Responsible stock enhancement, restocking and sea ranching: rational and terminology

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1 Responsible stock enhancement, restocking and sea ranching: rational and terminology Devin M. Bartley FAO Rome Ecosystem-based Stock Enhancement Workshop: development of a road map to evaluate the potential for sea ranching, stock enhancement and restocking programmes within the European multinational context Provincial Court, Bruges, Belgium 7-88 May, 2007

2 Outline Rational Terminology Conclusions

3 Capture fisheries have slightly increased, but Capture Fishery Production 2004 > 96 M mt

4 many stocks have declined Global trends in the state of world marine stocks Percentage of stocks assessed 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Under-moderately exploited Fully exploited Over exploited, depleted or recovering Underexploited+Moderately exploited Fully exploited Overexploited+Depleted+Recovering

5 Different picture for aquaculture Fisheries and Aquaculture Production Tonnes Aquaculture Developed countries or areas Aquaculture Developing countries or areas Fisheries Developed countries or areas Fisheries Developing countries or areas

6 State of fisheries and aquaculture Global reviews by FAO of world aquaculture and capture fisheries indicate that: approximately 236 species of fish, invertebrates and plants were farmed in 2004; over 1000 species were harvested from the world s capture fisheries; fish provide more than 2.6 billion people with at least 20% of their t animal protein intake and that an additional 40 million tonnes of fish per year will be required by 2030; aquaculture and capture fisheries employ at least 38 million persons; in 2004, world aquaculture production of fish and aquatic plants was 59.4 million tonnes, valued at US$ 70.3 billion; in 2004, world capture fisheries production (excluding plants) was w 95.0 million tonnes, valued at about US$ 84.9 billion; in 2004, total world export of fish and fish products trade was 52.8 million tonnes worth US$ 71.5 billion.

7 Within the EU The combined fishery catches and aquaculture production was 7.3 million t in 2003, 5% of the total world production (3rd after China and Peru). The volume of fish landed fell by 27% between 1995 and With an annual growth rate of 4% over the past decade (which is below the global average of about 9%), aquaculture has been one of the fastest growing areas in the food sector with an annual yield of 1.4 million lion t in 2003 an increase of 30% as compared to The value of the member states' production is currently about 3 billion per year to which an extra 2 billion can be added for associated country Norway. Aquaculture constitutes about 19% of the volume and 30% of the value v of the total EU fishery production. The EU continues to be the largest single import market in the world w (approximately 8 million tons worth 19.4 million in 2001) and consequently there exists a significant trading deficit. Imports in 2003 increased to 63% of total whitefish volume, from 59% and 55% in the two previous years. Between 1994 and 2004 the deficit of the seafood trade increased from 3.7 to 5.6 billion Euros, representing 3.2 million tons of raw product. Average EU consumption stands at 22.7 kg/head/year which is higher than the global average.

8 Thus, EU Members need more fish and fish products This need can not be met by capture fisheries alone. There is scope for increased production through appropriate application of aquaculture technologies and specifically through stocking early life history stages of aquatic animals into coastal and marine areas.

9 But, Use of hatcheries is controversial Part of the reason is poor definition of objectives, lack of understanding ecosystem

10 Terminology can help Restocking: involves releasing cultured juveniles into the wild to restore the spawning biomass of a severely depleted fishery to a level where it can once again provide regular, substantial yields Stock enhancement: increasing yields of a fishery beyond levels obtainable by natural recruitment Sea ranching: releasing fish, usually of a larger size than in restocking and stock enhancement, for put and take fishery

11 Other types and assumptions Table 2. Objectives of stocking (after Cowx 1994 and Bartley 1999) Type Species stocked Rational Key assumptions Mitigation Native or close relative To make amends for some damage to system Habitat can support release and is below carrying capacity; fishery is recruit limited. Consumers accept Augmentation Native To improve production and profit over natural conditions Community change Alien To improve production and profit over natural conditions released fish. Habitat is below carrying capacity; fishery is recruit limited; released and wild relatives compatible. Consumers accept released fish. Species performance in new environment acceptable; habitat below carrying capacity; resource base will not change substantially. Consumers accept released fish.

12 Thank you Dank u

13 Aquaculture provides an opportunity 150 taxa farmed in taxa farmed in M mt M mt $70 B

14 Challenges for a new science Identifying when and where to use restocking, stock enhancement and sea ranching to add value to other forms of management; Integrating these initiatives with institutional and fisheries management regimes; Producing cultured juveniles cost-effectively; Releasing them in the wild so that they survive in high proportions; Dealing with uncertainty; Monitoring, evaluating and reporting. (Blankenship and Leber 1995, Bell et al. 2005, 2006).

15 Awareness These relatively new fields of fisheries science and management have yet to overcome all the challenges involved. There is increased awareness that simply producing and releasing large numbers of fish without addressing these challenges is unlikely to have the desired result.

16 Lessons Learned (or learnt)

17 Objective assessment of the need for releases has been rare Was the release of cultured juveniles necessary to achieve the aims of management? Were other measures more appropriate?

18 Objective assessment of the need for releases was rare Potential benefits of restocking and stock enhancement need to be evaluated much more rigorously, e.g. through monitoring and modeling. Baltic cod, blue crab, Japanese flounder

19 Poor understanding of scale of releases relative to population structure Releases must be made at level of self-replenishing populations Effective? 2 popns missed!

20 Identifying self-replenishing populations Information from coastal oceanography Locations that promote retention of larvae, e.g. Chesapeake Bay crabs, Population genetics, Snook, Red drum, rock lobster, sea cucumbers, Pacific salmon

21 There are no generic methods for restocking & stock enhancement! Differences in larval duration, predation, maturity, etc among species influence the approach required Each situation demands its own research

22 Very large numbers of juveniles are needed The most successful programs have released hundreds of millions or billions of juveniles per year Scallops in Japan, NZ Marine shrimp in China and Japan

23 Scope of the project needs to be determined Large areas may be needed (or not) NZ Scallops Tampa Bay Snook Negotiations for access are necessary Access can be overturned South Island of NZ

24 Costs and timeframes can be prohibitive Developing countries can rarely afford restocking programs Avoid depletion to chronically low levels in the first place

25 Monitoring and evaluation critical Tagging improvements have helped Genetic Physical Chemical Early life history stages

26 Other options: more than hatchery reared juveniles Reducing costs of individuals Reducing hatchery influence Collection of wild larvae Translocation of adults or juveniles Piggy-back with aquaculture

27 Improving survival (long term) Predation Density dependence Habitat Release strategies and acclimation Fishery management = in situ conservation

28 Species profile for success Culture technology Hardy Limited or controlled migration/movement Valuable Many fish species & invertebrates have them

29 Managing people Production oriented management to people oriented Users must agree to process, understand its benefits and obligations Users can drive process and therefore pay for it Users have a stake in the resource and will work to manage it better to optimize benefits Right users must get the benefits Community mobilization Japanese flounder, sea urchins in PI, Geoduck in BC

30 Most successful programs run by private sector or co-operatives Property rights provide fishers with incentives to release cultured juveniles BC Geoduck NZ Scallops

31 requires understanding people Factors influencing uptake of stocking Strong leadership Direct benefits and incentives Adapting technology Facilitated institutional change Success depends on increased participation of users, interdisciplinary work, acknowledge uncertainty and adapt Garaway et al. 2006

32 Future arenas Multi-disciplinary work Addressing market concerns Conserving aquatic biodiversity Uncertainty Information

33 Multi-disciplinary analysis Livelihood Capital Assets Human Fishers Regulatory bodies, fishing co-ops, society Social Natural Bays, coasts, rivers, etc. Physical Hatcheries, nets Financial Investments, developers, cash

34 Avoid risk Fishers and farmers are extremely risk adverse, even if high profits are predicted

35 Addressing market concerns Increasing value from fishery products Color (rock lobster) Size (small abalone) Choosing markets (food vs recreational) Economic evaluation of the fishery (Geoduck( Geoduck, black sea bream)

36 Market concerns Certification for culture- based fisheries???... a significant portion of production from inland waters is derived from culture-based and enhanced fisheries,... Ecolabelling of these fisheries would help protect aquatic biodiversity and promote market access to inland capture fishery products.

37 Certification culture-based fisheries Fitness for survival Born to be wild (A.L. Agnalt,, 2006, Seattle)...culture-based stocking material should differ from those for aquaculture and include timely acclimatization to the environmental conditions prevalent in the wild.

38 Conserving aquatic biodiversity Conservation hatcheries Stress quality output rather than quantity Appropriate genetic stock Appropriate conditioning, e.g. predator avoidance, water quality, imprinting Integrated strategies including fishing moritoria,, marine protected areas

39 Precautionary approach and uncertainty (adaptive management) reference points should be established pre-agreed actions or contingency plans maintaining the productive capacity of the resource the impacts of a development plan should be reversible within years requires monitoring and adaptation FAO/Sweden 1995

40 Precautionary reference points Description Reference point Number of brood stock Ne = Conserve rare genes Ne = 75 Acceptable inbreeding Percent sterile fish Acceptable gene flow F< 18%; <5% long term Triploids = 100% m = < 1/gen Level of endangerment 80,50,20% decrease in 10yrs or 3 gen. Fishery impacts F mortality = 20% of unfished biomass; msy Risk of extinction Ne < 50; 50% p in 5yrs; order of magnitude decrease Pathogens 0 tolerance often

41 FAO Information is really Countries information Global reference State of the World s Fishery Resources Production Global trends in the state of w orld marine stocks since % Production (mt) Percentage of stocks assessed 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% % Underexploited+Moderately exploited Fully exploited Overexploited+Depleted+Recovering Fishing down the marine food web

42 Information from FAO Questionnaire Hatchery produced organisms released into contained environments, i.e. aquaculture released into the wild, i.e. restocking, stock enhancement, or ranching

43 Not that great for release of individuals into the wild Group Shrimps, Prawns Scallops, pectens Salmons, trouts, smelts Abalones, winkles, conchs Sturgeons, paddlefishes Lobsters, spiny-rocks lobsters Clams, cockles, arkshells FW Crustaceans Misc coastal fishes Carps, barbels and other cyprinids 2003 releases !!! 4.14 x No information from several key countries!!!

44 Conclusion Dynamic new science where progress is being made Broad-based, multi-disciplinary, or ecosystem approach integrating biotechnical with a range of other considerations, esp. stakeholder involvement and local choices Look at the field critically with risk assessment and cost-benefit analysis, with a view to improve it through integration, monitoring, evaluation, adaptation and dissemination of information

45 Extremely Responsible Approach Thank you

46

47

48 Vulnerability Context Shocks Trends Seasons Social Physical Livelihood Capital Assets Human Natural Financial Policies & Institutions (Transforming Structures & Processes) Structures - government - Private Sector Processes -Laws - Policies - Culture - Institutions Livelihood Outcomes + Sustainable use of NR base + Income + Well-being Reduced vulnerability + Food security Livelihood Strategies Presentation IDL

49 Some lessons from inland waters

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