Cold War Practice. Attorney General Robert H. Jackson, on the Nuremberg Trials

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1 Class: Date: Cold War Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of these was an agreement reached at the Yalta Conference that one of the participating leaders violated? a. Stalin would allow free elections in Eastern European nations under Soviet control. b. Nations liberated from Germany would have the right to create democratic institutions independently. c. The creation of an international peacekeeping organization would be a postwar priority. d. The leaders would contribute an equal number of soldiers to a peacekeeping organization. 2. Which of the following was a direct result of the Yalta Conference in 1945? a. the division of Germany into four zones b. the establishment of the United States as peacekeeper c. the emergence of a pro-communist government in Berlin d. the retreat of the Soviet Army from the eastern front 3. Study the quotation below and answer the question that follows. The wrongs which we seek to condemn and punish have been so calculated, so malignant and devastating, that civilization cannot tolerate their being ignored because it cannot survive their being repeated. Attorney General Robert H. Jackson, on the Nuremberg Trials According to Attorney General Jackson, the main purpose of the Nuremberg Trials was to a. figure out what factors led to the Holocaust genocide. b. prevent a genocide like the Holocaust from happening again. c. allow Holocaust survivors to see the Nazis come to justice. d. reward the Holocaust survivors with the creation of the state of Israel. 4. The term iron curtain refers to the a. tension between Arab and Jews over the control of Palestine. b. division between Soviet controlled countries and the Western world. c. determination with which the Nazi leaders were condemned. d. policy of providing aid to help foreign countries fight communism. 5. What was the original purpose of the United Nations? a. hunger abatement b. conflict resolution c. terror prevention d. disaster relief 1

2 6. One of the first decisions made by the United Nations was to a. vote to divide Palestine into separate Arab and Jewish states. b. officially condemn the 1949 war on Israel. c. send peacekeeping troops to Palestine. d. protest the division of Palestine. 7. Presidential adviser Bernard Baruch probably called America s relationship with the Soviet Union a cold war because the a. Soviets fought the United States by freezing prices. b. conflict would not be as intense as World War II. c. Soviet Union and the United States were enemies, but no official war took place. d. both countries were developing nuclear weapons using cold fusion. 8. By applying the strategy of containment, the United States hoped to prevent the a. emergence of an economic crisis in postwar Europe. b. return of Nazi ideas to postwar Germany. c. expansion of the Soviet Union s influence around the world. d. spread of nationalism from China to the rest of Asia. 9. The Truman Doctrine was the policy of a. loaning money to Western European countries recovering from war. b. developing nuclear weapons to prepare for a Soviet attack. c. airlifting food and supplies to countries under Communist rule. d. sending aid to countries such as Greece to help them fight communism. 10. The United States and Britain responded to the Soviet blockade of West Berlin by a. airlifting supplies to residents. b. stopping trade with the U.S.S.R. c. threatening to start a war. d. negotiating with the Communists. 11. What benefits did the G.I. Bill of Rights offer to veterans? a. exemption from rationing of food and gasoline b. money for school, as well as loans for houses, farms, and businesses c. guaranteed acceptance into state universities and colleges d. monthly allowances for the still unemployed 12. Congress passed the Taft-Hartley Act in 1947 to a. control post-war inflation. b. protect civil rights. c. outlaw communist meetings. d. weaken labor unions. 13. What part of Truman's Fair Deal angered the Dixiecrats? a. an end to racial discrimination in hiring b. a higher minimum wage c. national health insurance for all d. expanded Social Security for the elderly 2

3 14. What did Eleanor Roosevelt do to change the role of the first lady? a. acted as a public figure b. campaigned for her husband c. had no children d. ran for Congress 15. Why was the Communist takeover of China during World War II a defeat for U.S. foreign policy? a. U.S. diplomats had encouraged the alliance between the Nationalist and Communist Parties after World War I. b. U.S. troops had been fighting on the side of the Nationalists against the Communists. c. The United States had supported the cause of the Nationalists in the fight for control of China. d. The United States had tried to get the Soviet Union to promise it would not support communism in China. 16. How was the relationship between the Communist and Nationalist Parties in China after World War II similar to the relationship between the United States and the Soviet Union? a. They had joined forces against a common enemy, but turned against each other after World War II. b. They were building weapons to use against each other, but not engaging in open war. c. They had violated the terms of an agreement made between them during World War II. d. They were constantly suspicious that those around them might be spies for the opposite side. 17. The nation of Korea was controlled by a. an independent government before World War II, and divided between China and the United States after the war. b. Japan before World War II, and divided between the Soviet Union and the United States after the war. c. the United States before World War II, and divided between China and Japan after the war. d. China before World War II, and divided between an independent government and the Soviet Union after the war. 18. President Truman sent American forces to South Korea to a. take over the fighting from the South Korean troops. b. give South Korean troops cover and support. c. defend the United States against the South Korean army. d. protect the border with China and make sure the conflict didn't spread there. 3

4 19. What happened to prevent a quick U.S. victory in Korea? a. General MacArthur suggested an attack on mainland China, but President Truman refused permission. b. Just when it seemed North Korea would be successfully invaded, China sent hundreds of thousands of soldiers across the border to join the North Korean army. c. Because of illness, General MacArthur resigned his command of UN forces, and President Truman recalled him to the United States. d. When it seemed North Korea would be successfully invaded, the Soviet Union sent hundreds of thousands of soldiers across the border to join the North Korean army. 20. Why did President Truman fire General MacArthur? a. MacArthur criticized Truman for not letting him invade mainland China. b. MacArthur held secret conferences with the South Korean government. c. MacArthur brought the army across the 38th parallel without an executive order. d. MacArthur was found to be spying for the Communist countries. 21. The Korean War ended in 1953 with a. Soviet troops in place to guard the North Korean border. b. China pulling out its troops and ending its support for North Korea. c. the defeat of North Korea, which pulled back farther north. d. North and South Korea once again divided near the 38th parallel. 22. Dwight D. Eisenhower said the first task of his administration would be to a. build a hydrogen bomb b. end the Korean War c. put a stop to inflation d. root out Communist spies 23. Many of the Hollywood actors accused of having Communist ties in the late 1940s were a. arrested. b. blacklisted. c. fined. d. deported. 24. Study the quotation below and answer the question that follows. If none of us ever read a book that was dangerous, nor had a friend who was different, or never joined an organization that advocated change, we would all be just the kind of people Joe McCarthy wants. Whose fault is that? Not really [McCarthy s]. He didn t create this situation of fear. He merely exploited it, and rather successfully. In this quotation, journalist Edward R. Murrow accused Senator Joseph McCarthy of a. persecuting his own political supporters. b. resisting cultural change in America. c. convicting citizens of crimes without proof. d. taking advantage of a frightened nation. 4

5 25. Julius and Ethel Rosenberg accused of a. criticizing Senator Joseph McCarthy in an article. b. making false charges against suspected Communists. c. providing secrets to Soviet spies about the atomic bomb. d. spying for the Chinese during the Korean War. 26. The paid work opportunities for women in the 1950s could be described as a. non existent, as women could do only housework. b. imited, as women were hired only in a few fields. c. attractive, as women obtained equal pay for equal work. d. excellent, as women who started work during the war kept their jobs 27. Other than his brutal bullying of witnesses, what brought down Senator Joseph McCarthy in 1954? a. Alleged Communists called to testify refused to do so. b. Wisconsin voters refused to reelect McCarthy, who lost his seat in the Senate. c. McCarthy hinted that President Eisenhower himself was sheltering Communists. d. McCarthy charged that there were Communists in the U.S. Army. 28. The duck and cover drills of the 1950s show Americans fear of a. artificial satellites. b. a hydrogen bomb attack. c. acid rain. d. terrorist attacks. 29. What did the U.S. government fear the Soviet Union would do after the launch of Sputnik in 1957? a. launch missiles at America from space b. use satellite technology to spy on America from space c. be the first nation to land on the moon, beating America d. access secret American space technology 30. Sputnik was the world s first a. artificial satellite b. computer c. hydrogen bomb d. spaceship 31. What is brinkmanship? a. the willingness to come close to war to stop the spread of communism b. an economic system based on an every man for himself theory c. a policy of stopping countries from setting up satellite states d. unceasing loyalty to one s country in any situation 32. Which Cold War crisis pushed the world to the brink of World War III? a. a crisis in Egypt over the Suez Canal b. the overthrow of the premier of Iraq c. the removal of the Guatemalan president d. a crisis in the United Nations over Palestine 5

6 33. Many American businesses in the 1950s moved to the a. East Coast states, where international trade thrived. b. northeastern states, where cities were located. c. midwestern states, where there was room to build. d. southern and western states, where tax rates were low. 34. What did William Levitt s homes have in common with Henry Ford s Model T cars? a. They were designed to be simple and affordable. b. Each worker who built them did only one task. c. They contributed to a decline in city services. d. Only white families were allowed to buy them. 35. What was the focus of the federal urban renewal program? a. encouraging community-owned urban businesses b. discouraging families from moving to the suburbs c. improving city services and urban housing d. decreasing federal funding for highway construction 36. Which of the the following developments had the greatest impact on American popular culture in the 1950s? a. shopping malls b. fast-food restaurants c. television d. radio 37. In their works beatniks criticized the a. disruption of the family. b. moral threat of jazz music. c. values of mainstream America. d. new liberated woman of the 1950s. 38. What is one reason why many American women were dissatisfied with the postwar years? a. People expected them to complete their educations even if they had no career goals. b. There were not enough jobs to go around once male veterans returned to the work force. c. Teen rebellion made them feel that their roles in life had little meaning. d. Society seemed to assume that a woman s principal role was as housewife and mother. 39. Beat writers Allen Ginsberg and Jack Kerouac encouraged young people to a. get educated at good universities. b. start families in the suburbs. c. question mainstream society. d. become familiar with technology. 6

7 40. Read the following charts and answer the question that follows. According to the charts, which of the following statements is true for the period between 1945 and 1960? a. Live births and personal income nearly doubled. b. Live births increased especially in the late 1950s. c. Live births increased dramatically in the late 1940s. d. Personal income grew slowly in the late 1940s. 41. Some journalists of the 1950s labelled rock n roll as a. phony. b. immoral. c. outdated. d. snobbish. 42. The bebop style invented by musicians such as Charlie Parker and Dizzy Gillespie was a a. danceable swing. b. variation of gospel. c. fast-paced, complex form of jazz. d. sentimental version of rock n roll. 43. The Alliance for Progress was a U.S. program that a. funded anti-communist forces in Latin America. b. created the Peace Corps, sending volunteers to help developing countries. c. pledged $20 billion in aid to countries in Latin America. d. government advisors created to help developing nations build their infrastructures. 44. In establishing the Peace Corps President Kennedy intend to a. bring a nonviolent end to racial segregation in the United States. b. design a treaty that would end the conflict with Cuba. c. give young people a chance to express their views. d. help developing countries with tasks such as building schools. 7

8 45. Why was President Kennedy particularly worried about Fidel Castro s close ties with the Soviet Union? a. Cuba could become a gateway for Soviet ideas to spread throughout Latin America. b. The Soviets could thwart the plan Kennedy had devised to overthrow Castro using Cuban exiles. c. Cuba could prove a distraction for the Soviets from troubles such as the crumbling Berlin Wall. d. The Soviets could use Cuba as a base from which to launch a missile attack on the United States. 46. What did the Bay of Pigs invasion of 1961 implement? a. Castro s plan to stage a coup and set up a Communist government in Cuba b. Eisenhower s plan to overthrow Castro using Cuban exiles trained by the CIA c. Kennedy s plan to overthrow Castro using the U.S. navy and air forces d. anti-castro Cubans plan to escape the country on wooden rafts and inner tubes 47. Why did Nikita Khrushchev decide to build the Berlin Wall? a. Khrushchev wanted to keep other countries from attacking. b. The Berlin Wall would keep Russian nuclear weapons a secret. c. Khrushchev wanted to stop workers from escaping East Berlin. d. The Berlin Wall would stop the expansion of West Berlin. 48. Kennedy allowed the Soviet Union to build the Berlin Wall because he was a. focused on winning the space race. b. preoccupied by the Cuban threat. c. intent on strengthening relations with Russia. d. unwilling to go to war over the issue. 49. What started the Cuban Missile Crisis? a. A U.S. raid uncovered nuclear missiles on Soviet ships supposedly delivering food to Cuba. b. Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev announced that he had installed nuclear missiles in Cuba. c. American spy planes discovered that the Soviets were installing nuclear missiles in Cuba. d. Cuban leader Fidel Castro announced that Cuba had allowed the Soviets to install nuclear missiles on the island. 50. President Kennedy amazed Americans in 1961 by saying that by the end of the decade the United States would a. build home computers. b. end racial segregation. c. eliminate communism. d. land a man on the moon. 8

9 51. What propelled U.S. investment in space exploration during the 1960s? a. a rising interest in astronomy b. Americans fear that a nuclear war would make Earth uninhabitable c. advancements in rocket science d. Cold War-era competition between the United States and the Soviet Union 52. Which of the following American astronauts were the first to land on the moon? a. John Glenn and Virgil Gus Grissom b. Alan Shepard and Donald Deke Slayton c. Neil Armstrong and Edwin Buzz Aldrin d. Roger Chaffee and William Anders 53. Study the map below and answer the question that follows. Which of the following statements about French Indochina is true? a. It included Thailand. b. It included the island of Hainan. c. Burma was on its northwest boundary. d. The Gulf of Tonkin was on its western boundary. 9

10 54. Why did the United States support France s attempt to suppress the Vietminh? a. The United States feared that a Vietminh victory would lead to the spread of communism in the region. b. France wanted to remove the Japanese government that had been installed in Vietnam during World War II. c. The United States wanted to overthrow Ngo Dinh Diem before he spread communism to Laos and Cambodia. d. Ho Chi Minh's government was unpopular with the Vietnamese people, who asked the French to return. 55. What was Vietnamese nationalist leader Ho Chi Minh s goal? a. a French-controlled Vietnam b. a Communist revolution in Vietnam c. the integration of American ideals into an independent Vietnamese nation d. the colonization of Laos and Combodia by a free and democratic Vietnam 56. Which of these statements expresses the domino theory? a. If atomic weapons were used once to end a war, they would be used to end all subsequent wars. b. If the United States waged one war against communism, it would have to wage other wars. c. If one nation became Communist, nearby countries would also fall to communism. d. If the Soviets took over one Asian nation, they would take over the entire continent. 57. What was the result of the 1954 Geneva Accords? a. open trade between Vietnam and France b. an alliance between Vietnam and China c. an entirely Communist Vietnam d. the temporary creation of North and South Vietnam 58. What did Ngo Dinh Diem do to disappoint the U.S. government? a. called for democratic elections that would unite North and South Vietnam b. refused to allow the reunification elections promised by the Geneva Accords c. redistributed the land and imprisoned or killed thousands of landowners d. appointed his own family members to top positions and tortured political enemies 59. Against whom did the Vietcong fight? a. Ho Chi Minh b. Ngo Dinh Diem c. France d. Japan 60. What 1964 event led to a rapid expansion of U.S. involvement in Vietnam? a. The French lost control of Vietnam to the Vietcong. b. A group of South Vietnamese army officers killed Ngo Dinh Diem. c. U.S. ships off the North Vietnamese coast reported being attacked. d. Laos and Cambodia fell to Ho Chi Minh s fascist rule. 10

11 61. The Tonkin Gulf Resolution a. authorized the president to call for a nationwide draft of all men registered with the Selective Service. b. formally declared war with North Vietnam, allowing Congress to budget millions of dollars for the war effort. c. gave the president authority to take all necessary means to repel an armed attack against U.S. forces. d. permitted the government to quell the antiwar movement by deporting its leaders to Canada. 62. To disrupt the Ho Chi Minh Trail, U.S. forces a. created open, easily defensible areas to serve as safe havens for U.S. military operations. b. cut off food and water supplies to force Vietcong troops out of underground tunnels. c. dropped napalm and Agent Orange to kill troops, destroy supplies, and down forests. d. infiltrated Vietcong forces using Vietnamese-American soldiers fluent in the language. 63. What was the target of General William Westmoreland s search-and-destroy missions? a. stockpiled enemy weapons b. enemy-set traps and landmines c. hidden enemy camps d. enemy food rations and supplies 64. How did the Vietnam War highlight race and class differences in the United States? a. College students, most of whom were white and from wealthier families, were able to get deferments releasing them from the draft. b. Poor and minority Americans protested the killing of Vietnamese civilians, while most white citizens ignored the situation overseas. c. Americans with skilled jobs, mostly white workers who received higher-than-average salaries, were not drafted. d. The government cracked-down most violently on antiwar protests led by minorities in poor neighborhoods. 65. In the context of President Johnson s policy on Vietnam between 1965 and 1968, what is the meaning of the word escalation? a. slow withdrawal b. increased involvement c. frequent surprise attacks d. full disclosure of information 11

12 66. Which of the following offers historical evidence that the Tet Offensive was a turning point in the Vietnam War? a. Over ninety percent of Americans believed that the United States was winning the war. b. President Johnson refused General Westmoreland s request for another 200,000 troops. c. Hawks began to call for decreased military spending, many campaigning for their cause. d. Millions of Americans began watching Walter Cronkite report the war from the field. 67. During the Vietnam War, hawks and doves in America disagreed on whether a. funding domestic programs was more important than winning the Cold War. b. the U.S. forces should use a nuclear bomb to force the Vietcong to surrender. c. the United States should have a draft. d. protesting the war was unpatriotic. 68. What impact did the massacre at My Lai have on public opinion? a. People began to perceive the Johnson Administration as honest. b. President Johnson lost the support of wealthy Americans. c. Support for the war by college students nearly doubled. d. Many Americans began to question the war. 69. What did the hippie counterculture do to express its ideals in the 1960s? a. moved out of the United States b. supported individual freedom, nonviolence, and communal sharing c. defended government authority d. showed support for the generation that came before it 70. Members of Students for a Democratic Society a. enlisted people of all races in the army. b. encouraged young people to vote. c. fought for the cause of democracy in Vietnam. d. protested the draft and weapons manufacturers. 71. What issue deeply divided the Democratic Party going into the 1968 National Convention? a. the chance that Hubert Humphrey would pull out of Vietnam without a victory b. President Johnson s lack of support for his vice president, Hubert Humphrey c. the brutal treatment of protesters outside the convention by Chicago police d. Hubert Humphrey's close association with Johnson and the Vietnam War 72. What was Robert F. Kennedy s election platform in 1968? a. continue on the course set by President Johnson b. listen to the opinions of Congress regarding the war c. negotiate a quick and peaceful end to the war d. send more weapons to the troops in Vietnam 12

13 73. Who was Henry Kissinger? a. George Wallace s campaign manager b. Sirhan Sirhan s defense lawyer c. Richard Nixon s national security advisor d. Students for a Democratic Society s leader 74. Vietnamization was a plan to a. educate Americans about Vietnamese culture. b. focus American manufacturing on the war effort. c. have the South Vietnamese army take over the fighting. d. return Vietnamese society to pre-war conditions. 75. What did President Nixon do on April 30, 1970 to infuriate many Americans? a. began slowly withdrawing U.S. funds from Vietnam without the knowledge of Congress or the people b. announced that he had sent U.S. troops into Cambodia, expanding the war he had promised to end c. authorized the use of force by National Guard troops against students on college campuses d. admitted that the U.S. government and his administration had been lying about the war for years 76. What were students protesting against at Kent State University in the early 1970s? a. information in the Pentagon Papers b. the secret bombing of Cambodia c. McGovern s loss to Nixon in the presidential election d. the passage of the Twenty-First Amendment 77. What June 1971 event led antiwar feeling to grow in the United States? a. publication of the Pentagon Papers b. shootings at Kent State University c. passage of the War Powers Act d. signing of the Paris Peace Accords 78. Study the quotation below and answer the question that follows. If, when the chips are down, the United States of America acts like a pitiful helpless giant, the forces of totalitarian anarchy will threaten free nations. President Nixon, from an address to the American people The purpose of this line of Nixon s speech is to a. provide information. b. make an argument. c. pose a question. d. outline a policy. 13

14 79. How did the Vietnam War end? a. The United States signed the Hanoi Accords, a cease-fire agreement, in b. North Vietnamese forces captured Saigon and created a unified nation in c. Communist dictators took over Laos and Cambodia in d. North Vietnam returned all American prisoners of war in Who designed the Vietnam Veterans Memorial in Washington, D.C.? a. architecture student Maya Ying Lin b. American sculptor Daniel Chester French c. world-renowned architect I.M. Pei d. American sculptor Harriet Hosmer 81. What does the War Powers Act state? a. The public must be granted access to any information about the country s progress in war. b. The president can stop aggressors by any means necessary. c. The president must get congressional approval before committing troops to an armed struggle. d. Military officials can decide whether the country enters a war. 82. In general, how were Vietnam War Veterans received when they returned home to America? a. sympathetically, as many knew of the shell shock World War I veterans had suffered b. joyously, as most Americans knew or were related to someone who had been drafted to fight c. with fear, as many had heard of the nightmares and flashbacks that plagued soldiers d. with hostility, as antiwar protesters treated the soldiers as supporters of government policies Completion Complete each statement. 83. The International Military Tribunal for the Far East held war crimes trials in. (Japan/Thailand) 84. President Truman appointed Eleanor Roosevelt as one of the first U.S. delegates to the. (United Nations/Potsdam Conference) 85. The new foreign policy the United States developed to deal with the Cold War was based on the theory of. (containment/brinkmanship) 86. General MacArthur was removed from command of U.S. forces in because he kept criticizing Truman s refusal to let him attack. (South Korea, mainland China/Pusan, Inchon) 87. General Dwight Eisenhower won the 1952 presidential election because of his promise to end. (McCarthyism/the Korean War) 14

15 88. were executed in 1953 on charges of giving Soviet spies secret details of the U.S. atomic bomb design. (Julius and Ethel Rosenberg/Bartolomeo Vanzetti and Nicola Sacco) 89. The crisis that began when Britain, France, and Israel invaded Egypt ended with a U.S.-Soviet agreement to condemn the invasion. (Suez Canal/Red Sea) 90. was a complex jazz style often played very quickly. (Bebop/Boogie) 91. Some critics of the suburbs complained that suburban life was too heavily based on. (racism and exclusion/consumer culture) 92. wrote the 1952 novel Invisible Man, which focused on the isolation from mainstream society that many black Americans felt. (James Baldwin/Ralph Ellison) 93. The Alliance for Progress gave Latin American nations $20 billion in aid, but the was more successful in improving U.S. relations with Latin America. (Central Intelligence Agency/Peace Corps) 94. After the Cuban Missile Crisis, the United States and Soviet Union signed the Test Ban Treaty, which banned aboveground testing of new nuclear weapons. (Limited Nuclear/Atomic) 95. Ho Chi Minh organized the Vietminh to resist occupation. (French/Japanese) 96. The devastating napalm bombing of North Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, and South Vietnam was meant to disrupt. (the Ho Chi Minh Trail/Operation Rolling Thunder) 97. was demolished and its people massacred by U.S. soldiers on a search-and-destroy mission. (Saigon/My Lai) 98. By the end of 1967 U.S. military leaders claimed they were nearing victory in Vietnam, but in January 1968 proved they were wrong. (the Tet Offensive/escalation) 99. Many Democratic delegates opposed the candidacy of in the 1968 presidential election, as they disliked his connection with President Johnson and the Vietnam War. (Robert F. Kennedy/Hubert Humphrey) 100. In 1971, the revealed that U.S. officials had been lying to the American people about the progress of the Vietnam War for years. (Pentagon Papers/New York Times) 101. In the 1972 presidential election Democratic candidate George McGovern hoped to appeal to voters ages 18 to 21 who would be voting for the first time as a result of the ratification of the Amendment. (Twenty-first/Twenty-sixth) 102. President Nixon s plan to pull U.S. soldiers from Vietnam and turn the fighting over to the South Vietnamese Army was called. (Vietnamization/escalation) 15

16 True/False Indicate whether the statement is true or false In 1946 the United States sent troops to Greece to help its monarchy stop a Communist rebellion One of the biggest problems in the United States after World War II was inflation Many members of the Republican Party did not support Truman in the 1948 presidential election because of his support for civil rights laws In 1950 Joseph McCarthy claimed he had a document naming Communists who were aiding the Soviet Union from inside the U.S. State Department In the early 1950s the CIA overthrew the leaders of Iran and Guatemala because they were suspected of being friendly to the Communists The first hydrogen bombs were dropped by the United States during World War II States in the southwest were the last to feel the benefits of the booming postwar economy, because the lack of water there meant fewer people moved to the area Suburban neighborhoods welcomed diverse populations, and soon became models of integration To keep too many people from leaving the cities for the suburbs, the urban renewal program offered families who stayed in cities lower mortgage and tax rates Many American women were frustrated in the 1950s by the expectation that they would give up their jobs as soon as they got married The 1961 Bay of Pigs invasion was led by Cuban exiles trained by the CIA to invade Cuba and overthrow Castro Despite firm instructions from the United States to let the elections go forward, Diem would not allow the 1956 reunification elections to take place once he knew he would lose them President Lyndon Johnson had no question about what happened in the Gulf of Tonkin when he declared the incident an act of war Young men from poor families that needed their financial support could get deferments, which meant they would not be drafted to fight in Vietnam Most of the battles against North Vietnam were fought in the jungles and villages of South Vietnam After the Tet Offensive, nearly half of the American public believed that the United States should never have become involved in the Vietnam War Students for a Democratic Society (SDS) promoted "dropping out" of traditional society and starting a nonviolent counterculture Many Americans were furious with President Nixon for secretly withdrawing U.S. soldiers from Vietnam in 1970 before a victory had been won. 16

17 121. The Paris Peace Accords signed by the United States and representatives of North Vietnam, South Vietnam, and the Vietcong, finally ended the Vietnam War The Vietnam War undermined the trust of American citizens in government officials, which contributed to the passage in 1973 of the War Powers Act. Matching Match each item with the correct statement below. a. Marshall Plan b. hydrogen bomb c. Yalta Conference d. containment e. brinkmanship f. Fair Deal g. beats h. Truman Doctrine i. Sputnik j. Mao Zedong k. GI Bill of Rights l. Nuremberg Trials 123. explosive chemical weapon of enormous destructive power 124. world s first artificial satellite launched into space 125. poets who inspired many young people to question the rules of mainstream America 126. policy to help foreign countries fight communism 127. project for the economic recovery of European nations after World War II 128. where Allied leaders discussed plans for the postwar world 129. founder of the communist People s Republic of China 130. willingness to move to the edge of war, without actually starting one, to stop communism 131. policy of social improvement promoted by President Truman in strategy to prevent communist countries from expanding their influence 17

18 Match each item with the correct statement below. a. Yuri Gagarin b. Tonkin Gulf Resolution c. Ho Chi Minh d. William Westmoreland e. Alan Shepard, Jr. f. Twenty-sixth Amendment g. Operation Rolling Thunder h. Neil Armstrong i. War Powers Act j. Vietnamization k. escalation l. Khmer Rouge 133. lowered the voting age from 21 to 18 in program for having South Vietnamese troops take over the war in Vietnam 135. commanded U.S. ground forces in Vietnam 136. requires the president to get congressional approval before committing U.S. soldiers to an armed struggle 137. program for increasing the involvement of U.S. military forces in Vietnam 138. first person to travel into space 139. Cambodian Communist army 140. gave the president the authority to take all necessary measures to repel any armed attack against the forces of the United States 141. Communist leader of North Vietnam 142. first person to walk on the moon 18

19 Cold War Practice Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 2. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 3. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 4. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.4.b 2.2.c 5. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 6. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 7. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.4.b 2.2.c 8. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.4.b 2.2.c 9. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.4.b 2.2.c 10. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.4.b 2.2.c 11. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 16. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 17. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 18. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 19. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 20. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 1

20 21. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 22. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 23. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 24. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 25. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 26. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.4.b 27. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 28. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 29. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 30. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 31. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 32. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 33. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 3.1.d 34. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 3.1.d 35. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 3.1.d 36. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.1.a 37. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.4.b 38. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.4.b 39. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.4.b 40. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 3.1.d 41. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.1.a 42. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.1.a 43. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 1.3.b 2

21 44. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 1.3.b 45. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 1.3.b 46. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 1.3.b 47. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 1.3.b 48. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 1.3.b 49. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 1.3.b 50. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 51. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 52. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 53. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 2.2.c 54. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 2.2.c 55. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 2.2.c 56. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 2.2.c 57. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 2.2.c 58. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 2.2.c 59. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 2.2.c 60. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.3.b 1.3.c 5.1.a 5.1.d 61. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.3.b 1.3.c 5.1.a 5.1.d 62. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.3.b 1.3.c 5.1.a 5.1.d 63. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 3

22 67. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 68. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 69. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 1.4.b 70. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 1.4.b 71. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 1.4.b 72. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 1.4.b 73. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 74. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 75. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 76. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 77. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 78. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 79. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 80. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 81. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 82. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c COMPLETION 83. ANS: Japan PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 84. ANS: United Nations PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 4

23 85. ANS: containment PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.4.b 2.2.c 86. ANS: South Korea, mainland China PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 87. ANS: the Korean War PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 88. ANS: Julius and Ethel Rosenberg PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 89. ANS: Suez Canal PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 90. ANS: Bebop PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.1.a 91. ANS: consumer culture PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.4.b 92. ANS: Ralph Ellison PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.4.b 93. ANS: Peace Corps PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 1.3.b 94. ANS: Limited Nuclear PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 1.3.b 95. ANS: Japanese PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 2.2.c 5

24 96. ANS: the Ho Chi Minh Trail PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.2.d 97. ANS: My Lai PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: ANS: Tet Offensive PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 99. ANS: Hubert Humphrey PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 1.4.b 100. ANS: Pentagon Papers PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 1.4.b 101. ANS: Twenty-sixth PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 102. ANS: Vietnamization PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d TRUE/FALSE 103. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.4.b 2.2.c 104. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 107. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 108. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 109. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 3.1.d 110. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 3.1.d 6

25 111. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 3.1.d 112. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.4.b 113. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 1.3.b 114. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 2.2.c 115. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.2.d 116. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 119. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 1.4.b 120. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 121. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 122. ANS: T PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c MATCHING 123. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 124. ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 125. ANS: G PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.4.b 126. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.4.b 2.2.c 127. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.4.b 2.2.c 128. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 129. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 2.2.c 130. ANS: E PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.3.b 131. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT:

26 132. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.4.b 2.2.c 133. ANS: F PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 134. ANS: J PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 135. ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: ANS: I PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 137. ANS: K PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.2.d 138. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 139. ANS: L PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.c 140. ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: 3 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 1.2.d 141. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: 2 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.d 2.2.c 142. ANS: H PTS: 1 DIF: 1 OBJ: NAT: STA: 1.2.b 8

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