THE COLD WAR

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1 THE COLD WAR The Conflict of tensions and hostilities between the United States and the Soviet Union

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3 Nuremburg Trials Trials held for the purpose of bringing Nazi war criminals to justice, the Nuremberg trials were a series of 13 trials carried out in Nuremberg, Germany, between 1945 and The defendants, who included Nazi Party officials and high-ranking military officers along with German industrialists, lawyers and doctors, were indicted on such charges as crimes against peace and crimes against humanity. Nazi leader Adolf Hitler ( )

4 Nuremburg Trials Nuremberg trials are now regarded as a milestone toward the establishment of a permanent international court, and an important precedent for dealing with later instances of genocide and other crimes against humanity.

5 March 1945 Yalta Conference

6 1945 Yalta Conference Purpose of discussing Europe's post-war reorganization Big Three agreed that all original governments would be restored to the invaded countries

7 July 1945 Potsdam Conference

8 1949 Europe 1945 Potsdam Conference Soviets wanted Eastern European countries to act as a buffer incase of another future attack Americans and British wanted democracies in all of Europe; let the Europeans decide (Wilson s selfdetermination) Western Europe Free 1948 Germany split into two sections Berlin split into two sections 1948 Berlin Airlift: Soviets blocked Western aid to West Berlin. US sent massive amounts of food and supplies through air craft flights to Berlin Soviet blockade called off 1949

9 1948 Berlin Airlift Soviets blocked Western aid to West Berlin. US sent massive amounts of food and supplies through air craft flights to Berlin Soviet blockade called off 1949

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12 Improve your knowledge The Russians took very high casualties to capture Berlin in May They spent the early occupation trying to take over all zones of the city but were stopped by German democrats such as Willy Brandt and Konrad Adenauer. Reluctantly the Russians had to admit the Americans, French and British to their respective zones.

13 United Nations 1945 FDR created the UN Charter but died before seeing it created 51 Nations pledged to solve world problems peacefully (now 193 nations) The Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. It has 15 Members, and each Member has one vote. Under the Charter, all Member States are obligated to comply with Council decisions.

14 1947 Greece and Turkey in turmoil Truman Doctrine: President Truman Containment Policy: stop communism from spreading The US would provide economic and military aid to countries to help communism from spreading Marshall Plan General George C Marshall Us launched massive economic aid program providing $13 billion to rebuild Europe Western Europe would rebuild quickly Eastern Europe not too good; Soviets did not pour money into them

15 Central Intelligence Agency 1947 Office of Strategic Service OSS created by FDR create espionage used in WWII By William Donovan based on British Secret Intelligence Service (MIG) IN 1942 Dulles created CIA secret organization from the OSS to collect information and spy on foreign governments to protect America

16 Organization of American States 1947 South America, Central America, Mexico and US united to protect the Western Hemisphere from aggression

17 Two New Teams East v West 1949 North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) US and Western European countries sign a pact or alliance to maintain peace in Europe General Eisenhower set up and acted as first commander Military to enforce unlike League of Nations in past 1955 Warsaw Pact Soviets and Communist Eastern European countries sign pact or alliance

18 Israel 1948 Palestine controlled by British Israel created Both US & Soviets recognized Mass migration of European Jews to Israel home Start of Arab-Israel Conflict (which still exists today) Zionist Movement-Jewish nationalism around the world

19 Back Home in America Levittown, NY first planned suburb community 1947 Baby Boomers Large generation of American born from TV & transistor Computer UNIVAC Vaccines Interstate Highways Sunbelt migrations aided with air conditioning let people move to hot areas like California, Arizona and Florida

20 America on Edge of Red Scare The Red Scare, launched by Senator Joe McCarthy, dominated US politics for several years and helped pressure Truman into the Korean War Fear of Communism spreading to US Many Americans were accused of being or knowing communists Accusations were like the witch trials of Salem in the 1600s!

21 House of Un-American Activities Since the 1930s Expose anti-american and radical groups including communists in America Many Americans were accused of being a radical or communist 1947 Film Industry in Hollywood investigated with top ten

22 Accused of being a spy for the Soviets by the HUAC IN guilty of perjury and sentenced to prison Nixon, a Congressman from California helped go after Hiss Alger Hiss 1948

23 Klaus Fuchs 1950 Nuclear Physicist Helped create atomic bombs used in Manhattan Project and transmitted information to the Soviets Served 9 years in prison Moved to East Germany (Communist)

24 Convicted of passing military secrets to the Soviets including Manhattan Project information Sentenced to death in 1953 First US Citizens to be executed for espionage and treason Rosenberg's 1951

25 China Communist Revolution 1949 China completes it s revolution by 1949 and united as communist after WWII. Chinese Nationalists (democratic) flee to Taiwan (still there today) US fears of more Asian countries falling to communism

26 Soviet Atomic Bomb 1949 The first Sovietatomic testwas codenamedfirst Lightningon August 29, 1949, and was code-named by theamericansasjoe 1.

27 KOREAN WAR After Japan s surrender in 1945, US and USSR divided Korea in half Communist North Democratic South 1950 North Korea attacked South Korea to unite United Nations sent troops (police force) along with US military US pushed back North Korea to the Chinese border General Douglas MacArthur wanted to drive into China and was fired by Truman. Chinese troops crossed the border helping North Korea. State-mate 1953 Truce signed lasted up to today. No peace treaty yet! North still Communist!

28 SPACE RACE Both USand USSRraced to capture German scientists to develop rockets 1947 US Chuck Yeager broke sound barrier (mach 1 or 750mph) 1957 Russians launch first satellite into space called Sputnik 1957 Sputnik II; First dog in space named Laika 1961 Soviet Yuri Gagarin was the first astronaut to orbit the Earth 1961, one month later, Mercury missions, U.S. Alan Sheppard first American in Space Kennedy created Apollo program to get a man on the moon by end of 1960s 1969 US launched Apollo 11; land Neil Armstrong, first man on the moon US won space race even though both sides sending satellites to space to spy on each other 1977-Present US develops space shuttle missions to space

29 President Eisenhower Republican Two terms ( ) Richard Nixon was Vice President Stop spreading of Communism Invited conversation about transparency with the Soviets about weapons

30 John Foster Dulles John Foster Dulles served as U.S. Secretary of State under Republican President Dwight D. Eisenhower from 1953 to Set tone of American Foreign Policy 1950s -1960s Advocating an aggressive stance against communism throughout the world Set up SEATO in 1955

31 Domino Theory 1954 After French lose Vietnam President Eisenhower unleashed his Domino Theory stating that if one country falls to communism, then others would fall to communism as well. Us gets involved right away

32 Vietnam 1954 Vietnam helped US during WWII Colony of France since 1800s US supported and supplied the French Vietminh (nationalist Vietnamese) fought the French and won by Vienna Accords established North and South Vietnam

33 Vietnam Justification Eisenhower's announcement of the "domino theory" laid the foundation for U.S. involvement in Vietnam. John F. KennedyandLyndon B. Johnsonboth used the theory to justify their calls for increased U.S. economic and military assistance to non-communist South Vietnam and, eventually, the commitment of U.S. armed forces in 1965.

34 America s Commitment to Vietnam Ngô Đình Diệm was the first president of South Vietnam. In the wake of the French withdrawal from Indochina as a result of the 1954 Geneva Accords, Diệm led the effort to create the Republic of Vietnam. US backed President even though the population of Vietnam voted (democracy) for Ho Chi Minh (Communist) Corrupt & was assassinated in November 1963

35 Nikita Khrushchev Stalin died in 1952 Khrushchev replaced Stalin as Premier of the USSR Nikita and Eisenhower were working on limiting and disarming nuclear weapons

36 South East Asia Treaty Organization SEATO 1955 South East Asian countries banded together to stop communism (Australia, France, Great Britain, New Zealand, Pakistan, Philippines, Thailand and US) Part of Truman s Doctrine of stopping the spread of communism No military backing like NATO Helped give support for US intervention in Vietnam Dissolved in 1977

37 Eisenhower Doctrine 1957 The term Eisenhower Doctrine refers to a speech by President Dwight David Eisenhower on 5 January 1957, within a "Special Message to the Congress on the Situation in the Middle East US would aid Middle East Countries to stop Communism

38 Arms Race Begins U.S. and Soviets develop nuclear bombs on a massive scale Deterrence: The development or maintaining of a strong military, weapons, to prevent or deter an attack by either side

39 Cuba Communist Revolution Communist Fidel Castro held a revolution against US backed President Fulgencio Batista Castro eliminated all US gambling and business practices in Cuba US held embargo (which still exists today)

40 U2 Spy plane Incident U2 Incident, Soviets shot down American U2 spy plane US Pilot Gary Francis Powers was shot down over the Soviet Union US was caught spying on the Soviets US/Soviet relations ended

41 President John F. Kennedy Election of 1960 Democrats win! First televised debates! 1 st Catholic President Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson Beat Republican Richard Nixon

42 New Frontier Kennedy s idea to reform the nation Promote a new world order and freedom Space Technology Earl Warren (Chef Justice) Many court precedents Peace Corps: America help develop poor nations

43 Alliance for Progress 1961 Kennedy establish economic cooperation between the U.S. and Latin America. US would provide financial assistance to Latin American countries an annual increase of 2.5% in per capita income, the establishment of democratic governments, the elimination of adult illiteracy by 1970 price stability, to avoid inflation or deflation more equitable income distribution, land reform, and economic and social planning US provide $80 Billion

44 Cuba: Bay of Pigs Incident April 1961 Counter-revolution American backed/trained free Cubans launched invasion of Cuba to end the Communist Castro regime which failed. Nixon urged a US invasion Kennedy backed off a fullinvasion to stop Castro USSR pledged to help Cuba in the future

45 World at Edge of WWIII Kennedy wanted to meet with Khrushchev to ease tensions USSR demanded respect for East Germany and US leave West Berlin August 1961 Berlin Wall built by East Germany to keep the West out. Separated East Berlin from West Berlin until 1989

46 Ich Bin Ein Berliner I am a Berliner Kennedy visited West Berlin to reaffirm US commitment to support West Berlin

47 Soviet Missiles ICBMs Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles

48 Tsar Bomba 1961 (RDS 220) largest, most powerful nuclear weapon ever detonated by any country. Hydrogen Bomb Althoughweaponized, it was not entered into service; it was simply a demonstrativetesting on the capabilities of the Soviet Union's military technology at that time. Show Kennedy & USA what the Soviets had!

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50 Cuban Missile Crisis 1962 For thirteen days in October 1962 the world waited seemingly on the brink of nuclear war and hoped for a peaceful resolution to the Cuban Missile Crisis. Soviets shipped nuclear missiles to Cuba US flew U2 spy planes to investigate, take pictures and decide what to do for 13 days US sent US Navy to turn Soviet ships around and avoided WWIII

51 In September 1962 the United States discovered that the Soviet Union had begun building nuclear missile sites on Cuba. In early October American Spy planes (U2s) produced photographic evidence of the existence of the sites. President Kennedy called a special meeting of the National Security Council to advise him on what action to take US Naval Blockade Response

52 Kennedy with Advisors

53 KENNEDY Assassination November 22, 1963 Dallas Texas Lee Harvey Oswald Promote: education, national security, and world peace for his run in Governor of Texas John Connely Jack Ruby killed Oswald the next day

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57 STOP

58 Vietnam War After WWII, Vietnam became a French colony like before 1954: French defeated by Vietminh forces; US worried about communism spreading US appoints leader of South Vietnam Ho Chi Minh leader of North (communist) War 1968 Tet Offensive; North attacked South; many American casualties this year 1975 American forces left Vietnam North came down and united all of Vietnam as communist US lost

59 Afghanistan Soviets wanted control of Afghanistan Americans trained Afghanistan forces including Taliban to fight off Soviets War Soviets pull out in 1985 and lost Soviet s Vietnam War

60 Cold War Ending 1989 President Reagan invests more money into military and does not back down to communists Helped end Cold War Increased spending on military that the Soviets could not match Star Wars Program: Build satellites to shoot down incoming Soviet nuclear missiles; never accomplished

61 Cold War Over: US Won! 1989 Berlin Wall comes down Soviet Union ends and changes country name back to Russia Communism finished! US won the Cold War East Europe changed to democracies as well China, North Korea, and Cuba remain communist today.

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