Chapter 18 Practice Exam

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1 Chapter 18 Practice Exam Which of the following accurately describes the United Nations? o The UN, an international organization formed after World War I in an effort to avoid another world war, has always kept its promise to renounce war and respect human and economic freedoms. o The UN, formed in the late 1930s, is an international peacekeeping organization that has never committed to any military peacekeeping operation. o The UN, created in 1945 as an international peacekeeping organization, has not always been capable of making and keeping peace. o The UN was created in 1945 to help rebuild Europe once World War II ended, and to promote peace by protecting Eastern Europe from Soviet influence. o The UN, which is composed of fewer than 100 member nations, focuses exclusively on peacekeeping and leaves economic development, health, and education issues up to the government of each individual country. Which of the following statements is correct? o Civilian control of the military is unquestionable. o Democracies often go to war against one another. o Congress has little role in national security policy. o National security policy has little impact on the scope of government. o Interest groups have little impact on national security policy. o having little real value in contributing to national security affairs. Which of the following countries is a member of NATO? o Syria o the United States o China o Japan o Russia Which of the following is the president most likely to consult with for advice about how to best take advantage of the strengths of the various service branches when conducting a military operation? o the Joint Chiefs of Staff o the director of national intelligence o the secretary of state o the secretary of homeland security o the Central Intelligence Agency What is the primary responsibility of the Department How are tourists most likely to benefit international relations? o Tourists typically decrease the trade surplus. o Tourists help build goodwill between countries. o Tourists are the largest carriers of diseases in the world. o Tourists underscore stereotypes about foreign countries. o Tourists typically increase the trade deficit. : What is the primary responsibility of the secretary of defense? o homeland security o intelligence o foreign policy o diplomacy o military policy 1

2 Why was the North Atlantic Treaty Organization formed? o to enhance democratic government in newly industrializing countries o to promote free trade between the United States and Western Europe o to provide peacetime collective security for the United States and Western Europe o to minimize nuclear proliferation o to help rebuild war-torn Europe after World War II Which of the following is most consistent with the concept of diplomacy? o confrontation o counterintelligence o military action o negotiation o military threats Which of the following has as its primary responsibility conducting surveillance about the inner workings of countries across the world? o the Department of Defense o the secretary of state o the Central Intelligence Agency o the Marshall Plan o the World Trade Organization Which of the following best describes the conflict that has sometimes existed between the National Security Council and others within the national security establishment? o The NSC has sometimes conspired with the State and Defense departments in covert operations, such as the Iran-Contra affair. o The attorney general, who manages the NSC staff, has sometimes disagreed with the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff over whether military action should be taken in a particular situation. o Because the NSC is a relatively new department that was created along with the Department of Homeland Security after September 11, 2001, many advisors in other departments, such as State and Defense, do not respect the limited experience of its members. o The NSC has sometimes competed with, rather than integrated advice from, cabinet departments such as State and Defense, and it also has become involved in covert operations such as the Iran- Contra affair. o Because the NSC always integrates advice from other cabinet departments, such as State and Defense, and does whatever they suggest, most advisors in national security see the council as Which of the following countries is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council? o the United States o Germany o India o Spain o Italy Which of the following is comprised of a broad array of the president's foreign policy advisors and is housed within the White House? o the Department of Homeland Security o the Warsaw Pact o the Department of State o the Central Intelligence Agency o the National Security Council 2

3 What can Congress do to influence foreign policy if it is not satisfied with the way the president has handled foreign policy? o Congress can change foreign policy with a joint declaration of two-thirds of each chamber, which does not require the president's signature. o Congress can fire ambassadors who are not executing foreign policy according to Congress's wishes. o Congress can appoint a new secretary of state who will implement foreign policy according to Congress's wishes. o Congress can reduce appropriations for executing the president's foreign policy. o Congress can command the military to execute foreign policy according to Congress's wishes. Which of the following best describes the arms race? o the rapid movements of world governments to arm, and thereby protect, Eastern European countries from attack by the Soviet Union in the wake of World War II o a tense relationship between the United States and North Korea in the 1990s during which each side was striving to procure more nuclear weapons than the other o the vow to link arms and repair relations between the United States and the Soviet Union quickly after the fall of the Berlin Wall o a tense relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s during which each side was striving to procure more weaponry than the other o the U.S. race in the early twenty-first century to prevent the spread of weapons of mass destruction to unstable governments Which of the following best describes the world's superpowers since the end of World War II? o The United States and the Soviet Union were rival superpowers until the end of the Cold War, when the United States became the sole superpower. o The United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and the Soviet Union have been rival superpowers since the end of World War II. o The United States and the Soviet Union were the only two rival superpowers until the end of the Cold War, when China also became a rival superpower. o The United States has been the sole superpower since the end of World War II. Which of the following is the most heavily involved in gathering and analyzing information about foreign governments? o the National Security Agency o the Department of State o the Secret Service o the Department of the Treasury o the Transportation Safety Administration Why have multinational corporations (MNCs) become forces to be reckoned with in nearly all nations? o They account for a large portion of the global economy, have voiced strong opinions about government and economics, and have even linked forces with agencies such as the CIA to overturn governments they disliked. o They account for a large portion of the global economy, and although their strong opinions on government and economics can be easily ignored, they have been known to hire rebels to overturn governments that will not cooperate with them. o They have a lot of money and can buy government officials' votes in any country at any time in order to get their way. o They account for a very small portion of the global economy, but they have voiced strong opinions about government and economics that have sometimes swayed government leaders into doing what they want. o Because they still account for only a small portion of the global economy, they encourage isolationist policies in order to get complete control of governments and markets in various countries. 3

4 Who has the ultimate authority and control over U.S. foreign and military policy? o the president o the National Security Council o the State Department o the Joint Chiefs of Staff o Congress Why is it easier for the president to influence foreign and defense policy than it is for Congress to do so? o The president has the power to approve treaties. o The president has unlimited appropriations for foreign and defense policy. o The president cannot use the military without prior approval from Congress. o The president has a larger group of foreign and defense policy advisors. o The president can pass laws that require Congress to act. The Joint Chiefs of Staff serves as an advisor to the president on military policy. The president traditionally has more influence over foreign policy than does Congress. Which international organization was created after World War II at the urging of the United States? o the World Trade Organization o the League of Nations o the Warsaw Pact o the Marshall Plan o the United Nations How has U.S. foreign policy in Iran and North Korea been similar for much of the past decade? o It has been driven by the threat the countries pose to the United States. o It has been largely focused on economic development. o It has been largely determined by the wealth of natural resources the countries possess. o It has been largely driven by the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. o It has emphasized diplomacy over military action. During the height of the Cold War, what would the United States likely have done if it had discovered that the Soviet Union had previously unknown stockpiles of nuclear weapons? o engage in a military conflict with the Soviet Union o negotiate a bilateral trade agreement o extend diplomatic immunity to the Soviet Union o stockpile additional nuclear weapons in the United States o withdraw from NATO Why is the United States considered to be predominant in terms of military capabilities? o because it spends more than half of the federal budget on defense o because it has superior nuclear and information technology even though its air force is inferior to that of some other countries o because U.S. defense spending and weapons stockpiling have steadily increased since the end of World War II o because even though some countries have surpassed it in nuclear power, it still has more military personnel and more weapons than most other countries o because it has nuclear superiority and a large military infrastructure that has exploited advanced communications and information technology 4

5 Which of the following is an example of a situation in which economic sanctions, or the threat of them, accomplished the intended goal? o the sanctions against Cuba to oust the Marxist dictator o sanctions on Iran to prevent it from seeking to build nuclear weapons o the grain embargo on the Soviet Union in 1980 in retaliation for the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan o threats of sanctions against China because of human rights violations o sanctions levied against South Africa in the mid-1980s to protest apartheid What is the most serious common threat posed to the United States by both Iran and North Korea? o economic embargos o terrorism o trade wars o nuclear ambitions o communism Which of the following helps to explain why a country's economy may be negatively affected by an economic crisis in another country? o isolationism o detente o a negative balance of trade o a positive balance of trade o interdependency Why is pluralism so pervasive in contemporary U.S. economic policy? o because the United States actively inserts itself into the economic affairs of many different countries o because the United States imports goods from many different countries with different policy goals o because the United States has allowed China and India to catch up economically, so they now have a say in U.S. economic policy o because the United States consists of people from many different ethnic and cultural backgrounds with different ideas about how money should be spent o because different U.S. agencies and constituencies have different economic policy goals Congress can exercise influence over foreign policy through its power to. o command the armed forces o ratify treaties o receive diplomats o recognize the sovereignty of foreign countries o appoint the secretary of defense Which of the following best describes the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA)? o The CIA has sometimes become the focus of controversy because of its involvement in other nations' internal affairs. o By law, the CIA is free to do whatever it thinks best in the name of national security, even when its actions are controversial. o The end of the Cold War made the CIA's role more important, since there was increased pressure for covert activities and less focus on conventional intelligence gathering. o The CIA is in charge of the various other agencies in the intelligence community. o The CIA, which has primary responsibility for gathering intelligence, has spied on foreign adversaries, but never on American citizens. What is the primary responsibility of the secretary of state? o national defense policy o diplomacy o military policy o homeland security o intelligence 5

6 Which of the following describes why soft power is becoming more important to U.S. national security? o Force is often not an appropriate way to defeat terrorism and achieve economic and ecological goals. o China, our biggest threat, relies only on soft power, and therefore the United States should do the same. o The United States is no longer the strongest military power in the world. o Force can defeat terrorism, but it cannot achieve other goals such as protecting the environment and regulating trade. o Soft power gives the United States a way to put forward the illusion of being weak, even though it is the world's mightiest military power, which makes the superpower appear to be less of a threat to other countries. Why has the United States tried to deal with the threat from Iran with diplomacy, rather than military options? o Military action would be more likely to lead to further radicalization of Muslims and terrorist retaliation. o Diplomacy is likely to lead to a military alliance with Iran, making both the United States and Iran more powerful nations. o Diplomacy is likely to succeed, since the Islamic world trusts and respects the United States. o Military action would be less likely to succeed, and could harm the cooperative approach taken by Iran toward the United States and its allies. o Diplomacy is likely to lead Iran to isolationism, thereby removing the threat. Who serves on the Joint Chiefs of Staff? o the president's foreign policy advisors o the leaders of the armed forces o the secretary of defense, the secretary of homeland security, and the director of the Central Intelligence Agency o the White House military intelligence corps o the Cabinet secretaries Who heads the U.S. intelligence community? o the National Security Agency o the director of national intelligence o the vice president o the director of the Central Intelligence Agency o the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff Which of the following is NOT true concerning the United Nations? o The United States often plays an important role in implementing UN policies. o The Security Council is the key decision-making body in the UN. o General Assembly resolutions are legally binding on members o Peacekeeping is an important function of the UN. o The General Assembly includes almost 200 nations. Which of the following organizations was created to help the president coordinate American foreign and military policies? o the Department of Defense o the National Security Council o the State Department o the North Atlantic Treaty Organization o the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations Which of the following statements is correct? o The end of the Cold War resulted in the emergence of global terrorism. o Punishing countries employing terrorism does not discourage terrorism. o Planning for the postwar period in Iraq was unusually effective. o Terrorists have become increasingly decentralized. o Pakistan has largely freed itself from terrorists. 6

7 Which of the following is an example of foreign aid? o the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade o the Cuban Missile Crisis o the International Monetary Fund o the Marshall Plan o the North American Free Trade Agreement During the Cold War, the United States and the Soviet Union were engaged in an arms race. Therefore, if the United States had built a new space-based nuclear weapons system, what would the Soviet Union most likely have done? o filed a complaint with the United Nations o given humanitarian aid to enemies of the United States o launched a conventional military strike against the United States o launched a nuclear strike against the United States o built a comparable spaced-based nuclear weapons system What was the foreign policy of containment designed to prevent? o the spread of communism o epidemics and pandemics o the Cold War o terrorism o nuclear proliferation Which of the following could result from a balance-of-trade deficit? o The value of the dollar declines, which makes American products more expensive abroad, thereby decreasing our exports. o The value of the dollar stays the same, since a year of deficit is often followed by a year of surplus, and in a short time trade is balanced again. o The value of the dollar declines, so Americans have to pay more for goods from other nations. o The value of the dollar increases, making American products cheaper abroad, thereby increasing our exports. o The value of the dollar increases, so Americans can buy more goods from other countries for the same amount of money. What is the main foreign or defense policy threat posed by Iran? o civil unrest o nuclear capabilities o trade disagreements o conventional arms o economic collapse Which of the following best describes the world's superpowers since the end of World War II? o The United States and the Soviet Union were rival superpowers until the end of the Cold War, when the United States became the sole superpower. o The United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, and the Soviet Union have been rival superpowers since the end of World War II. o The United States and the Soviet Union were the only two rival superpowers until the end of the Cold War, when China also became a rival superpower. o The United States has been the sole superpower since the end of World War II. o The United States and the Soviet Union were rival superpowers until the Cuban Missile Crisis, when the United States and Russia became rival superpowers. Barack Obama's approach to U.S. foreign policy is best described as isolationist. 7

8 Who won the Vietnam War? o communists o South Korea o the Warsaw Pact o NATO o the United States Which of the following is most consistent with the foreign policy of isolationism? o a country's willingness to use diplomatic sanctions to pressure another country to address human rights violations o the United States' involvement in World War II o multilateral trade agreements o the George W. Bush administration's policy of actively rooting out terrorism before a threat has fully developed o a country's refusal to intervene in an armed conflict between two other countries One of the primary purposes of the war in Afghanistan was to. o protect Iraq from Afghani military attacks o prevent the spread of communism o remove the Taliban-led government o retaliate for the bombing of the USS Cole o protect religious freedom Which of the following constrains Pakistan's efforts to fight terrorists who have emerged in that country? o There is substantial sympathy for the Taliban among many Pakistani military and intelligence officials. o The terrorists have shown no sign of being dangerous, so the government is not concerned about them. o The country has had no help, as other countries have refused Pakistan's requests to become involved. o Although many military and intelligence officials oppose the Taliban, the government of Pakistan is a strong supporter of terrorists. o The terrorists have taken over large cities and are beyond the government's control. The 2003 war in Iraq was the United States' most immediate and direct response to the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks. In 2004, Congress created a director of national intelligence. Why did Congress do this? o to better coordinate the large number of people working in diverse intelligence agencies o to decentralize authority within the intelligence community to prevent competition between agencies o to help the director of the Central Intelligence Agency combat the growing threat posed by weapons of mass destruction o because the previous organizational structure of the intelligence community encouraged the various agencies to do too much of their work collaboratively o because Congress wanted the Bush administration to have greater influence over the intelligence community Which of the following is most likely to have the greatest influence over U.S. foreign policy? o chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff o director of the Central Intelligence Agency o secretary of state o director of national intelligence o director of the National Security Agency 8

9 How did the Cold War get started? o It began after World War II when there was a shortage of coal and heating fuel in Europe. o It began after Eastern Europe escaped Soviet domination at the end of World War II, as an effort to prevent the Soviets from ever spreading communism to those countries. o It started when the Truman Doctrine froze all military alliances into their pre-world War II configurations. o It began after all of Eastern Europe fell under Soviet domination at the end of World War II, which prompted fears that the Soviets would spread communism around the globe. o It started when the United States established the Truman Doctrine at the end of World War II, which left other countries "in the cold" by declaring that from then on, they would have to defend themselves without U.S. help. What event marked the end of the Cold War? o the Soviet withdrawal from Afghanistan o the collapse of the Soviet Union o the signing of the SALT II Treaty o detente Which of the following was a fundamental part of the George W. Bush administration's case for the 2003 war in Iraq? o Iraq attacked Israel in 2002 with SCUD missiles and was threatening to do so again. o Iraq had weapons of mass destruction. o Saddam Hussein had provided al-qaeda with military intelligence and training. o Saddam Hussein had permitted Osama bin Laden to use Iraq for training terrorists. o Saddam Hussein had provided considerable funding to Osama bin Laden. How is terrorism different from traditional military force? o Terrorism is typically better financed. o Terrorism usually involves military targets. o Only nongovernmental political actors engage in terrorism. o Only governments engage in terrorism. o Terrorism is typically designed to instill fear in the general public. Which of the following best describes U.S. foreign aid? o Americans greatly underestimate the amount that is spent on foreign aid. o The United States does not channel foreign aid through grants from private voluntary organizations and individuals. o Americans greatly overestimate the amount that is spent on foreign aid. o Loans at favorable interest rates and preferential trade agreements do not constitute foreign aid. o Most foreign aid programs are aimed at providing medical care and other services in less developed nations. Which of the following statements is correct? o Evidence shows that there is a clear trade-off between defense and domestic policy expenditures. o Defense spending amounts to about one-fifth of the budget o The United States has about 5 million active duty troops. o Recently, defense policy has emphasized improving conventional warfare capabilities. o Military power is central to resolving almost all international issues. To succeed, economic sanctions typically have to o have broad international support. o follow targeted military strikes. o have support within the targeted nation. o involve the nations of North America. o None of the above. 9

10 Currently efforts to stop the proliferation of nuclear weapons are focused mainly on Iran and North Korea. U.S.. foreign aid has typically received widespread support from the American people. Why did the United States join the North American Free Trade Agreement? o to prevent the salaries of American workers from increasing faster than inflation o to relocate manufacturing jobs to Mexico to take advantage of cheaper labor o to slow down the pace of globalization o to make it harder for Japanese cars to compete in the American marketplace o to increase the number of markets readily available for American goods Terrorists are most likely to target which of the following? o elected officials o civilians o bureaucrats o members of the military o political dissidents Which of the following tactics has al-qaeda used effectively? o mutually assured destruction o cold war o nuclear proliferation o terrorism o detente What is the role of the secretary of defense? o to coordinate American and foreign defense policies o to advise the president on defense policy matters and oversee diplomatic employees in U.S. embassies o to lead the Department of Homeland Security o to head the U.S. intelligence community o to manage the defense budget and give the president advice about national defense matters and military policy Which of the following best describes the arms race? o the rapid movements of world governments to arm, and thereby protect, Eastern European countries from attack by the Soviet Union in the wake of World War II o a tense relationship between the United States and North Korea in the 1990s during which each side was striving to procure more nuclear weapons than the other o the vow to link arms and repair relations between the United States and the Soviet Union quickly after the fall of the Berlin Wall o a tense relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union in the 1950s during which each side was striving to procure more weaponry than the other o the U.S. race in the early twenty-first century to prevent the spread of weapons of mass destruction to unstable governments Who instituted the Marshall Plan and who benefited directly from it? o The Soviet Union instituted the Marshall Plan to benefit Eastern Europe. o Italy instituted the Marshall Plan to benefit Western Europe. o Eastern Europe instituted the Marshall Plan to benefit Western Europe. o Germany instituted the Marshall Plan to benefit the United States. o The United States instituted the Marshall Plan to benefit Western Europe. 10

11 What was Ronald Reagan's Strategic Defense Initiative envisioned to accomplish? o protecting the United States from nuclear weapons o reducing the number of nuclear warheads held by both the United States and the Soviet Union o promoting democracy by fostering economic development o containing the spread of communism o refocusing the military on nonconventional warfare The United States engaged in which of the following military conflicts in order to prevent the spread of communism? o World War I o the Vietnam War o the Persian Gulf War o World War II o the global war on terrorism 11

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