Atoms and Ions Practice Problems

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1 Atoms and Ions Practice Problems 1) What is the symbol of the element in Group 14 and Period 2? 1) A) C B) Be C) Si D) Mg E) Ca 2) Whichof the following is NOT a characteristic of the Group 1 elements (excluding hydrogen)? 2) A) Theyare good conductors of heat. B) They are shiny. C) Theyare good conductors of electricity. D) They react vigorously with water. E) Most of them are liquids at room temperature. 3) List as many properties as you can that describe each of the following groups in the periodic table: 3) A) Group 1 B) Group 2 C) Group 17 D) Group 18 E) Transition metals 4) Whichof the following elements is a metal? 4) A) aluminum B) nitrogen C) silicon D) fluorine E) argon 5) Name four elements that are considered metalloids: 6) The elements lithium, sodium, and potassium 6) A) are isotopes of each other. B) have the same number of neutrons. C) have the same mass. D) are in the same period of elements. E) are in the same group. 7) In a neutral atom the number of is always equal to the number of. 7) A) neutrons, electrons B) protons, neutrons C) protons + electrons, neutrons D) protons, electrons E) none of the above 8) Hydrogen exists in nature primarily as three isotopes ("hydrogen" - 1H, "deuterium" - 2H, and "tritium" - 3H). These isotopes differ by the number of contained in the atom. A) protons B) neutrons C) electrons D) charges 8) 1

2 9) A sample of chlorine hastwo naturally occurring isotopes. The isotope Cl-35 makes up75.8% of the sample,andthe isotope Cl-37 makes up 24.3% of the sample. Which of the following statements is true? A) The atomic mass will be 36. B) The atomic mass will be less than 35. C) The atomic mass will be greater than 37. D) You cannot tell what the atomic mass will be (or even approximate). E) The atomic mass will be between 35 and 37, but closer to 35. 9) 10) If you could add one proton to the nucleus of an atom, what would this do to the: 10) A) Mass number B) Atomic number C) Element identity D) Group number E) Period number 11) If you could add one neutron to the nucleus of an atom, what would this do to the: 11) A) Mass number B) Element identity C) Group number D) Atomic number E) Period number 12) If a neutralatom has30 protons and 34 neutrons, the atomic number of the atom is: 12) A) 64. B) 30. C) 32. D) 34. E) ) If a neutral atom has 30 protons and 34 neutrons, the mass number of the atom is: 13) A) 94. B) 32. C) 34. D) 64. E) ) If a neutralatom has30 protons and 34 neutrons, the number of electrons in the atom is: 14) A) 94. B) 34. C) 64. D) 32. E) ) Whatis the mass number of an atom of potassium that has20 neutrons? 15) A) 19 B) 35 C) 15 D) 39 E) 59 16) How many protons are in an isotope of sodium with a mass number of 25? 16) A) 15 B) 32 C) 14 D) 11 E) 25 2

3 17) What is the symbol for the ion with 19 protons and18 electrons? 17) A) F+ B) K+ C) K- D) F- E) Ar+ 18) The number of electrons in an atom with 34 protons anda 2- charge is 18) A) 30. B) 34. C) 32. D) 36. E) ) Identify the alkaline earth metal in the following list. 19) A) aluminum B) potassium C) iodine D) strontium E) iron 20) Transition elements are located in the periodic table in 20) A) the first and second groups of the table. B) groups C) the elements known as the representative elements. D) periods E) groups ) Identifythe metalloid in the following list. 21) A) aluminum B) copper C) carbon D) sulfur E) antimony 22) The maximum number of electrons in any orbital is. 22) A) 1 B) 2 C) 3 D) 4 E) 5 23) The maximumnumber of electrons that may occupy the third electron energy level is 23) A) 8. B) 10. C) 32. D) 18. E) 2. 24) Whatis the electron arrangement for a neutral atom of lithium? 24) A) 3 B) 2,5 C) 2,1 D) 3,1 E) 1,2 25) Whatis the electron arrangement for a neutral atom of aluminum? 25) A) 2,8,5 B) 2,8,10 C) 2,8,3 D) 2,8,7 E) 2,8,8 26) Whatis the electron arrangement for a neutral atom of potassium? 26) A) 2,8,7,2 B) 2,10,7 C) 2,8,6,3 D) 2,8,8,1 E) 2,8,9 27) Whatis the electron arrangement for a neutral atom of zinc? 27) A) 2,8,9 B) 2,8,7,2 C) 2,8,6,3 D) 2,10,7 E) 2,8,18,2 28) Whatneutral element hasthe electron arrangement 2,8,4? 28) A) carbon B) iron C) sulfur D) oxygen E) silicon 29) Whatneutral element hasthe electron arrangement 2,8,7? 29) A) F B) S C) Cl D) Be E) Ar 30) Valence electrons are 30) A) electrons located in the lowest energy level of an atom. B) the core electrons in an atom. C) electrons that do not participate in ion formation and bonding. D) the 8 highest energy electrons in the atom. E) the electrons in the highest energy level of an atom. 3

4 31) The number of electrons in the highest energy level of a neutral atom of boron is : 31) A) 10 B) 8 C) 5 D) 2 E) 3 32) The number of valence electrons in a neutral atom of boron is: 32) A) 8 B) 2 C) 10 D) 5 E) 3 33) Inan electron-dot structure of an element, the dots are used to represent 33) A) the electron arrangement. B) all of the electrons in the atom. C) only the electrons that are involved in bonding.. D) the 8 highest energy electrons. E) the valence electrons. 34) Based on the periodic properties of the elements, which element should have physical and chemical properties similar to chlorine? A) O B) S C) Br D) P E) Ar 34) 35) How many valence electrons are in the electron-dot structures for the elements in group 2? 35) A) 6 B) 3 C) 2 D) 4 E) 1 36) How many valence electrons are in the electron-dot structures for the elements in group 13? 36) A) 3 B) 2 C) 4 D) 1 E) 6 37) How many valence electrons are in the electron-dot structures for the elements in group 16? 37) A) 6 B) 1 C) 3 D) 4 E) 2 38) The number of dots in the electron dot structure of nitrogen is 38) 39) The number of unpaired dots in the electron dot structure of nitrogen is 39) 40) The number of dots in the electron dot structure of carbon is 40) 41) The number of unpaired dots in the electron dot structure of carbon is 41) 42) Which of the following is the correct electron-dot structure for carbon? 42) A) B) C) D) E) 43) The number of unpaired dots in the electron dot structure of oxygen is 43) 44) The number of unpaired dots in the electron dot structure of helium is 44) A) one. B) two. C) three. D) four. E) zero. 4

5 45) The size of atoms 45) A) varies randomly with each element. B) increases steadily with atomic number. C) is the same for all elements - really small. D) decreases as you go down within a group. E) decreases from left to right across a period. 46) Which of the following has the largest atomic radius? 46) A) Br B) Ca C) P D) Al E) Ne 47) Ionization energy is 47) A) higher for potassium than for lithium. B) lowest in the noble gases. C) the energy required to remove all of the valence electrons. D) is the energy needed to remove an electron from an element in its elemental form. E) the energyneeded to remove an electron from an atom in the gas phase. 48) The ionization energy of atoms 48) A) varies randomly with each element type. B) decreases going across a period. C) increases going down withina group. D) decreases going down within a group. 49) Which of the following has the largest ionization energy? 49) A) Ne B) Al C) Br D) Ca E) P 50) An anion always 50) A) hasa positive charge. B) has more protons than electrons. C) forms from a metal. D) forms covalent bonds. E) hasa negative charge. 51) When forming an ion, lose their valence electrons to form positively charged. 51) A) dingbats, wingnuts B) nonmetals, cations C) nonmetals, anions D) metals, anions E) metals, cations 52) To form an ion, a sodium atom 52) A) gains seven electrons. B) gains two electrons. C) gains one electron. D) loses seven electrons. E) loses one electron. 53) Elements in group 2 of the periodic table form ions with a charge of 53) A) 3+. B) 1+. C) 0. D) 1-. E) ) How many electrons will chlorine gain or lose when it forms an ion? 54) A) gain 2 B) gain 1 C) lose 3 D) lose 1 E) lose 7 5

6 55) How many electrons will aluminum gain or lose when it forms an ion? 55) A) gain 5 B) lose 2 C) lose 3 D) gain 1 E) lose 1 56) Whatis the correct formula for the oxideion? 56) A) O+ B) O3+ C) O D) O2- E) O2+ 57) Whatis the correct formula for the iron(ii) ion? 57) A) Fe2+ B) Fe2- C) Fe3- D) Fe+ E) Fe3+ 58) The name of the Cu+ ion is 58) A) copper. B) copperide ion. C) copper ion. D) copper(ii). E) copper(i). 59) The charge on a sulfide ion is. 59) A) 0 B) 2- C) 3- D) 3+ E) 2+ 60) The name of Cl- is 60) A) chlorine. B) chlorine gas. C) chlorite ion. D) chlorine ion. E) chloride ion. TRUE/FALSE. Write 'T' if the statement is true and 'F' if the statement is false. 61) Potassium has one valence electron. 61) 62) The octet rule indicates that atomslose, gain, or share valence electrons to attain 8 valence electrons. 62) 63) Mercury is a metal. 63) 64) Tin forms two ions with charges of 2+ and ) 65) Iron forms two ions with charges of 2+ and ) 66) Copper forms two ions with charges of 1+ and ) 67) Zinc forms two ions with charges of 1+ and ) 6

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