Era 8: The Cold War Domestic and Foreign Events and Issues

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1 Era 8: The Cold War Domestic and Events and Issues Out of all of the Units of Study for U.S. History Since 1877, the largest era is the time period known as the Cold War. The student expectations for the years have multiple issues, events, and people that are important to investigate and understand why they are so important. In the student guides provided to you, in order to prevent creating on HUGE unit, the Cold War has been broken down into 3 different parts. Each piece of the Cold War is tied together by a central theme and focus: : The Cold War - Issues and Events 8b: The Cold War - The Civil Rights Movement 8c: The Cold War - Domestic Issues and Events Therefore, it is important to remember that for the next three units, the events that occur in, are occurring at the same time as events in 8b and 8c. Therefore, a timeline of foreign and domestic issues and events is being provided to you to demonstrate when the major events occurred during the Cold War. (See provided example) Who was President when these events occurred? Photo of the President When did these events occur? Sections 8b & 8c Civil Rights Movement Domestic Issues and Events Section Issues/Events SAISD Social Studies Department Page 1

2 Harry S. Truman ( ) Potsdam Conference End of World War II Strike Wave of 46 Truman Doctrine Speech Desegregated the Armed Forces Marshall Plan Passed Berlin Airlift /Begins Housing Act Passed US Joins NATO Berlin Airlift /Ends Korean War Begins First TV Broadcast in Color VE Day Potsdam Conference Dropping of the atomic bombs VJ Day Truman Doctrine issued Marshall Plan U.S. recognizes the State of Israel Berlin Blockade Formation of NATO USSR detonates Its first atomic weapon The People s Republic of China established USSR and China form an alliance Korean War begins US detonates the first hydrogen bomb The National Security Council, the CIA, the Department of Defense and the National Security Resources Board created Housing Act (1949) Senator J. McCarthy accuses the government of employing communists Employment Act (1946) Labor Management Relations Act (1947) over Truman s veto Revenue Act (1950) increased income and corporate taxes Truman declares state of national emergency and imposes wage and price controls Jackie Robinson plays for the Brooklyn Dodgers Truman desegregates the national forces and asks Congress for legislation for housing and civil rights The McCarran- Walter Act (1952) over Truman s veto to prevent the immigration of communists into the US SAISD Social Studies Department Page 2

3 Dwight D. Eisenhower ( ) Chance For Peace Speech Korean War Ends Brown v Board Montgomery Bus Boycott Military Advisors Sent to Military Advisors Sent to Federal-Aid Highway Act Sputnik Launched by the USSR Little Rock 9 NASA Created Hawaii & Alaska become U2 Incident Korean War ends CIA support in Iran leads to the overthrow of the government USSR tests its first hydrogen bomb Atoms for Peace speech given CIA support in Guatemala leads a coup d état The US joins SEATO The US signs a Mutual- Defense Pact with Taiwan US Threatens the Use of Nuclear Weapons against China in the event of war Israel, Britain and France Attack Egypt over the protests of the US Eisenhower Doctrine for the Middle East issued Sputnik Launched US Troops ordered to Lebanon Fidel Castro takes power in Cuba USSR shoots down a U2 Spy plane US severs diplomatic relations with Cuba Refugee Act of 1953 Army-McCarthy hearings (1954) Federal Highway Act (1956) Alaska and Hawaii become States Farewell Address warns of the Military Industrial Complex The Social Security Act extends benefits The US Experiences two Recessions NASA is created and the US joins the Space Race Brown v. Topeka Board of Education Decision issued Brown II orders the desegregation of public schools Supreme Court orders the desegregation of the University of Alabama The Interstate Commerce Commission bans segregation on Interstate buses and trains Rosa Parks is arrested Montgomery Bus Boycott Browder v. Gayle declares bus segregation Unconstitutional Salk Polio vaccine becomes available Civil Rights Act of 1957 Little Rock Nine Civil Rights Act of 1960 becomes law SAISD Social Studies Department Page 3

4 John F. Kennedy ( ) Volstok 1 Launched Bay of Pigs Invasion Freedom 7 Launched 1st Berlin Wall is Built Friendship 7 Launched Cuban Missile Crisis Yuri Gagarin becomes the First Man in space CIA supported invasion of Cuba fails (Bay of Pigs) First Berlin wall goes up Cuban Missile Crisis Kennedy delivers his Ich bin ein Berliner Speech Limited Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Gideon v. Wainwright establishes the rule that the Accused must be provided legal counsel if they cannot afford It Proposed tax cuts, the creation of Medicare and an increased investment in public education as part of his New Frontier programs CORE Freedom Rides begin Supreme Court bans segregation in transportation facilities U.S. Supreme Court orders the University of Mississippi to admit J.H. Meredith March on Washington for Civil Rights legislation Alan Shepard Jr. becomes the First American in space John Glenn becomes the first American to orbit the Earth SAISD Social Studies Department Page 4

5 Lyndon B. Johnson ( ) Miranda v Arizona decision 24th Amendment Passed The Great Society Announced Martin Luther King Jr. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize Malcolm X Assassinated U.S. Troops in Vietnam Increase Voting Rights Act becomes law Six Day War Tet Offensive Martin Luther King Assassinated Gulf of Tonkin Resolution American involvement in Vietnam increases Six Day War between Israel and several Arab Nations Tet Offensive Brezhnev Doctrine issued 24th Amendment Civil Rights Act 1964 Voting Rights Act 1965 Miranda v. Arizona (Miranda Rights) Thurgood Marshall appointed to the Supreme Court Medicare and Medicaid are Created Martin Luther King, Jr. Awarded the Nobel Peace Prize Malcolm X is assassinated March on Selma Elementary and Secondary Education Act Watts Riots in LA Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated SAISD Social Studies Department Page 5

6 Richard M. Nixon ( ) Withdrawal from Vietnam begins Clean Air Act Pentagon Papers surface Nixon s Recovery Plan Begins Nixon Visits China Nixon Visits the USSR Watergate Scandal Begins Nixon Resigns Withdrawal from Vietnam Normalization of relations with the Peoples Republic of China. (The United States refused to recognize the Communist government of China since its revolution in 1949) Establishment of détente (lowering of tensions) with the Soviet Union. The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. both agreed to limit defensive missile systems through the SALT agreement. Selective Service Reform Bill Clean Air Bill (1971) Pentagon Papers Released to NY Times EPA is created Watergate Scandal Felt the social programs started with Roosevelt and expanded under the Great Society were inefficient and should be dealt with on the local level. (Revenue Sharing) Nixon resigns due to controversy surrounding the Watergate scandal. Wage-Price Controls Bill (1971) Signed Emergency Employment Act (1971) Passed US Experiences an Energy Crisis Inflation (The rise in price of goods) rose considerably during the Nixon years with measures ineffective. Equal Rights Amendment was approved by Congress in 1972 but was not approved by the required 75% of the states. Tinker v. Des Moines - Supreme Court determined students had the 1st Amendment right to nonverbal protest. (Wearing of black armbands protesting against the Vietnam War) Wisconsin v. Yoder - Supreme Court determined a state cannot mandate compulsory school attendance past a certain age if it violates the religious practices and values of a group/family. SAISD Social Studies Department Page 6

7 Gerald R. Ford ( ) Ford Pardons Nixon WIN is announced Freedom of Information Act Passed Saigon Falls Bicentennial Celebration In response to the United States supporting Israel during the 1973 conflict between Israel and Arab Nations, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) placed an embargo of oil on the U.S. and Western European nations. The embargo caused a steep rise in price for petroleum products. The United States with the Soviet Union and many of the European nations agreed to post World War II borders. U.S. involvement in Vietnam ended. One of the first actions Ford took as President was to pardon, excuse of wrongdoing, Nixon for all crimes he may have committed. Inflation during the Nixon years became Stagflation, rising prices and high unemployment. Ford countered the problem by starting the Whip Inflation Now (WIN) program to inspire Americans to reduce spending and consumption. Ford issues Proclamation 4313 providing those who left the U.S. to avoid the draft a conditional pardon. Signed the Education for All Handicapped Children Act of 1975, establishing special education programs nationwide. SAISD Social Studies Department Page 7

8 James E. Carter ( ) Carter Shifts Policy Camp David Accords China given full Diplomatic Rights Crisis of Confidence Speech Iranian Hostage Crisis Begins Treaty with Panama returning control of all adjoining land to the canal back to Panama with full control of the canal to be completed by Camp David Accords (1977) occurred. The agreement between Israel and Egypt in which Israel agreed to return land back to Egypt in exchange for diplomatic relations between the two nations. policy shifts from Anti-Communism to humanitarian Tensions increased between the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. when the Soviet Union invaded Afghanistan in During the years , Iran was experiencing growing protests against the ruler of Iran. By January of 1979, the Shah fled Iran and his government collapsed. By mid-february of that year, Iran s government moved from a monarchy to a theocracy. In October of 1979, the former ruler of Iran was admitted to the United States for cancer treatment. In response, a large group of university students took over the American Embassy taking 52 Americans as hostage for 444 days. To combat the lower amounts of imported oil, Carter created the Department of Energy as a cabinet position to regulate sources for energy. Stagflation continued Energy Crisis continued Legislation to provide bilingual education was by Congress. The Community Reinvestment Act of 1977 required banks to make credit available for loans for those living in low-income communities. Nuclear plant accident at Three Mile Island caused the creation of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to regulate the use of nuclear energy in the U.S. Carter declared a federal emergency in Love Canal, New York evacuating 800 families when it was discovered homes were build over a toxic waste dump. In response to the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, Carter boycotted the 1980 Summer Olympics. SAISD Social Studies Department Page 8

9 Ronald Reagan ( ) US hostage crisis ends Sandra Day O Connor SDI Initiative increases tensions Recession of the 70s ends Summit meeting held with the USSR Iran-Contra Scandal Begins Tear Down This Wall Speech American troops stationed in Lebanon were attacked by a suicide truck bomber, killing 241 and wounding more than 60. All American troops were withdrawn four months later. October 1983, American troops invaded Grenada based on an appeal from the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States. America s policy of détente towards the Soviet Union changed to the Reagan Doctrine. The doctrine enforced the idea of no longer containing communism, but rolling back Soviet-backed communist governments in Latin America, Africa and Asia. Tear Down This Wall speech given in Berlin. Reagan increased tensions with the Soviet Union with the SDI project that, when proposed, would set a laser-guided shield protecting the United States from nuclear attack. In retaliation to a terrorist incident where 63 American military personnel were killed, Libya was attacked through a series of air strikes by the United States. The Iran-Contra scandal involved the selling of weapons to Iran to gain money to support the Contras (Anti-Communists) in Nicaragua. The exchange of weapons for money was previously outlawed by Congress. Although the President was not connected to the scandal, 14 indictments on Reagan s staff occurred. Reagan nominated Sandra Day O Connor to the Supreme Court Reaganomics - To address the stagnation, Reagan proposed tax cuts for the wealthy, tax cuts on businesses, and less spending on welfare programs. Lowered the amount of government regulation on businesses and corporations. 13,000 striking aircraft control operators were terminated Increase spending on military occurred while Reagan was president as part of his Peace Through Strength beliefs. Loss of domestic jobs due to growing outsourcing of jobs. (Rust Belt) SAISD Social Studies Department Page 9

10 George H.W. Bush ( ) Savings and Loan Bailout Berlin Wall Falls Panama Invasion USSR Dissolves Americans With Disabilities Act Germany Reunites US Troops in Saudi Arabia Grows Persian Gulf War US Troops in Somalia Invasion of Panama (1989) to overthrow the dictator Manuel Noriega and restore the democraticallyelected government of that nation. Noriega was brought back to the U.S. and placed on trial for drug charges. The Gulf War (1990) - The United States invaded Iraqicontrolled Kuwait to push back Iraqi troops out of that nation. The invasion and push-back lasted several days. The collapse of the Berlin Wall and then the Soviet Union occurred early in Bush s term. The fall of the Berlin Wall in November 1989 signaled the downfall of the Soviet Union in The North American Free Trade Agreement with the US, Mexico, and Canada is signed in 1992 Restarted the space program with the initiative to complete the Space Station Freedom. American with Disabilities Act (1990) signed into law United States faced another recession by Savings and Loans began to go bankrupt causing a panic. Government heightened restrictions on S&Ls and provided $50 billion for a bailout. The Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) was signed that prohibited discrimination against those with disabilities in areas of employment and in public accommodations. SAISD Social Studies Department Page 10

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