1 Progress in the installation of large scale artificial reefs in Thailand Amnaj Siripech Department of Fisheries. Thailand.
2 1. Introduction Thailand is in the middle of mainland Southeast Asia, between 5-20 N and E. Area: 514,000 km 2 76 Provinces. Gulf of Thailand Andaman Sea Gulf of Thailand, coastline 2,700 km (1,143 miles) Andaman Sea 865 km (537 miles)
3 2. An overview of Thai marine fisheries. Fisheries management in Thailand has started since B.E (1901) : to collect taxes and tariffs and to ensure the steady contribution of fish supply for it national consumption as well as export. An open access resources. At the 1 st National Economics and Social Development plan ( ) Thailand incorporated with the Federal Republic of German on otter board trawling of demersal resources.
4 The marine production in 1966 increased 88% from the year 1962 and to 90 % in In 2006 Thailand s total fish production was reported to be 4.0 million tones: 61.1 % by volume from marine capture, 5.3 % from inland capture, 33.6 % is from inland and coastal aquaculture. Thailand has been recognized a world leader in fisheries; it has been ranked in the top ten countries since 1972 (some 40 years ago) in terms of fisheries production.
5 Quantity(1,000 Tonnes) 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 2,500 2,000 1,500 1, Total (Marine) (Inland) (Coastal aquaculture) (Freshwater Culture) 0 Fisheries production of Thailand,
6 No less than 150 different kinds of fishing gears used by Thai fishermen In 2007 landings of marine fisheries, 2.08 million tons. only 58% of catch from the territorial waters 42% by distant fishing fleets (beyond the EEZ) Their species composition was as follows: 56.0% of food fish; 28.1% trash fish, 6.4%, cephalopods, 3.4% shrimps, 1.8% crabs, 2.0% mollusks, and other.
8 Most of present Thai fishers do not want to see their children pursue fishing as an occupation: hard work, uncertain income and lowliness.
9 The percentage of younger fisher folks (younger than 30 years old) was reduced drastically from 32.5% in 1995 to 24.3% in The 2000 inter-censual survey on marine fisheries enumerated 168,140 fisher folks, 48.1% of which were members of the fishing families, and the rest 51.9% were employees. the increase in number of employees was made up by foreign workers.
10 3. The resent marine fisheries problem Because of the rapid extension and development of marine capture fisheries without proper controls, Thailand has faced problems since The main problems causing the overexploitation : 1. The excessive fishing efforts because of open access and easy entry. 2. High percentage of young small sized economic fish in the catch of trash fish. 3. Illegal trawling within the closed areas of 3 km from shoreline resulted in the damaging the nursery grounds of juvenile and young economic fish.
11 4. Resources and fishing grounds in the Thai territorial water are limited due to the EEZs enforcement of neighboring countries. 5. Several Ministerial regulations of push netters and other gears are not update, clear and difficult to implement. 6. The fishing outside Thai water is limited due to the strong enforcement of the neighboring countries.
12 4. Guidelines and measures of the policy for rehabilitation and management 4.1 The protection and awareness of marine pollution and marine environment research project. The project emphasized on the routine inspection of the water qualities and awareness of marine pollution in the coastal water, shrimp farm, industrial area and the fishing ground especially the short necked clam fishing ground.
13 4.2 The improvement and conservation of marine fisheries project. 1) To ban push net: protect young economic fish and other. 2) To control new entry of fishing boat: no permission of new building, especially trawlers and purse seines. 3) To enlarge cod end mesh sizes of fishing gear.
14 4) To limit the capacity of dynamos: not bigger than 5 kw, since the light luring is more effective when using higher intensity.
15 5) To strengthen the exhaustive enforcement within the areas of 3 kilometers from shoreline. 6) To promote deep sea fisheries as well as tuna fishery in the coastal area of the Gulf of Thailand and Andaman Sea which the total production will increase to supply domestic consumption and exporting to foreign countries.
16 4.3 The artificial reef installation project (Ars) Background The DOF has constructed and developed the artificial reefs in Thailand since The development of artificial reefs installation has 4 periods. 1) The experiment during ) Installation for small scale fisheries development during ) Installation for enhance the fertility of the aquatic animals during ) Installation for enhance the fishing grounds since 2007
17 The materials for constructing the artificial reefs a) Tire b) Concrete pipe c) Concrete block d) Dice block e) Train cabin f) Automobile g) Tank
18 4.3.2 Development of materials for construction 35 years: 554 artificial reefs consisting of 517,313 pieces. at depths of m. almost at 5-10 meters, located at km from the shoreline. The budget was 1,561 million Baht.
19 Trend of construction design 1) Shape of artificial reef is higher. 2) Site selection locates more far from the shoreline. 3) Using a larger module 4) Deeper water level.
20 Development of Materials for In 1978 In 2011 Artificial reefs installation Tire Concrete pipe Concrete block Dice block Tank Automobile Train cabin Materials size more bigger than the past
21 4.3.3 Biodiversity on artificial reef. 1) The diversity of plankton 91 species, phytoplankton 71 species and zooplankton20 species.
22 2) The sessile organisms gastropod and bivalves 61 genus, 200 species other aquatic animal 63 species (amphipod, sea anemone, polychaete, sea urchin, sea cucumber, barnacle, shrimp, crab and etc.) 14 species of seaweeds.
23 3) Fish larvae Before the construction found 32 families, later for 2 months found 37 families, almost were Carangidae, Sillaginidae, and clupiidae.
24 5) The catch rate Catch rate of small scale fishing gears were increased 1-5 times: Crab gill net (1 time) Trammel net (1.3 time) Hook and lines (1.3 time) Mackerel gill net (1.5 time) Whiting Sillago gill net (5 time) Incase no control of number of fishing gear and fishing boat the catch rate was decreased during 4-8 years.
25 4) Fish assemblages after 5 years old of artificial reef were found 54 families, 111 genus, 182 species. Almost were Carangidae (19 species), Lutjanidae (11 species) and Serranidae (10 species). Train cabin area found 39 families, 112 species. Concrete pipe area found 23 families, 50 species. Concrete cubic area found 46 families, 129 species. Tire area found 40 families, 117 species. Tank area found 35 families, 88 species.
26 The artificial reefs installation project would be a long term engagement, which is expected to play a key role in future fisheries development in Thailand.
27 4.3.4 Process to construct the artificial reef Siting artificial reef in Thai waters requires a permit from the Thai Navy and Harbor department. Other 48 agencies: constructing 259 artificial reef projects. Some agencies Such as Local community administration organization, bank, province, Thai Navy, Thai Air force, Ministry of natural resources and environment and etc. Necessary for all agencies follow the same step for artificial reef construction.
28 The process of artificial reefs construction 1) Site selection 2) Public hearing or meeting in the fishing communities 3) Reef design. 4) Submit to DOF, Harbor department and Thai Navy. 5) Building the module 6) To promote the project to the stakeholders 7) Installation in the sea 8) Monitoring and report
29 4.3.5 Future of large scale artificial reef installation. 334 offshore platforms in the Gulf of Thailand. Many of these mechanical structures have nearly reached the end of their economic production in 5 years, but the government organization lack of important data on ecological, economic factors and others from field studies that need for understanding on the rigs -to-reefs. Two questions that require the answer: 1 What are the biological, legal, social, economic, technological and regulatory limits to using oil and gas platforms for artificial reef development in the Gulf of Thailand? 2 What can we do to avoid problems and conflicts with other users of the marine environment?
30 5. Up-coming step for fisheries resources management The drafted version of the new Fisheries Act aims at addressing the past problems. It recognizes the short coming of many measures prescribed by the Fisheries Act of 1947 that were unable to cope with the progress and the advancement of marine fishing and aquaculture. The success of sustainable fisheries management in Thailand will be gainful not only for Thai people but it also for the security and sustainability of food resources for many other people in the World.
31 Balancing between the utilization and economic need of fishing community and recruitment or the producing of the sea at the sustainable level. The success of sustainable fisheries management in Thailand will be gainful not only for Thai people but it also for the security and sustainability of food resources for many other people in the World.
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