=75.51% SO4=9.57% NO3=9.12% NH4=5.41% Chl=.37% Avg. Total Loading: 11.22± 8.23 (mg/m 3 ) Date PM 2.5 : beta attenuation method ACSMtot: sum of all species measured with the ACSM BC: black carbon with optical method (not measured with the ACSM)

25 Conclusions In the MMEA workpackage we have created and tested a research environment where particles and some gases can be measured with advanced instrumentation from emissions and from atmosphere. Helsinki Metropolitan area is our test cube (approx. 2 km x 2 km x 3.5 km) where we at the end of the program know the major emissions and how they develop and distribute.

EURACHEM Workshop on Quality Assurance of Measurements from Field to Laboratory MIKES, Espoo Finland, 20-21 May 2013

EURACHEM Workshop on Quality Assurance of Measurements from Field to Laboratory MIKES, Espoo Finland, 20-21 May 2013 EURACHEM Workshop on Quality Assurance of Measurements from Field to Laboratory MIKES, Espoo Finland, 20-21 May 2013 Spatial and temporal characterization of exhaust emissions with a mobile laboratory

More information

A.P.I.C.E. Common Mediterranean strategy and local practical Actions for the mitigation of Port, Industries and Cities Emissions

A.P.I.C.E. Common Mediterranean strategy and local practical Actions for the mitigation of Port, Industries and Cities Emissions A.P.I.C.E. Common Mediterranean strategy and local practical Actions for the mitigation of Port, Industries and Cities Emissions WP4: Air monitoring and receptor models Kick off meeting Marseille, 8 th

More information

Source Apportionment Strategies for Atmospheric Particulate Matter in Mega-Cities

Source Apportionment Strategies for Atmospheric Particulate Matter in Mega-Cities Source Apportionment Strategies for Atmospheric Particulate Matter in Mega-Cities James J. Schauer, PhD, PE, MBA Professor jjschauer@wisc.edu Motivation As global populations are moving toward megacities

More information

SUPPORTING INFORMATION

SUPPORTING INFORMATION Supplement of Atmos. Chem. Phys., 14, 7631 7644, 2014 http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/14/7631/2014/ doi:10.5194/acp-14-7631-2014-supplement Author(s) 2014. CC Attribution 3.0 License. Supplement of An alternative

More information

Size Segregated Characterisation of Main Components in Kerbside Particulates in Dresden, Germany

Size Segregated Characterisation of Main Components in Kerbside Particulates in Dresden, Germany Saxon State Agency for Environment and Geology Size Segregated Characterisation of Main Components in Kerbside Particulates in Dresden, Germany Holger Gerwig 1, Erika Brüggemann 2, Thomas Gnauk 2, Konrad

More information

Air quality action plan and related research projects. Hiukkasfoorumi Helsinki 19.3.2013

Air quality action plan and related research projects. Hiukkasfoorumi Helsinki 19.3.2013 Air quality action plan and related research projects Hiukkasfoorumi Helsinki Helsinki City Environment Centre Established in 1991 Local authority in the City of Helsinki Promotes health and safety of

More information

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to:

Chapter 1: Moles and equations. Learning outcomes. you should be able to: Chapter 1: Moles and equations 1 Learning outcomes you should be able to: define and use the terms: relative atomic mass, isotopic mass and formula mass based on the 12 C scale perform calculations, including

More information

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions

Calculation of Molar Masses. Molar Mass. Solutions. Solutions Molar Mass Molar mass = Mass in grams of one mole of any element, numerically equal to its atomic weight Molar mass of molecules can be determined from the chemical formula and molar masses of elements

More information

Current and Future Methods for Calibration of Black Carbon Real-Time Mass Instruments

Current and Future Methods for Calibration of Black Carbon Real-Time Mass Instruments Current and Future Methods for Calibration of Black Carbon Real-Time Mass Instruments Greg Smallwood, Kevin Thomson, Fengshan Liu, Dan Clavel National Research Council Canada, Matthew Dickau, Tyler Johnson,

More information

Data Analysis and Validation Support for PM2.5 Chemical Speciation Networks- #82

Data Analysis and Validation Support for PM2.5 Chemical Speciation Networks- #82 Data Analysis and Validation Support for PM2.5 Chemical Speciation Networks- #82 Max R. Peterson and Edward E. Rickman Research Triangle Institute 3040 Cornwallis Road P.O. Box 12194 Research Triangle

More information

CHP and DHC in Helsinki

CHP and DHC in Helsinki CHP and DHC in Helsinki Veikko Hokkanen Helsinki Population 588 000 people Heat market ca. 8 000 GWh Growing cooling demand despite of relatively cold climate Thermal energy demand greater than electricity

More information

Urban Boundary-layer Atmosphere Network

Urban Boundary-layer Atmosphere Network Urban Boundary-layer Atmosphere Network Curtis Wood, Leena Järvi, Rostislav Kouznetsov, Ari Karppinen, Jaakko Kukkonen, Annika Nordbo, Timo Vesala, Achim Drebs, Anne Hirsikko, Sylvain Joffre, Timo Vihma,

More information

Unit 6 The Mole Concept

Unit 6 The Mole Concept Chemistry Form 3 Page 62 Ms. R. Buttigieg Unit 6 The Mole Concept See Chemistry for You Chapter 28 pg. 352-363 See GCSE Chemistry Chapter 5 pg. 70-79 6.1 Relative atomic mass. The relative atomic mass

More information

OPTICAL DETECTION OF KCl VAPOR AND ATOMIC K RELEASES FROM BIOMASS FUELS COMBUSTED IN SINGLE PARTICLE REACTOR

OPTICAL DETECTION OF KCl VAPOR AND ATOMIC K RELEASES FROM BIOMASS FUELS COMBUSTED IN SINGLE PARTICLE REACTOR OPTICAL DETECTION OF KCl VAPOR AND ATOMIC K RELEASES FROM BIOMASS FUELS COMBUSTED IN SINGLE PARTICLE REACTOR Tapio Sorvajärvi*, Juha Toivonen Tampere University of Technology Department of Physics, Optics

More information

Measurements of EC/BC

Measurements of EC/BC Measurements of EC/BC T.A.J. Kuhlbusch, M. Küpper, U. Quass b b a b 100 nm a External Mixing Black Carbon Core Institute of Energy and Environmental Technology Air Quality & Sustainable Nanotechnology

More information

National Database of Air Quality and Meteorological Information. Gregor Feig South African Weather Service

National Database of Air Quality and Meteorological Information. Gregor Feig South African Weather Service National Database of Air Quality and Meteorological Information Gregor Feig South African Weather Service Air Quality at the South African Weather Service 1. South African Air Quality Information System

More information

Nanoparticle Deposition on Packaging Materials by the Liquid Flame Spray

Nanoparticle Deposition on Packaging Materials by the Liquid Flame Spray Nanoparticle Deposition on Packaging Materials by the Liquid Flame Spray Hannu Teisala a, Mikko Tuominen a, Mikko Aromaa b, Jyrki M. Mäkelä b, Milena Stepien c, Jarkko J. Saarinen c, Martti Toivakka c

More information

Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance. Molecular Mass = sum of the Atomic Masses in a molecule

Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance. Molecular Mass = sum of the Atomic Masses in a molecule CHAPTER THREE: CALCULATIONS WITH CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND EQUATIONS Part One: Mass and Moles of Substance A. Molecular Mass and Formula Mass. (Section 3.1) 1. Just as we can talk about mass of one atom of

More information

Aerosol Physics Laboratory: Research for Science and Industry

Aerosol Physics Laboratory: Research for Science and Industry Aerosol Physics Laboratory: Research for Science and Industry Jorma Keskinen, professor Aerosol Physics Laboratory Department of Physics Tampere University of Technology jorma.keskinen@tut.fi Air Quality

More information

Energy efficient Indoor Environments- Indoor pilot

Energy efficient Indoor Environments- Indoor pilot Energy efficient Indoor Environments- Indoor pilot Eija Parmes, Kari Rainio, Paula Järvinen, Pekka Siltanen, VTT Teemu Vesanen, Jorma Pietiläinen, Mikko Tuomisto, VTT Harri Hahkala, Jorma Säteri, Metropolia

More information

New and improved slagging and corrosion control techniques for biomass firing. Martti Aho IV Liekkipäivä 23.01.2008

New and improved slagging and corrosion control techniques for biomass firing. Martti Aho IV Liekkipäivä 23.01.2008 New and improved slagging and corrosion control techniques for biomass firing IV Liekkipäivä 23.01.2008 Organisation of the research project t Research organisations:vtt (Co ordinaator) Åbo Akademi University

More information

Variation of Air Pollutant Concentrations in Residential Areas of the Helsinki Metropolitan Region

Variation of Air Pollutant Concentrations in Residential Areas of the Helsinki Metropolitan Region Joonas Enroth Variation of Air Pollutant Concentrations in Residential Areas of the Helsinki Metropolitan Region Helsinki Metropolia University of Applied Sciences Bachelor of Engineering Environmental

More information

Development and experience of Biomass Gasification in Metso Power

Development and experience of Biomass Gasification in Metso Power Development and experience of Biomass Gasification in Metso Power International seminar on Gasification 9-10 October 2008 in Malmö, Sweden Pekka Saarivirta Development and experience of Biomass Gasification

More information

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet

Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet Name: Chemistry Post-Enrolment Worksheet The purpose of this worksheet is to get you to recap some of the fundamental concepts that you studied at GCSE and introduce some of the concepts that will be part

More information

Finnish Marine Research Infrastructure FINMARI

Finnish Marine Research Infrastructure FINMARI Finnish Marine Research Infrastructure FINMARI Lauri Laakso, Finnish Meteorological Institute Timo Tamminen, Finnish Environment Institute Finnish Meteorological Institute 1. National roadmap for key research

More information

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions

Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemistry B11 Chapter 4 Chemical reactions Chemical reactions are classified into five groups: A + B AB Synthesis reactions (Combination) H + O H O AB A + B Decomposition reactions (Analysis) NaCl Na +Cl

More information

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula

Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Periodic Table, Valency and Formula Origins of the Periodic Table Mendelѐѐv in 1869 proposed that a relationship existed between the chemical properties of elements and their atomic masses. He noticed

More information

Holcim EMR List of EN Standards and VDI Guidelines usable for Discontinuous Measurements in Cement Plants

Holcim EMR List of EN Standards and VDI Guidelines usable for Discontinuous Measurements in Cement Plants Holcim EMR List of EN Standards and VDI Guidelines usable for Discontinuous Measurements in Cement Plants Version 2004-01 / August 2004 (HGRS-JW-04-25s) HGRS-CTS/MT J. Waltisberg SUMMARY ( ) shall not

More information

Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas. AW Atomic weight (mass of the atom of an element) was determined by relative weights.

Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas. AW Atomic weight (mass of the atom of an element) was determined by relative weights. 1 Introduction to Chemistry Atomic Weights (Definitions) Chemical Calculations: The Mole Concept and Chemical Formulas AW Atomic weight (mass of the atom of an element) was determined by relative weights.

More information

The Mole. 6.022 x 10 23

The Mole. 6.022 x 10 23 The Mole 6.022 x 10 23 Background: atomic masses Look at the atomic masses on the periodic table. What do these represent? E.g. the atomic mass of Carbon is 12.01 (atomic # is 6) We know there are 6 protons

More information

Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1. A chemical equation. (C-4.4)

Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1. A chemical equation. (C-4.4) Honors Chemistry: Unit 6 Test Stoichiometry PRACTICE TEST ANSWER KEY Page 1 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Question What is a symbolic representation of a chemical reaction? What 3 things (values) is a mole of a chemical

More information

3. Combustion is a chemical process in which a fuel combines with to release energy and form products. A. oxygen B. nitrogen C. methane D.

3. Combustion is a chemical process in which a fuel combines with to release energy and form products. A. oxygen B. nitrogen C. methane D. Exam 2 CHEM 1100 Version #1 Student: 1. The heat energy released or absorbed by a chemical reaction is generally determined by the difference between the energy that A. must be put in to break the bonds

More information

CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND FORMULA WEIGHT CALCULATIONS

CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND FORMULA WEIGHT CALCULATIONS CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND FORMULA WEIGHT CALCULATIONS 1. THE MEANING OF A CHEMICAL FORMULA A chemical formula is a shorthand method of representing the elements in a compound. The formula shows the formulas

More information

Greenhouse gas emissions from direct combustion of various fuels (e.g. grain dryer)

Greenhouse gas emissions from direct combustion of various fuels (e.g. grain dryer) Greenhouse gas emissions from direct combustion of various fuels (e.g. grain dryer) The most significant greenhouse gas from direct combustion is carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) Large number of other compounds

More information

Sampling and preparation of heterogeneous waste fuels?

Sampling and preparation of heterogeneous waste fuels? Sampling and preparation of heterogeneous waste fuels? Is it possible to accomplish a representative and relevant composition data? Evalena Wikström, Lennart Gustavsson and Jolanta Franke Aim of the project

More information

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1

Chapter 3. Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination. Insert picture from First page of chapter. Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 Chapter 3 Insert picture from First page of chapter Stoichiometry: Ratios of Combination Copyright McGraw-Hill 2009 1 3.1 Molecular and Formula Masses Molecular mass - (molecular weight) The mass in amu

More information

Lecture 5, The Mole. What is a mole?

Lecture 5, The Mole. What is a mole? Lecture 5, The Mole What is a mole? Moles Atomic mass unit and the mole amu definition: 12 C = 12 amu. The atomic mass unit is defined this way. 1 amu = 1.6605 x 10-24 g How many 12 C atoms weigh 12 g?

More information

Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Introduction to Chemistry Exam 2 Practice Problems 1 Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1.Atoms consist principally of what three

More information

CHAPTER 3 Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. atoms in a FORMULA UNIT

CHAPTER 3 Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations. atoms in a FORMULA UNIT CHAPTER 3 Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations MOLECULAR WEIGHT (M. W.) Sum of the Atomic Weights of all atoms in a MOLECULE of a substance. FORMULA WEIGHT (F. W.) Sum of the atomic Weights

More information

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions

ATOMS. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 3 ATOMS AND MOLECULES Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following correctly represents 360 g of water? (i) 2 moles of H 2 0 (ii) 20 moles of water (iii) 6.022 10 23 molecules of water (iv)

More information

Chemical formulae are used as shorthand to indicate how many atoms of one element combine with another element to form a compound.

Chemical formulae are used as shorthand to indicate how many atoms of one element combine with another element to form a compound. 29 Chemical Formulae Chemical formulae are used as shorthand to indicate how many atoms of one element combine with another element to form a compound. C 2 H 6, 2 atoms of carbon combine with 6 atoms of

More information

Coarse PM Methods Evaluation Study

Coarse PM Methods Evaluation Study Coarse PM Methods Evaluation Study Study Design and Preliminary Results Thomas Ellestad, Robert Vanderpool, Paul Solomon, and Mary Harmon USEPA/ORD/NERL Sanjay Natarajan, Chris Noble, and Bob Murdoch Research

More information

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield

EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield EXPERIMENT 7 Reaction Stoichiometry and Percent Yield INTRODUCTION Stoichiometry calculations are about calculating the amounts of substances that react and form in a chemical reaction. The word stoichiometry

More information

Study Guide For Chapter 7

Study Guide For Chapter 7 Name: Class: Date: ID: A Study Guide For Chapter 7 Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The number of atoms in a mole of any pure substance

More information

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up )

2. DECOMPOSITION REACTION ( A couple have a heated argument and break up ) TYPES OF CHEMICAL REACTIONS Most reactions can be classified into one of five categories by examining the types of reactants and products involved in the reaction. Knowing the types of reactions can help

More information

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS

MOLES AND MOLE CALCULATIONS 35 MOLES ND MOLE CLCULTIONS INTRODUCTION The purpose of this section is to present some methods for calculating both how much of each reactant is used in a chemical reaction, and how much of each product

More information

Emission Inventory in Medellín (Colombia) city. An Approximation *

Emission Inventory in Medellín (Colombia) city. An Approximation * Emission Inventory in Medellín (Colombia) city. An Approximation * By M.V. Toro *1, L.V. Cremades *2, R. Quiceno 1, J. Ramirez 1, C. Zuluaga 1, N. Moussiopoulos *3. 1. Universidad Pontificia Bolivariana

More information

The Mole, Avogadro s Number, and Molar Mass

The Mole, Avogadro s Number, and Molar Mass The Mole, Avogadro s Number, and Molar Mass Example: How many atoms are present in 2.0 kg of silver? (1 amu = 1.6605402x10-24 g) Example: How many molecules are present in 10. mg of smelling salts, (NH

More information

Atoms, Isotopes, and Ions

Atoms, Isotopes, and Ions WHY? ACTIVITY 02-1 Atoms, Isotopes, and Ions Atoms are the fundamental building blocks of all substances. To begin to understand the properties of atoms and how they combine to form molecules, you must

More information

Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds

Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds Chapter 5 - Molecules and Compounds How do we represent molecules? In pictures In formula In name Ionic compounds Molecular compounds On the course website, you will find a list of ions that I would like

More information

h e l p s y o u C O N T R O L

h e l p s y o u C O N T R O L contamination analysis for compound semiconductors ANALYTICAL SERVICES B u r i e d d e f e c t s, E v a n s A n a l y t i c a l g r o u p h e l p s y o u C O N T R O L C O N T A M I N A T I O N Contamination

More information

Sewage sludge treatment with oxygen enrichement and oxyfuel combustion in CFBC - new pilot plant results

Sewage sludge treatment with oxygen enrichement and oxyfuel combustion in CFBC - new pilot plant results Sewage sludge treatment with oxygen enrichement and oxyfuel combustion in CFBC - new pilot plant results 64 TH IEA FLUIDIZED BED CONVERSION MEETING Naples 3 rd of June, 2012 Authors: David Wöß, Gregor

More information

Chapter 6 Atmospheric Aerosol and Cloud Processes Spring 2015 Cloud Physics Initiation and development of cloud droplets Special interest: Explain how droplet formation results in rain in approximately

More information

Particle Emissions from Ship Engines: Emission Properties and Transformation in the Marine Boundary Layer

Particle Emissions from Ship Engines: Emission Properties and Transformation in the Marine Boundary Layer 78 Proceedings of the TAC-Conference, June 26 to 29, 2006, Oxford, UK Particle Emissions from Ship Engines: Emission Properties and Transformation in the Marine Boundary Layer A. Petzold *, B. Weinzierl,

More information

District Heating & Cooling in Helsinki

District Heating & Cooling in Helsinki District Heating & Cooling in Helsinki Marko Riipinen International Energy Agency CHP/DHC Collaborative & Clean Energy Ministerial CHP/DHC Working Group Joint Workshop 12-13 February 2013 IEA Headquarters,

More information

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements

EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements EXPERIMENT 4 The Periodic Table - Atoms and Elements INTRODUCTION Primary substances, called elements, build all the materials around you. There are more than 109 different elements known today. The elements

More information

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Part I. Unit Conversion

The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Part I. Unit Conversion The Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Part I. Unit Conversion Why? The Deepwater Horizon oil spill (also known as the BP oil spill) began on 4/20/2010 and ended when the well was capped on 7/15/2010. The spill

More information

Lappeenranta Climate Capital of FINLAND

Lappeenranta Climate Capital of FINLAND Lappeenranta Climate Capital of FINLAND WWF Earth Hour City Capital Lappeenranta was among the best 14 cities in the world in WWF City Challenge 26.3.2014 A competition of cities actions in mitigating

More information

Corso di Fisica Te T cnica Ambientale Solar Radiation

Corso di Fisica Te T cnica Ambientale Solar Radiation Solar Radiation Solar radiation i The Sun The Sun is the primary natural energy source for our planet. It has a diameter D = 1.39x10 6 km and a mass M = 1.989x10 30 kg and it is constituted by 1/3 of He

More information

AN OVERVIEW OF PM 2.5 CHEMICAL SPECIATION NATIONWIDE NETWORK PROGRAM IN THE UNITED STATES

AN OVERVIEW OF PM 2.5 CHEMICAL SPECIATION NATIONWIDE NETWORK PROGRAM IN THE UNITED STATES AN OVERVIEW OF PM 2.5 CHEMICAL SPECIATION NATIONWIDE NETWORK PROGRAM IN THE UNITED STATES R.K.M. Jayanty, James B. Flanagan, and Edward E. Rickman, Jr. RTI International *, rkmj@rti.org RTI International,

More information

The Mole. Chapter 10. Dimensional Analysis. The Mole. How much mass is in one atom of carbon-12? Molar Mass of Atoms 3/1/2015

The Mole. Chapter 10. Dimensional Analysis. The Mole. How much mass is in one atom of carbon-12? Molar Mass of Atoms 3/1/2015 The Mole Chapter 10 1 Objectives Use the mole and molar mass to make conversions among moles, mass, and number of particles Determine the percent composition of the components of a compound Calculate empirical

More information

Total radiative heating/cooling rates.

Total radiative heating/cooling rates. Lecture. Total radiative heating/cooling rates. Objectives:. Solar heating rates.. Total radiative heating/cooling rates in a cloudy atmosphere.. Total radiative heating/cooling rates in different aerosol-laden

More information

Tutkimuksen merkitys menestyvässä liiketoiminnassa- Innovaatiosta tuotteeksi

Tutkimuksen merkitys menestyvässä liiketoiminnassa- Innovaatiosta tuotteeksi Tutkimuksen merkitys menestyvässä liiketoiminnassa- Innovaatiosta tuotteeksi Matti Rautanen Manager, External Networks, Power-wide R&D Tutkimuksella tulevaisuuteen- seminaari Kaukolämpöpäivät, Kuopio 29.8.2013

More information

CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND FORMULA WEIGHT CALCULATIONS

CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND FORMULA WEIGHT CALCULATIONS CHEMICAL FORMULAS AND FORMULA WEIGHT CALCULATIONS 1. THE MEANING OF A CHEMICAL FORMULA A chemical formula is a shorthand method of representing the elements in a compound. The formula shows the formulas

More information

ATTAINMENT PROJECTIONS

ATTAINMENT PROJECTIONS ATTAINMENT PROJECTIONS Modeling is required to assess monitored exceedances of the PM10 NAAQS at all sites that cause the District to be classified as nonattainment for the 24-hour standard. Modeling is

More information

The Regulatory Role of Chemical Mechanisms and Future Needs

The Regulatory Role of Chemical Mechanisms and Future Needs The Regulatory Role of Chemical Mechanisms and Future Needs Ajith Kaduwela Planning and Technical Support Division Air Resources Board California Environmental Protection Agency Department of Land, Air

More information

Finokalia Station - University of Crete (Greece) ECPL

Finokalia Station - University of Crete (Greece) ECPL Finokalia Station - University of Crete (Greece) ECPL Institution information The Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory (ECPL) was established in 1997 by the Department of Chemistry and the Senate

More information

Unit Conversion and Dimensional Analysis

Unit Conversion and Dimensional Analysis Unit Conversion and Dimensional Analysis Frequently in Chemistry you will be provided with data describing a particular quantity in a certain unit of measurement, and you will be required to convert it

More information

neutrons are present?

neutrons are present? AP Chem Summer Assignment Worksheet #1 Atomic Structure 1. a) For the ion 39 K +, state how many electrons, how many protons, and how many 19 neutrons are present? b) Which of these particles has the smallest

More information

The Atom Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes

The Atom Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes The Atom Atomic Number Mass Number Isotopes 1 Atomic Theory Atoms are building blocks of elements Similar atoms in each element Different from atoms of other elements Two or more different atoms bond in

More information

Environmental report for Danish electricity and CHP

Environmental report for Danish electricity and CHP Environmental report for Danish electricity and CHP summary of the status year 2012 Energinet.dk is the transmission system operator for electricity and gas in Denmark. In accordance with the Danish Electricity

More information

Weather monitoring and urban air quality

Weather monitoring and urban air quality / APPLICATION NOTE Weather monitoring and urban air quality Frequently asked questions 1. How can air pollutants affect human health? 2. What are the main pollutants in urban air? 3. What are the main

More information

Upper Hunter Valley Particle Characterization Study

Upper Hunter Valley Particle Characterization Study CSIRO MARINE & ATMOSPHERIC RESEARCH Upper Hunter Valley Particle Characterization Study 1 st Progress Report Site Commissioning and Methodology Mark F. Hibberd, Melita D. Keywood, and David D. Cohen (ANSTO)

More information

INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION. 37 74 20 40 60 80 m/e

INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION. 37 74 20 40 60 80 m/e CHM111(M)/Page 1 of 5 INTI COLLEGE MALAYSIA A? LEVEL PROGRAMME CHM 111: CHEMISTRY MOCK EXAMINATION: DECEMBER 2000 SESSION SECTION A Answer ALL EIGHT questions. (52 marks) 1. The following is the mass spectrum

More information

Combustion Science ABM 01/25/13

Combustion Science ABM 01/25/13 Combustion Science ABM 01/25/13 7 Aerostat Based Emission Sampling with an Instrument Platform called The Flyer Total weight ~ 21 kg (46 lb) Flight time 4 h SVOC sampling time 60 min Onboard computer with

More information

NITROGEN OXIDES FORMATION in combustion processes COMBUSTION AND FUELS

NITROGEN OXIDES FORMATION in combustion processes COMBUSTION AND FUELS NITROGEN OXIDES FORMATION in combustion processes NITROGEN OXIDES FORMED DURING COMBUSTION N 2 O - nitrous oxide NO - nitric oxide NO 2 - nitrogen dioxide N = 14, O 2 =16, NO = 30, NO 2 = 46 CONTRIBUTION

More information

E T 2006. µ (PAHs), 2006.

E T 2006. µ (PAHs), 2006. 75 E T 2006.,.,.,.,.,., µ µ µµ ( ) µ µ 2006., µ µ (PAHs), µ (PCBs) µ. µ µ, 1,5 km µ µ µ µ. µ ap;o µµ. 1. µ µ µ µ,. µ µ µ µµ ( ) µ 2006., µ µ (PAHs), µ (PCBs) µ. µ µµ, µ µµ, µ µ. 76 2. 2.1 µ.1., µ µ µ,

More information

Modeling of aerosol formation during biomass combustion for various furnace and boiler types

Modeling of aerosol formation during biomass combustion for various furnace and boiler types Fuel Processing Technology 88 (2007) 1136 1147 www.elsevier.com/locate/fuproc Modeling of aerosol formation during biomass combustion for various furnace and boiler types Markus Jöller a,b,, Thomas Brunner

More information

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008

Review - After School Matter Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 Name: Review - After School Matter Tuesday, April 29, 2008 1. Figure 1 The graph represents the relationship between temperature and time as heat was added uniformly to a substance starting at a solid

More information

Experimental study on atmospheric pollutant emissions from heating systems, in Italy

Experimental study on atmospheric pollutant emissions from heating systems, in Italy Experimental study on atmospheric pollutant emissions from heating systems, in Italy Promoted by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, in coperation with : The Lombardy Region, the Piedmont Region,

More information

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions

Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Chapter 3 Mass Relationships in Chemical Reactions Student: 1. An atom of bromine has a mass about four times greater than that of an atom of neon. Which choice makes the correct comparison of the relative

More information

The Micro Aethalometer : an enabling technology for new applications in measuring Aerosol Black Carbon

The Micro Aethalometer : an enabling technology for new applications in measuring Aerosol Black Carbon A&WMA International Specialty Conference: Leapfrogging Opportunities for Air Quality Improvement Xi an, Shaanxi Province, China May 10-14, 2010 The Micro Aethalometer : an enabling technology for new applications

More information

Chapter 3. Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry. Lecture Presentation. James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT

Chapter 3. Chemical Reactions and Reaction Stoichiometry. Lecture Presentation. James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT Lecture Presentation Chapter 3 Chemical Reactions and Reaction James F. Kirby Quinnipiac University Hamden, CT The study of the mass relationships in chemistry Based on the Law of Conservation of Mass

More information

F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7.

F321 MOLES. Example If 1 atom has a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g 1 mole of atoms will have a mass of 1.241 x 10-23 g x 6.02 x 10 23 = 7. Moles 1 MOLES The mole the standard unit of amount of a substance (mol) the number of particles in a mole is known as Avogadro s constant (N A ) Avogadro s constant has a value of 6.02 x 10 23 mol -1.

More information

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key

Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key Moles, Molecules, and Grams Worksheet Answer Key 1) How many are there in 24 grams of FeF 3? 1.28 x 10 23 2) How many are there in 450 grams of Na 2 SO 4? 1.91 x 10 24 3) How many grams are there in 2.3

More information

CONSERVATION OF MASS During a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed. - i. e. the number of atoms of each element remains constant

CONSERVATION OF MASS During a chemical reaction, matter is neither created nor destroyed. - i. e. the number of atoms of each element remains constant 1 CHEMICAL REACTINS Example: Hydrogen + xygen Water H + H + + - Note there is not enough hydrogen to react with oxygen - It is necessary to balance equation. reactants products + H + H (balanced equation)

More information

diesel engines driven with various biofuels

diesel engines driven with various biofuels Seppo Niemi Performance and emissions of non-road diesel engines driven with various biofuels March 22, 2012 Faculty of Technology Partners University of Vaasa (UV) and Novia University of Applied Sciences

More information

LANDFILL GAS TO ENERGY- COMBINED ENGINE AND ORC-PROCESS

LANDFILL GAS TO ENERGY- COMBINED ENGINE AND ORC-PROCESS LANDFILL GAS TO ENERGY- COMBINED ENGINE AND ORC-PROCESS Dr Petri Kouvo Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority THIRD INTERNATIONAL SYMPOSIUM ON ENERGY FROM BIOMASS AND WASTE Venice, Italy 8-11

More information

Chapter 6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Section 6.1 2. Which one of the statements below is true concerning an oxidation-reduction reaction?

Chapter 6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions. Section 6.1 2. Which one of the statements below is true concerning an oxidation-reduction reaction? Chapter 6 Oxidation-Reduction Reactions 1. Oxidation is defined as a. gain of a proton b. loss of a proton c. gain of an electron! d. loss of an electron e. capture of an electron by a neutron 2. Which

More information

Chemical Reactions Practice Test

Chemical Reactions Practice Test Chemical Reactions Practice Test Chapter 2 Name Date Hour _ Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The only sure evidence for a chemical reaction

More information

Carbon Footprint of Refrigerated Goods Transportation

Carbon Footprint of Refrigerated Goods Transportation Quality Matters! CCA Annual General Meeting, Berlin 6-7 May 2010 Carbon Footprint of Refrigerated Goods Transportation Comparison of Air, Land and Sea transport under Design Conditions and in Real Operation

More information

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry

Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Chapter 3: Stoichiometry Key Skills: Balance chemical equations Predict the products of simple combination, decomposition, and combustion reactions. Calculate formula weights Convert grams to moles and

More information

Characterization of the effect of the scrubber system installed on Ficaria Seaways

Characterization of the effect of the scrubber system installed on Ficaria Seaways Characterization of the effect of the scrubber system installed on Ficaria Seaways Results from 2 nd measurement campaign NaKIM project report December 212 Danish Technological Institute FORCE technology

More information

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review

IB Chemistry. DP Chemistry Review DP Chemistry Review Topic 1: Quantitative chemistry 1.1 The mole concept and Avogadro s constant Assessment statement Apply the mole concept to substances. Determine the number of particles and the amount

More information

Valmet biotechnologies and pyrolysis status update. Joakim Autio Product manager, Pyrolysis systems Valmet

Valmet biotechnologies and pyrolysis status update. Joakim Autio Product manager, Pyrolysis systems Valmet Valmet biotechnologies and pyrolysis status update Joakim Autio Product manager, Pyrolysis systems Valmet Presentation outline 1 2 3 Valmet biotechnologies Pyrolysis development background Demonstration

More information

Long-term energy flux measurements over a small boreal lake using eddy covariance technique

Long-term energy flux measurements over a small boreal lake using eddy covariance technique Long-term energy flux measurements over a small boreal lake using eddy covariance technique 2 nd Workshop on Parameterization of Lakes in Numerical Weather Prediction and Climate Modelling A. Nordbo, S.

More information

Chemistry 65 Chapter 6 THE MOLE CONCEPT

Chemistry 65 Chapter 6 THE MOLE CONCEPT THE MOLE CONCEPT Chemists find it more convenient to use mass relationships in the laboratory, while chemical reactions depend on the number of atoms present. In order to relate the mass and number of

More information

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations

Moles. Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Moles Balanced chemical equations Molar ratios Mass Composition Empirical and Molecular Mass Predicting Quantities Equations Micro World atoms & molecules Macro World grams Atomic mass is the mass of an

More information

Flameless Technology for Particulate Emissions Suppression

Flameless Technology for Particulate Emissions Suppression Flameless Technology for Particulate Emissions Suppression M. Malavasi, C. Allouis, A. D'Anna Report RSE/2009/108 Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l Energia e l Ambiente RICERCA SISTEMA ELETTRICO Flameless

More information

Novel inkjettable copper ink utilizing processing temperatures under 100 degrees C without the need of inert atmosphere

Novel inkjettable copper ink utilizing processing temperatures under 100 degrees C without the need of inert atmosphere Novel inkjettable copper ink utilizing processing temperatures under 100 degrees C without the need of inert atmosphere Printed Electronics Europe April 7-8, 2009 Dresden, Germany Dr. Zvi Yaniv Applied

More information