# Experiment 13: Interference and Diffraction

Save this PDF as:

Size: px
Start display at page:

## Transcription

1 MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics 8.02 Spring 2005 OBJECTIVES Experiment 13: Interference and Diffraction 1. To explore the diffraction of light through a variety of apertures using a laser pointer. 2. To measure the wavelength of the laser light; the spacing between the tracks of an audio compact disk (CD); and the thickness of a human hair. WARNING! The beam of laser pointers is so concentrated that it can cause real damage to your retina if you look into the beam either directly or by reflection from a shiny object. USING THE SPREADSHEET The data analysis for this experiment should be done using the Excel spreadsheet exp13.xls; your data should be entered into the appropriate places in this spreadsheet and reproduced in the tearoff sheet. Until you enter your data into the indicated boxes (or cells) in the spreadsheet, some of the displayed results will be of little use (there will be #DIV/0! in some cells). INTRODUCTION AND PRELIMINARY OBSERVATIONS Single-Slit Diffraction When light passes through a small opening, secondary waves from different portions of the opening will generally travel different distances before hitting a wall or screen, so, although they were in phase at the slit, they will not be exactly in phase at the screen. Consequently, the brightness on the screen will vary from point to point. Secondary waves and Huygens s Principle are discussed in the 8.02 Course Notes, Section 14.4, and the variation of intensity with position on a screen is discussed in Section Place the 35-mm slide containing four single slits with different widths in front of the laser pointer. The widths of the slits are printed on the slide, and reproduced in Table 1. You will note that one side of the slide has attached magnets, and you might want to use these to attach the slide to the metal bracket in front of the aperture. This will mean that the printed widths will not be readable, but this is not important. 3 Note that Table 1 below gives the widths in microns, µm, where 1 µm = 10-6 m = 10 mm. E13-1

2 Table 1 Single Slits Pattern A B C D Slit Width a (µm ) Shine the laser pointer through the slide and examine the patterns produced on a white card held some distance from the slide. Notice how the intensity (brightness) of the pattern fades with distance from the center. The dark spots are labeled by their order m, with m starting at 1 on each side of the center; these are the first-order minima. The maxima are similarly labeled. Notice that the center of the pattern, referred to as the zeroth-order maximum, is always bright. Question 1 (answer on your tear-off sheet at the end): Why is the center of the pattern always bright? Figure 1 Single-slit diffraction E13-2

3 EXPERIMENT Part 1: Laser Wavelength Fasten a card (preferably without a hole in it) with the clips across the wooden slide. Then place the slide in its slot in the block on your optical bench, and shine the pointer through one of the slits (Figure 2). Figure 2 Optical Bench Slide the block to a distance D of at least 30 cm from the laser. (Use a larger distance if it is dark enough at your table to still see the patterns.) Measure the distance D from the center of the card to the slit. For each pattern A-D in turn, carefully put marks on the card at the positions of the pair of first order minima and measure the distance y (as indicated in Figure 1) between them. Enter your results, including the distance D, in the indicated places in the Excel Spreadsheet, and in the table in the tearoff sheet. The angle θ from the center of the slit to a minimum of order m (see Figure 1) is given by a sin θ = mλ (13.1) where a is the width of the slit. The angle θ is related to D and y by tan θ = y. (13.2) 2D (See the 8.02 Course Notes, Section 14.5, but note that in the Course Notes, L is used instead of D for the distance to the screen.) E13-3

4 The spreadsheet contains the needed calculations, both trigonometric and algebraic, needed to convert your measured values of y to a wavelength. The wavelength is given in nanometers, -6-3 nm, 1nm = 10-9 m = 10 mm = 10 µm. Optical wavelengths are conventionally given in nanometers. Part 2: Thickness of Human Hair What would happen if you replaced the slit (which blocks much of the laser beam except for a narrow open strip), with a thin wire or human hair (which blocks little of the laser beam except for a narrow opaque strip just the reverse of a slit)? Figure 3 Hair diffraction To find out, tape a short piece of hair (vertically, as indicated), donated by a group member, across the hole in the wooden slide and place the slide in its slot (see Figure 3). Tape a card to the far end of the optical bench. Shine the laser at the hair and observe the pattern. Surprised? (The fact that the pattern is virtually identical to that of a single slit is an example of a general rule called Babinet s principle.) Measurement 2: Mark the location of the two first-order minima on the card. Then measure the distance y between these minima and measure the distance D between the card and the hair. Using the wavelength of the laser you just calculated, compute the diameter of the hair. Enter your measurements in the indicated places in the spreadsheet, and record your results in the tearoff sheet. Part 3: Double-Slit Interference Table 2 Double Slits Pattern A B C D Slit Width a (µm) Separation d (µm) E13-4

5 Now place the slide containing the pairs of slits on the apparatus, in a similar manner to that used for the single-slit slide, and observe the patterns produced. Notice the appearance of closely (and uniformly spaced) fringes. The fringes as a whole vary in intensity in much the same way that the single-slit patterns did. This is most apparent when you compare the difference between patterns A and C (or B and D), which have the same distance d between the slits but different slit widths. (The slit parameters are reproduced in Table 2 above.) Wavelength Check The width y of these fringes, that is, the distance between adjacent minima is approximately Dλ y (13.3) d where D is the slit-to-screen distance, and d is the separation between slits. (This is accurate as long as y << D.) Measurement 3: Measure the width of a group of fringes produced by Pattern A of slits, compute the average width of one fringe (the spreadsheet will do this for you) and then use this relationship to compute the wavelength of your laser. Compare with your previous measurement. Which measurement do you expect to be more precise? Record your result on the tearoff sheet. Part 4: Grating Suppose the number of slits is increased while the separation, d, between them remains constant. Then the separation between fringes remains the same as for two slits. However, the sharpness and visibility of the fringes increases. This is the principle of the diffraction grating. (See the 8.02 Course Notes, Section 14.8, for a further discussion of diffraction gratings.) If white light, which is a mixture of light with different wavelengths, strikes such a grating, each wavelength will diffract in a slightly different direction causing rainbow effects. The closelyspaced tracks of an audio CD constitute a reflection grating, but the interference pattern will be the same as that for a diffraction grating. Look at the reflection of the fluorescent lights in the room off the surface of the CD. You should see dominant red, green and violet bands that correspond to the wavelengths emitted by the mercury vapor inside the lamps. (The spectrum of an incandescent light bulb or the sun is much more continuous try it with your own CD at home.) E13-5

6 CD Track Spacing Figure 4: CD diffraction grating Since you now know the wavelength of your laser, you can use your CD as a grating to measure some very small distances. Place an audio CD in one of the slots on the block on your optical bench (see Figure 4). Attach a card with a punched hole to the wooden slide leaving the central hole unobstructed. (If you can only place the central hole so that some if not most of the laser light passes through, you should still be able to obtain the desired results.) Place the wooden slide in its slot on the block. Turn on your laser and observe the diffraction pattern reflected onto the cards. (Be careful not to reflect the laser into anyone s eye.) Because the distance d between the tracks is so small, the pattern you see is much wider than the one you observed earlier for one or two coarse slits, but the maxima are now much brighter and easy to see. Make small marks on the card at the location of the first-order maxima on each side of the center. For a grating, either a diffraction grating or a reflection grating, the angle of the maximum for a given order m and wavelength λ is and d sinθ = mλ (13.4) tan θ = y. (13.5) 2D Measurement 4: Measure the distance y between the two first-order maxima on either side of the central maximum. Measure the distance D from the center of the card to the CD. Enter these measurements in the indicated places in the spreadsheet, and record the calculated value of d on the tearoff sheet. E13-6

7 MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY Department of Physics 8.02 Spring 2005 Tear off this page and turn it in at the end of class. Note: Writing in the name of a student who is not present is a Committee on Discipline offense. Experimental Summary 13: Interference and Diffraction Group and Section (e.g. 10A, L02: Please Fill Out) Names Single-Slit Diffraction Question 1: In a single-slit diffraction, why is the center of the pattern always bright? Answer: EXPERIMENT Part 1: Laser Wavelength Data for Single Slit: D = Pattern y A B C D E13-7

### Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

### 6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm?

Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes through

### Diffraction of Laser Light

Diffraction of Laser Light No Prelab Introduction The laser is a unique light source because its light is coherent and monochromatic. Coherent light is made up of waves, which are all in phase. Monochromatic

### MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A single slit forms a diffraction pattern, with the first minimum at an angle of 40 from

Practice Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes

### AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

### What s so special about the laser?

What s so special about the laser? A guide for taking LaserFest into the classroom. Developed by 2010 SPS SOCK interns Patrick Haddox & Jasdeep Maggo. www.spsnational.org Activity 1: Exploring laser light

### Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD

University of Technology Laser & Optoelectronics Engineering Department Laser Eng Branch Laser application Lab. The aim of work: Experiment (9) Measure the Distance Between Tracks of CD and DVD 1-measure

### How is LASER light different from white light? Teacher Notes

How is LASER light different from white light? Teacher Notes Concepts: (1) Light is a type of energy that travels as waves. [6.2.3.1.1] (2) Laser light is different from traditional light sources and must

### PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004

PRACTICE EXAM IV P202 SPRING 2004 1. In two separate double slit experiments, an interference pattern is observed on a screen. In the first experiment, violet light (λ = 754 nm) is used and a second-order

### Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum

Light, Light Bulbs and the Electromagnetic Spectrum Spectrum The different wavelengths of electromagnetic waves present in visible light correspond to what we see as different colours. Electromagnetic

### WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

### Fraunhofer Diffraction

Physics 334 Spring 1 Purpose Fraunhofer Diffraction The experiment will test the theory of Fraunhofer diffraction at a single slit by comparing a careful measurement of the angular dependence of intensity

### ATOMIC SPECTRA. Apparatus: Optical spectrometer, spectral tubes, power supply, incandescent lamp, bottles of dyed water, elevating jack or block.

1 ATOMIC SPECTRA Objective: To measure the wavelengths of visible light emitted by atomic hydrogen and verify the measured wavelengths against those predicted by quantum theory. To identify an unknown

### BUILDING A SPECTROSCOPE

grades 6 1 2 Objective Build a simple, pocket-sized spectroscope from readily available materials and use it to examine different kinds of light sources in school, at home, and around the city. Introduction

### 1 Laboratory #5: Grating Spectrometer

SIMG-215-20061: LABORATORY #5 1 Laboratory #5: Grating Spectrometer 1.1 Objective: To observe and measure the spectra of different light sources. 1.2 Materials: 1. OSA optics kit. 2. Nikon digital camera

### Physics 111 Homework Solutions Week #9 - Tuesday

Physics 111 Homework Solutions Week #9 - Tuesday Friday, February 25, 2011 Chapter 22 Questions - None Multiple-Choice 223 A 224 C 225 B 226 B 227 B 229 D Problems 227 In this double slit experiment we

### Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment

Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment Developers AB Overby Objectives Preparation Background The objectives of this experiment are to observe Fraunhofer, or far-field, diffraction through a single

### WHITE LIGHT AND COLORED LIGHT

grades K 5 Objective This activity offers two simple ways to demonstrate that white light is made of different colors of light mixed together. The first uses special glasses to reveal the colors that make

### Interference and Diffraction

Chapter 14 nterference and Diffraction 14.1 Superposition of Waves... 14-14. Young s Double-Slit Experiment... 14-4 Example 14.1: Double-Slit Experiment... 14-7 14.3 ntensity Distribution... 14-8 Example

### EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab

EXPERIMENT O-6 Michelson Interferometer Abstract A Michelson interferometer, constructed by the student, is used to measure the wavelength of He-Ne laser light and the index of refraction of a flat transparent

### RESOLVING POWER OF A READING TELESCOPE

96 Lab Experiments Experiment-255 RESOLVING POWER OF A READING TELESCOPE S Dr Jeethendra Kumar P K KamalJeeth Instrumentation & Service Unit, No-60, TATA Nagar, Bangalore-560 092, INDIA. Email:jeeth_kjisu@rediffmail.com

### Assembly & Use Instructions -- Stanford Spectrographs

Assembly & Use Instructions -- Stanford Spectrographs Instructions You ll need: Spectrograph poster, diffraction grating, adhesive tape NOTE: Try not to touch the grating material, since the oils on your

### Diffraction of a Circular Aperture

Diffraction of a Circular Aperture Diffraction can be understood by considering the wave nature of light. Huygen's principle, illustrated in the image below, states that each point on a propagating wavefront

### Light and Spectra. COLOR λ, nm COLOR λ, nm violet 405 yellow 579 blue 436 orange 623 green 492 red 689

Light and Spectra INTRODUCTION Light and color have intrigued humans since antiquity. In this experiment, you will consider several aspects of light including: a. The visible spectrum of colors (red to

### PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

### Introduction to spectroscopy

Introduction to spectroscopy How do we know what the stars or the Sun are made of? The light of celestial objects contains much information hidden in its detailed color structure. In this lab we will separate

### DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE

DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE In this experiment you will emonstrate the wave nature of light by investigating how it bens aroun eges an how it interferes constructively an estructively. You will observe

### Theremino System Theremino Spectrometer Technology

Theremino System Theremino Spectrometer Technology theremino System - Theremino Spectrometer Technology - August 15, 2014 - Page 1 Operation principles By placing a digital camera with a diffraction grating

### PHY208FALL2008. Week2HW. Introduction to Two-Source Interference. Due at 11:59pm on Friday, September 12, View Grading Details [ Print ]

Assignment Display Mode: View Printable Answers PHY208FALL2008 Week2HW Due at 11:59pm on Friday September 12 2008 View Grading Details [ Print ] The following three problems concern interference from two

### Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key

Physics 41 Chapter 38 HW Key 1. Helium neon laser light (63..8 nm) is sent through a 0.300-mm-wide single slit. What is the width of the central imum on a screen 1.00 m from the slit? 7 6.38 10 sin θ.11

### Teaching Time: Two 50-minute periods

Lesson Summary In this lesson, students will build an open spectrograph to calculate the angle the light is transmitted through a holographic diffraction grating. After finding the desired angles, the

### P R E A M B L E. Facilitated workshop problems for class discussion (1.5 hours)

INSURANCE SCAM OPTICS - LABORATORY INVESTIGATION P R E A M B L E The original form of the problem is an Experimental Group Research Project, undertaken by students organised into small groups working as

### The Shoebox spectrograph construction and lab investigations. By Timothy Grove

The Shoebox spectrograph construction and lab investigations By Timothy Grove 1 Part 1. Build your own spectrograph from flat cardboard Tools and materials: Necessary items Scrap cardboard (You will need

### GEOMETRICAL OPTICS. Lens Prism Mirror

GEOMETRICAL OPTICS Geometrical optics is the treatment of the passage of light through lenses, prisms, etc. by representing the light as rays. A light ray from a source goes in a straight line through

### Chapter 23. The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments

Chapter 23 The Refraction of Light: Lenses and Optical Instruments Lenses Converging and diverging lenses. Lenses refract light in such a way that an image of the light source is formed. With a converging

### Study Guide for Exam on Light

Name: Class: Date: Study Guide for Exam on Light Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which portion of the electromagnetic spectrum is used

### LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS X RAYS BREMSSTRAHLUNG

LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION X-rays are electromagnetic radiations that originate outside the nucleus. There are two major processes for X-ray production which are quite different and which lead to different

Building your own Spectroscope 0-0.341-0.445-0.606-0.872-1.36 Lyman Balmer Paschen n=4 n=8 n=7 n=6 n=5 n=4 ENERGY/10-19 J -2.42-5.45 E 5 2 E 4 2 E 3 2 E E 5 3 4 3 n=3 n=2 (Many other transitions beyond

### GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS

FYSA230/2 GRID AND PRISM SPECTROMETERS 1. Introduction Electromagnetic radiation (e.g. visible light) experiences reflection, refraction, interference and diffraction phenomena when entering and passing

### THE BOHR QUANTUM MODEL

THE BOHR QUANTUM MODEL INTRODUCTION When light from a low-pressure gas is subject to an electric discharge, a discrete line spectrum is emitted. When light from such a low-pressure gas is examined with

### Polarization of Light

Polarization of Light References Halliday/Resnick/Walker Fundamentals of Physics, Chapter 33, 7 th ed. Wiley 005 PASCO EX997A and EX999 guide sheets (written by Ann Hanks) weight Exercises and weights

### Build Your Own Solar Car Teach build learn renewable Energy! Page 1 of 1

Solar Car Teach build learn renewable Energy! Page 1 of 1 Background Not only is the sun a source of heat and light, it s a source of electricity too! Solar cells, also called photovoltaic cells, are used

### USING CDs AND DVDs AS DIFFRACTION GRATINGS

USING CDs AND DVDs AS DIFFRACTION GRATINGS Rama Balachandran Riverwood High School Atlanta, GA Karen Porter-Davis Chamblee Charter High School Chamblee, GA Copyright Georgia Institute of Technology 2009

### Experiment #12: The Bohr Atom. Equipment: Spectroscope Hydrogen and Helium Gas Discharge Tubes, Holder, and Variac Flashlight

Experiment #12: The Bohr Atom Purpose: To observe the visible spectrum of hydrogen and helium and verify the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom. Equipment: Spectroscope Hydrogen and Helium Gas Discharge Tubes,

### Physics 10. Lecture 29A. "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton

Physics 10 Lecture 29A "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton Converging Lenses What if we wanted to use refraction to converge parallel

### Science In Action 8 Unit C - Light and Optical Systems. 1.1 The Challenge of light

1.1 The Challenge of light 1. Pythagoras' thoughts about light were proven wrong because it was impossible to see A. the light beams B. dark objects C. in the dark D. shiny objects 2. Sir Isaac Newton

### - the. or may. scales on. Butterfly wing. magnified about 75 times.

Lecture Notes (Applications of Diffraction) Intro: - the iridescent colors seen in many beetles is due to diffraction of light rays hitting the small groovess of its exoskeleton - these ridges are only

### Laser Beam Alignment Version 0.1, February 9th 2016

Laser Beam Alignment Version 0.1, February 9th 2016 Precautions Introduction Laser Terminology Simple Alignment Test The principle of alignment Aligning the Mirrors Tube to Mirror 1 Mirror 1 to Mirror

### 3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted

Light and Sound 3.14 understand that light waves are transverse waves which can be reflected, refracted and diffracted 3.15 use the law of reflection (the angle of incidence equals the angle of reflection)

### Photovoltaic Cell: Converting Light to Electricity

Photovoltaic Cell: Converting Light to Electricity Outcomes: 1. Understand that a photovoltaic cell produces DC voltage when light shines on its surface. 2. Understand that the electrical voltage produced

### Interferometers. OBJECTIVES To examine the operation of several kinds of interferometers. d sin = n (1)

Interferometers The true worth of an experimenter consists in his pursuing not only what he seeks in his experiment, but also what he did not seek. Claude Bernard (1813-1878) OBJECTIVES To examine the

### INTERFERENCE OBJECTIVES PRE-LECTURE. Aims

53 L4 INTERFERENCE Aims OBJECTIVES When you have finished this chapter you should understand how the wave model of light can be used to explain the phenomenon of interference. You should be able to describe

### Photosynthesis. photosynthesis. respiration

Photosynthesis Learning Goals After completing this laboratory exercise you will be able to: 1. Observe the absorption spectrum of the pigment Chlorophyll using a spectroscope. 2. Describe the relationship

### MICROSCOPY. To demonstrate skill in the proper utilization of a light microscope.

MICROSCOPY I. OBJECTIVES To demonstrate skill in the proper utilization of a light microscope. To demonstrate skill in the use of ocular and stage micrometers for measurements of cell size. To recognize

### LASER-PROTECTION INFORMATION

LASER-PROTECTION INFORMATION µspeed-systems Version V2.0 Creation date: 18.07.2012 page 1/8 LASER PROTECTION The µspeed sensor system is a laser-based measuring system. When using a µspeed, it is necessary

### Using a spectrohelioscope to observe the sun's corona

Using a spectrohelioscope to observe the sun's corona One of the most inspiring natural spectacles is that of the fiery prominences that shoot out from the surface of the sun. It is unfortunate that most

### Introduction to microstructure

Introduction to microstructure 1.1 What is microstructure? When describing the structure of a material, we make a clear distinction between its crystal structure and its microstructure. The term crystal

### Using the Spectrophotometer

Using the Spectrophotometer Introduction In this exercise, you will learn the basic principals of spectrophotometry and and serial dilution and their practical application. You will need these skills to

### Light Energy. Countdown: Experiment 1: 1 tomato paste can (without top or bottom) table lamp white poster board, 7 x 9

Light Energy Grade Level: 5 Time Required: 1-2 class periods Suggested TEKS: Science - 5.8 Suggested SCANS: Information. Acquires and evaluates information. National Science and Math Standards Science

### A. COMPOUND LIGHT MICROSCOPE

Period Date LAB. USING MICROSCOPES Throughout the course of the year you will be using two different microscopes. Today you will refresh your knowledge of the compound light microscope and then extend

### Solution Derivations for Capa #14

Solution Derivations for Capa #4 ) An image of the moon is focused onto a screen using a converging lens of focal length (f = 34.8 cm). The diameter of the moon is 3.48 0 6 m, and its mean distance from

### Bar Code Label Detection. Size and Edge Detection APPLICATIONS

Bar Code Label Detection The EE-SY169(-A) and EE-SX199 sensors are used for bar code label detection. The EE-SX199 detects the absence or presence of labels (see Bar Code Printer illustration at right).

### Mirror, mirror - Teacher Guide

Introduction Mirror, mirror - Teacher Guide In this activity, test the Law of Reflection based on experimental evidence. However, the back-silvered glass mirrors present a twist. As light travels from

### Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water

Experiment (8) Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water The aim of work: The goals of this experiment are to confirm the relationship between angular frequency and wave vector

### ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 or 2

Forensic Spectral Anaylysis: Warm up! The study of triangles has been done since ancient times. Many of the early discoveries about triangles are still used today. We will only be concerned with the "right

### Swing Curves and the Process Window

T h e L i t h o g r a p h y E x p e r t (Winter 1998) Swing Curves and the Process Window Chris A. Mack, FINLE Technologies, Austin, Texas As we saw in the last edition of The Lithography Expert, numerical

### CHAPTER 35. (a) 300 nm (b) δ = 135 o

CHAPTER 35 1* When destructive interference occurs, what happens to the energy in the light waves? The energy is distributed nonuniformly in space; in some regions the energy is below average (destructive

### Three Lasers Converging at a Focal Point : A Demonstration

Three Lasers Converging at a Focal Point : A Demonstration Overview In this activity, students will see how we can use the property of refraction to focus parallel rays of light. Students will observe

### AS COMPETITION PAPER 2008

AS COMPETITION PAPER 28 Name School Town & County Total Mark/5 Time Allowed: One hour Attempt as many questions as you can. Write your answers on this question paper. Marks allocated for each question

### 10Spec TM 10 Degree Specular Reflectance Accessory

Installation and User Guide 10Spec TM 10 Degree Specular Reflectance Accessory The information in this publication is provided for reference only. All information contained in this publication is believed

### Name Class Date Laboratory Investigation 4B Chapter 4: Cell Structure

Name Class Date Laboratory Investigation 4B Chapter 4: Cell Structure The Microscope: A Tool of the Scientist You may refer to pages 66-67, 72-73 in your textbook for a general discussion of microscopes.

### PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY)

PHYSICS PAPER 1 (THEORY) (Three hours) (Candidates are allowed additional 15 minutes for only reading the paper. They must NOT start writing during this time.) ---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

### Spectroscopy: Colors of Light

Spectroscopy: Colors of Light IN THE WORKSHOP SPECTROSCOPY: COLORS OF LIGHT YOUR STUDENTS WILL EXPLORE ONE OF THE WAYS THAT ASTRONOMERS STUDY DISTANT OBJECTS IN THE UNIVERSE AS THEY BUILD SIMPLE SPECTROSCOPES

### NNIN Nanotechnology Education

NNIN Nanotechnology Education Lesson 1: Refraction Tank Teacher s Preparatory Guide Purpose: This lab will help students understand and measure the angle of incidence and the angle of refraction of a beam

### Review Vocabulary spectrum: a range of values or properties

Standards 7.3.19: Explain that human eyes respond to a narrow range of wavelengths of the electromagnetic spectrum. 7.3.20: Describe that something can be seen when light waves emitted or reflected by

### Alignement of a ring cavity laser

Alignement of a ring cavity laser 1 Introduction This manual describes a procedure to align the cavity of our Ti:Sapphire ring laser and its injection with an Argon-Ion pump laser beam. The setup is shown

### Laserlyte-Flex Alignment System

Laserlyte-Flex Alignment System LaserLyte-Flex The LaserLyte-Flex Alignment System is a unique, interchangeable, low cost plug and play laser system. Designed specifically for aligning and positioning

### Measuring index of refraction

Grzegorz F. Wojewoda Zespół Szkół Ogólnokształcących nr 1 Bydgoszcz, Poland Logo designed by Armella Leung, www.armella.fr.to Translation: Małgorzata Czart Measuring index of refraction The advent of low-cost

### Why Use Fiber Optics For Lighting?

Why Use Fiber Optics For Lighting? Using fiber for remote lighting has many advantages, some of which are more important for special types of applications than others. Heat Free Lighting: Since the light

### Microscopy. MICROSCOPY Light Electron Tunnelling Atomic Force RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES

BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 Microscopy Professor Marc C. Lavoie marc.lavoie@cavehill.uwi.edu MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES MAGNIFY RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST Microscopy 1. Eyepieces 2. Diopter adjustment

### Planetary Energy Balance

Planetary Energy Balance Electromagnetic Spectrum Different types of radiation enter the Earth s atmosphere and they re all a part of the electromagnetic spectrum. One end of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum

### 3.5.4.2 One example: Michelson interferometer

3.5.4.2 One example: Michelson interferometer mirror 1 mirror 2 light source 1 2 3 beam splitter 4 object (n object ) interference pattern we either observe fringes of same thickness (parallel light) or

### Quartet Laser Pointers

Quartet Laser Pointers Get to the point. Deliver presentations with exacting precision. Quartet Red Laser Pointers MP-2700TQ MP-2700GQ Stylus Deluxe Laser Pointer Pen-style Class 3a laser provides a bright

### Lab 9. Optics. 9.1 Introduction

Lab 9 Name: Optics 9.1 Introduction Unlike other scientists, astronomers are far away from the objects they want to examine. Therefore astronomers learn everything about an object by studying the light

### Revision problem. Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612. Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away.

Revision problem Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612 Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away. 1 Optical Instruments Thin lens equation Refractive power Cameras The human eye Combining

### Digital Image Processing. Prof. P.K. Biswas. Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering

Digital Image Processing Prof. P.K. Biswas Department of Electronics & Electrical Communication Engineering Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur Lecture - 27 Colour Image Processing II Hello, welcome

### After a wave passes through a medium, how does the position of that medium compare to its original position?

Light Waves Test Question Bank Standard/Advanced Name: Question 1 (1 point) The electromagnetic waves with the highest frequencies are called A. radio waves. B. gamma rays. C. X-rays. D. visible light.

### Optical Interferometers

Optical Interferometers Experiment objectives: Assemble and align Michelson and Fabry-Perot interferometers, calibrate them using a laser of known wavelength, and then use them characterize the bright

### Seeing is Believing (Making a Pin-Hole Camera) Grade 7 Activity Plan

Seeing is Believing (Making a Pin-Hole Camera) Grade 7 Activity Plan 1 Seeing is Believing (Pinhole Camera) Objectives: 1. To demonstrate that light needs to be reflected off of particles in order for

### Project 2B Building a Solar Cell (2): Solar Cell Performance

April. 15, 2010 Due April. 29, 2010 Project 2B Building a Solar Cell (2): Solar Cell Performance Objective: In this project we are going to experimentally measure the I-V characteristics, energy conversion

### Basic Physical Optics

F UNDAMENTALS OF PHOTONICS Module 1.4 Basic Physical Optics Leno S. Pedrotti CORD Waco, Texas In Module 1-3, Basic Geometrical Optics, we made use of light rays to demonstrate reflection and refraction

### The He-Ne Laser * He-Ne Laser System. Power supply and ballast. interatomic collision. 1E-7 sec

The He-Ne Laser * I. Introduction The He-Ne laser (Figure 1) uses a low pressure (ca. 1 Torr He, 0.1 Torr Ne) mixture excited by a dc electric discharge. A ballast resistor is placed in series with the

### Spectra of Lights: An Interactive Demonstration with Diffraction Gratings

Grades: 4 th 12 th grade Purpose: Students will explore the properties of different types of light bulbs using diffraction grating glasses to reveal the light s unique spectra or fingerprint. The goal

### v = fλ PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to :

PROGRESSIVE WAVES 1 Candidates should be able to : Describe and distinguish between progressive longitudinal and transverse waves. With the exception of electromagnetic waves, which do not need a material

### Friday 18 January 2013 Morning

Friday 18 January 2013 Morning AS GCE PHYSICS B (ADVANCING PHYSICS) G492/01 Understanding Processes / Experimentation and Data Handling *G411640113* Candidates answer on the Question Paper. OCR supplied

### Lecture 12: Fraunhofer diffraction by a single slit

Lecture 12: Fraunhofer diffraction y a single slit Lecture aims to explain: 1. Diffraction prolem asics (reminder) 2. Calculation of the diffraction integral for a long slit 3. Diffraction pattern produced

### THE NATURE OF LIGHT AND COLOR

THE NATURE OF LIGHT AND COLOR THE PHYSICS OF LIGHT Electromagnetic radiation travels through space as electric energy and magnetic energy. At times the energy acts like a wave and at other times it acts