US History. The Vietnam War. Student Workbook Unit 10. Name: Period: Teacher:

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1 US History The Vietnam War Student Workbook Unit 10 Name: Period: Teacher:

2 2

3 Vocabulary Homework Define each term and explain how it was important to the Vietnam War. Remember, all homework is due the day of the test Chapter 30 Section 1 1. Nguyen Tat Thanh 2. Vietminh 3. Domino Theory 4. Geneva Accords 5. Ngo Dinh Diem 10.2 Chapter 30 Sections 2 and 3 6. Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 7. Ho Chi Minh Trail 8. Agent Orange 9. Credibility Gap 10. Teach-In 11. Doves and Hawks 12. Tet Offensive 10.3 Chapter 30 Section Linkage 14. Vietnamization 15. My Lai 16. Kent State University 17. Pentagon Papers 18. War Powers Act 3

4 History of French Indochina and US Involvement 1800s Various Presidents U.S. supported President: U.S. supported Before With Because President: U.S. supported With Because President: U.S. supported With In 1954, defeated at. 4

5 2 provisions of the Geneva accords: Now, the U.S. supported With President: U.S. supported Because With became increasingly unpopular. Because of this the supported a coup. 1. Describe Americas relationship with Vietnam (generalize, do not do a play-by-play). 2. Imagine you are LBJ and you have inherited the Vietnam situation; what would you do after taking office? 5

6 Gulf of Tonkin Lead up to the Vietnam War: (in each box, create a simple image to show what is happening) French colonialism in Vietnam: 1800s-1941 Japan took over Vietnam during WWII. When Japan was defeated in 1945, Ho Chi Minh declared Vietnamese independence. But, the French came back in and tried to take over again. The US supported the French (pledged $15 million in military aid). Diem turns out to be very oppressive and unpopular. He canceled elections, repressed Buddhists and caused major discontent in South Vietnam. October 1955: South Vietnam declares itself the Republic of Vietnam. US supported South Vietnam s leader, Ngo Dinh Diem. July 1954: Geneva Convention calls for France to leave and split Vietnam in two North and South, with the idea that free elections would be held May 1954: France is defeated at the Battle of Dien Bien Phu November 1963: U.S. supported a coup and Diem was overthrown and killed. South Vietnam has a weak government which allows communism to gain strength. North Vietnam smuggled weapons in through the Ho Chi Minh Trails in Laos and Cambodia. August 1964: North Vietnamese attack US destroyer in international waters this is known as the Gulf of Tonkin incident. August 1964: US Congress passes the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution which authorizes President Johnson to use military force in Vietnam. Analysis: Looking at the information above and the information from yesterday s lesson, do you think the United States was planning to go to war with North Vietnam before the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution was passed?

7 Please label the map, include the following: North Vietnam South Vietnam China Laos Thailand Cambodia Gulf of Tonkin Please draw in the Ho Chi Minh Trail and label it Answer the questions. 1. List out the supporters for each side, explain the role of the NVA and VC, and the goal. North Vietnam South Vietnam Supporters: Supporters: North Vietnamese Army (NVA) Viet Cong (VC) Goal: Goal: 2. Explain why the Domino Theory kept the United States engaged in the conflict in Vietnam. 7

8 3. Explain what happened at the Gulf of Tonkin. 10. How did the United States attempt to deal with the system of tunnels? 4. Describe the powers given to Johnson in the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution (looking in particular at Section 2 of the document). 11. How was napalm used during the Vietnam War? 5. Provide details on Operation Rolling Thunder. 12. What is Agent Orange? 6. Predict the expected impact of Operation Rolling Thunder upon the North Vietnamese. 13. How was Agent Orange used during the Vietnam War? 7. What advantages did the VC have over American soldiers? 14. What was the purpose of the Ho Chi Minh Trail? 8. Provide details on the tunnel system created by the VC. 15. How did the Ho Chi Minh Trail help the North Vietnamese and the VC? 9. Explain the advantage gained by the VC with these tunnel systems. 16. In what ways did the US attempt to deal with Ho Chi Minh trail? 8

9 1968: Tet Offensive and My Lai Massacre Background Vietnam war was from US involved from Includes Vietnam,, and Total deaths about American soldiers died Why was the US Involved? 1954 Vietnam was divided in half North South Tet Offensive Lead up to the Tet Offensive Describe the graphic at the right 1965 US gets involved Sends in troops to the Wants to keep the South s government from collapsing Khe Sanh January 21, ,000 troops attack Khe Sanh NVA under the command of General Khe Sanh was an isolated air base, about 14 miles from the northern border General Giap s Plan US Marines were surrounded along with South Vietnamese forces Siege lasted US mounts counterattack, pushes NVA back At home, protestors were comparing this to

10 What is Tet? Tet Holiday Truce 1968 Tet Offensive Begins January 31, ,000 VC aided by NVA Attacks more than 100 cities and towns in the South Aided by the element of surprise because of the Battle for Saigon January 3 March 7, units 50 units are able to keep Saigon from being taken Battle for Hue January 31 March 2 NVA and VC storm this historic city Hue is not US and South forces counter-attack fighting of the entire Tet Offensive Targets 35 of 44 provincial capitals capital of South in Saigon Attack on the US Embassy January 31, soldiers blew their way into the US Embassy VC killed MP s Attack VC were pinned down by Marine guards All 19 VC were Massacre in Hue More than 3,000 enemies of people by VC and NVA in Hue Including SV government officials, SV officers, and Catholic priests Mass were found: people were and sometimes buried alive Estimates might be closer to 6,000 executed Tet Offensive The Big Picture Turning Point of the War Credibility Gap The Living Room War Political Fallout of Tet 10

11 My Lai Massacre Background March 16, 1968 My Lai is a small village in South Vietnam US soldiers of Company Told that of VC troops were coming through the area Told by their captain that all people in My Lai were either members or sympathizers What Happened? rounded up hundreds of civilians Many were raped, beaten, and/or tortured Many were then Between civilians were killed Casualties Of those killed: Many were and Many were suspected to be by US soldiers Killed by firearms, grenades and bayonets Cover Up and Investigation Despite the photos, this event was covered up until 1969 (but wasn t brought to the public s attention until 1969) The photos were key evidence in the investigation Ultimately, soldiers were charged One was sentenced to (Lieutenant Calley), but only served months Army concluded there was a widespread failure of, discipline and Americans increased their demand for a from Vietnam Still considered the worst case of American war Tet Analysis What was the immediate impact of the Tet Offensive? In the US and in Vietnam? My Lai Analysis How did this event being brought to American s attention aid the anti-war movement in America? What was the long-term impact? 11

12 Vietnam War Protests Protests and Music of Vietnam Invasion of Cambodia Protests in Kent, Ohio May 4, 1970 and The Numbers Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) Details from the Analysis of Evidence: In what ways was the National Guard justified in opening fire? In what ways was the National Guard not justified in opening fire? 12

13 Song Title: Artist: Details: What is meant by the term tin soldiers in the song? What does the reference to Nixon mean? Song Title: Artist: Details: What events are mentioned in this song? Song Title: Artist: Details: Who are the fortunate ones in this song? What is the main message of the song? Song Title: Artist: Details: Who fights the brunt of the war according to the song? What do the lyrics say that war is good for? Who is war s only friend? Song Title: Artist: Details: According to the song, what is the solution for war? What other era in our country was winding down in the 1971 and is the focus of the song? 13

14 Dear America: Letters Home from Vietnam Background Vocab KIA killed in action MIA missing in action WIA wounded in action V.C. communist army in the South Charlie communist forces (both VC and NVA) Victor Charlie Viet Cong Statistical Analysis/Evidence: When you see the screens that will present the following information, copy it into the table below. Year U. S. Troops in Vietnam Killed in Action (to date) Dec 31, 1965 Wounded in Action (to Date) Dec 31, 1966 Dec 31, 1967 Dec 31, 1968 Dec 31, 1969 End of War Total Dead 1975 As you watch this film, answer the following questions. Questions 1-8 can be answered in a few words while you watch the film. Questions 9-13 require more thought and draw on information presented throughout the course of the film. As you watch, be sure to take notes in order to answer those questions. 1. The film begins its chronicling of U.S. involvement in Vietnam in what year? 2. What are Hueys? What is a Zippo Raid? 3. The terms V.C., Charlie and Chuck all refer to what? 4. What was the average age of a U.S. combat soldier in Vietnam? 5. On Tet, the Chinese New Year, what did the Viet Cong and the NVA (North Vietnamese Army) do? 6. Shortly after the Tet Offensive, what did Lyndon Johnson decide? 14

15 7. At the May, 1970 anti-war protest at Kent State University in Ohio, what did National Guard troops do? 8. How did the U.S. soldiers in Vietnam respond to this event? Analysis Question 9. What were some of the things (multiple) that made fighting so difficult for the U.S. soldiers in Vietnam? 10. There are many shots of South Vietnamese civilians throughout the film. Describe how these people lived. 11. List several reasons why (according to their letters) these soldiers fought in Vietnam. 12. How does the music contribute to the film? 13. Overall, do you think this film has a message concerning the Vietnam War? What do you think it is? What is its point of view or perspective regarding U.S. involvement in Vietnam? 15

16 Nixon and Vietnam LBJ (Johnson) 1. What does LBJ s decision tell you about the war in Vietnam? 2. If you were a soldier in Vietnam and heard this, how would you feel? Nixon 1. What was Vietnamization? 2. Who was the silent majority? a. Based upon the graph (Document B), do the numbers support or refute Nixon s claims? Explain. 3. Why did Nixon believe Vietnamization was the best plan for the nation in 1969? 4. Based on what you have learned on the war in Vietnam and the broader Cold War, do you think Nixon s plan for Vietnamization was a continuation of the governmental policy of containment or something totally different? Explain. 16

17 Nixon expanded the war and continued the killing for four more years than necessary. Nixon did the right thing. The US had to give President Thieu a chance to hold out against North Vietnam after the US left. Nixon sold out the South Vietnamese. He should have stayed until all North Vietnamese troops left South Vietnam. Analyze: How do you view Nixon s Vietnam policy? Do you agree or disagree with his policy? Do you support the end result? Explain using evidence from above. 17

18 1968: The Whole World Was Watching Jan Feb Mar Apr May June July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec 18

19 Study Guide Please be familiar with the following for your multiple choice, short answer and essay assessment a(most, but not all, items will be included on your assessment): - Historic background of Vietnam - Ngo Dinh Diem - Ho Chi Minh - VC, NVA and Vietminh - Tet Offensive - Ho Chi Minh Trail - Gulf of Tonkin Resolution - Military Advisors - Geneva Accords (know details) - The living room war - Agent Orange - Napalm - Dien Bien Phu - My Lai - Domino Theory - Vietnamization - Kent State - Guerilla Warfare - Operation Rolling Thunder - Containment - Events of FDR and Vietnam - Truman and Vietnam - Kennedy and Vietnam - Johnson and Vietnam - Nixon and Vietnam - Nixon and Cambodia - Result of US withdrawal from Vietnam 19

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