1 Marine Biology with PADI Diving Certification A High School Summer Program Copyright 2011 Jeffrey S. Sanow, Sinbad Scuba Ltd
2 Executive Summary The Marine Biology with PADI Diving Certification is a proven summer school program, designed and developed in Thailand specifically for international schools, but applicable to any secondary academic program. The course approaches through five major themes: Principles of Marine Science, Life in the Marine Environment, Structure and Function of Marine Ecosystems, Humans and the Sea, and PADI scuba diving. Emphasis is placed on the ecology and environment in the Gulf of Thailand but a general understanding of the global marine systems is expected. In this full day program, students earn the following credits: 0.5 credits of high school marine biology (45 contact hours)* 0.5 credits of high school physical education (45 contact hours)* PADI Open Water PADI Project AWARE: Coral Reef Conservation PADI Peak Performance Buoyancy Students learn through laboratory exploration, independent study, professors and lecturers from local universities and conservation organizations. Scuba diving certifications are all done in strict accordance to PADI (Professional Association of Diving Instructors) standards and specifications. In-water safety is paramount and is accomplished though low student: chaperon ratios. *Course credit can be determined by each school
3 The marine environment supports the vast majority of global population in one form or another. The coastal environment supports fisheries, tourism, scuba diving, beaches, hotels, and retirement communities. This is critical to Southeast Asia where 95 percent of the coral reefs are threatened with 50 percent of the reefs in the high or very high threat category. Both the importance of the marine economy and threats to reefs is no higher in Asia than in Thailand and the Gulf of Thailand. The Marine Biology with PADI Diving Certification course is a three week course design to expose high school students to realities of the marine environment, why reefs are important, the critical condition of many fish populations and what actions may be needed for the future. Scuba diving is taught as a tool to accomplish the research requirement. Buoyancy skills are essential to comfort in diving on reefs to accomplish various types of data collection.
4 Course Outline The Marine Biology course will be approached through four major themes: Principles of Marine Science, Life in the Marine Environment, Structure and Function of Marine Ecosystems and Humans and the Sea. Integrated throughout the science will be the skill set for earning the PADI Open Water Certification. During the final week, to be held in Pattaya, the scuba diving skills taught in the pool will be demonstrated and assessed by a PADI certified scuba instructor. Students will earn three PADI certifications by the end of this course: Project AWARE Coral Reef Conservation, Open Water Diver and Peak Performance Buoyancy. PADI s Open Water Diver certification is recognized by most universities in the US as one (1) college credit. During every phase of this training, PADI s internationally recognized training and safety standards will be followed or exceeded. Emphasis will be placed on the ecology and environment in the Gulf of Thailand but a general understanding of the global marine systems will expected. How do we interact with the global marine environment and how does that apply to the coral reefs and fishing in Thailand? Culminating Performance Task: Students will learn using lectures, investigative laboratory experiments, reading, completing interactive activities with the internet and technology, and with reports and projects. All work will be complemented by field work in the final week of the course which will be the culminating investigative laboratory experiment for students. For scuba diving, students will meet the internationally recognized PADI Standards for beginning diver, buoyancy specialty diver and Project AWARE coral reef specialist.
5 Assessment will be based on quizzes, a final exam, completing interactive activities with the internet and technology, and with reports and projects. All work will be complemented by field work in the final week of the course which will be the culminating investigative laboratory experiment for students. Part One: Principles of Marine Science The Science of Marine Biology, the Sea Floor, Chemical and Physical Features of Seawater and the World Ocean Part Two: Life in the Marine Environment Some Basics of Biology, Microbial World, Multicellular Primary Producers: Seaweeds and Plants, Marine Animals without a Backbone, Marine Fishes, Marine Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals. Part Three: Structure and Function of Marine Ecosystems An Introduction to Ecology, Between the Tides, Estuaries: Where Rivers Meet the Sea, Life on the Continental Shelf, Coral Reefs, Life near the Surface, and The Ocean Depths Part Four: Humans and the Sea Resources from the Sea, and the Impact of Humans on the Marine Environment Part Five: Scuba Diving Fundamentals of scuba equipment, safety, physics and buoyancy. University Support: This program has the support of two major universities that are always anxious to attract more qualified applicants. Dr. Wayne Phillips, B.Sc. (Hons) (Human Environmental Science; King s College University, UK), M.Sc. (Aquatic Resource Management; King s College University), Ph.D. (Biology; Essex University, UK), from Mahidon University International College Science Division is heavily involved in the following: Coral reef ecology, Coral reef conservation and Management,
6 Coral physiology, productivity and growth, Using chlorophyll fluorescence to investigate coral primary productivity. He has provided the research format and methodologies. Dr. Thon Thamrong-nawasawat, of the Faculty of Fisheries at Kasetsart University is an expert on Marine Science, Coral Reef Research and Management, Marine and Coastal Remote Sensing with a Ph. D. (Marine Science), James Cook University, Australia and is responsible for developing ways to increase fish life on the coral reefs. Kasetsart University offers a Bachelor's degree program and an Associate program in Fishery Biology, Fishery Management, Fishery Products, and Aquaculture. Marine Science was established and added as the fifth department. Reef Conservation/The Dive Tribe: Based in Pattaya, The Dive Tribe is an organization dedicated to the protection and reclamation of damaged reefs in Asia. Over the last two decades, the natural resources of our oceans have suffered from the impact of unmanaged human activity including; intensive coastal development, pollution, curio trade, the overuse of marine resources, and climate change. These resources belong to a region of enormous biological richness that we are still discovering and understanding. Dive Tribe is committed to acquiring the scientific knowledge required to properly implement sustainable practices throughout the region. Support from scientists and their research will allow us to correctly investigate, assess, manage and conserve our natural resources. Nurturing the rich and diverse environment that is in the oceans around Thailand is the only way in which to safeguard and ensure long-term sustainability of our community s resources. Dive Tribe, together with industry stakeholders, universities and backed up by "THAILAND MARINE RESOURCE FOUNDATION", would like to work to develop and implement new processes that limit any potential negative impact on the environment. Taking into consideration industry, economy, and livelihood, Dive Tribe seeks to work with leading experts, scientists, and local dive schools to design and implement innovative resource management planning. A list of our immediate projects: Mooring Buoy Project, Coral Reef Reconstruction Project, Giant Clam Nurseries Project, Water Quality Testing and Management, Beach Waste Management, Shark Watch, Turtle Release, Public Marine Awareness Campaigns, Eco Tourism Packages Scuba Diving: Integrated throughout the science will be the skill set for earning the PADI Open Water Certification, the introduction level certification for scuba diving. This requires a review of skills, equipment and environment. It will be followed by two sessions in the pool, provided by the school, to learn the scuba diving skills in an easy environment. During the final week, to be held in Pattaya, the scuba diving
7 skills taught in the pool will be demonstrated and assessed by a PADI certified scuba instructor. In addition to the basic skill set, students will be taught buoyancy skills to a much higher degree than normal. This will allow them to carefully perform the underwater functions required as part of the laboratory experiments. Students will earn three PADI certifications by the end of this course: Project AWARE Coral Reef Conservation, Open Water Diver and Peak Performance Buoyancy. PADI s Open Water Diver certification is recognized by most universities in the US as one (1) college credit. During every phase of this training, PADI s internationally recognized training and safety standards will be followed or exceeded. research portion of the course. During week three, students will do three dives per day, Monday Thursday. Monday will be three dives as part of the open water portion of the PADI Open Water certification. Tuesday will be one dive to complete the open water portion of the PADI Open Water certification followed by two dives to complete the Peak Performance Buoyancy certification. Wednesday and Thursday will be three dives each day to complete the necessary field For in-water and boat activities Student: Dive Master (or above) will exceed 5:1. Cost for the diving portion, based on 10 students*, are as follows: Mermaid Dive Center will provide the following for a fixed fee of 250,000 baht (Two Hundred Fifty Thousand Baht), payable before the Summer School begins. 1. Three pool sessions at school pool for the confined water portion of PADI Open Water Certification for up to a maximum of 10 students. Pool sessions will be done from 12:00 noon until 3:30pm. 2. Use of the appropriate boat from Pattaya for four days. 3. Two PADI instructors for all four days 4. Two Dive Masters for all four days
8 5. Three tanks per day per diver for up to 16 divers total (10 OW students, 2 instructors, 2 SM, 2 Chaperons**) 6. Lunch on all four days on the boat 7. Transfers to/from hotel in Jomtien Beach, dive shop and dive boat OW crew packs OW certification cards Project Aware certification cards Peak Performance Buoyancy certification cards 12. All dive equipment for the 10 Open Water Students (pool and open water) and two chaperons (open water portion only). *If more than 10 students sign up, each additional student costs 25,000 baht. Maximum class size is 15 students. **Chaperons must be provided by the school and must be a minimum of PADI Advanced Open Water divers. Transport to Pattaya, housing and meals will be provided Monday Thursday of the last week; costs for transport, housing and meals for four days in Jomtien is 60,000baht based on 10 students: each additional student is 6,000baht. Student: chaperon ratio will exceed the 6:1 ratio on the bus, for meals and during lodging. Please note: The school must provide the science teacher to teach the Marine Biology Science portion, a classroom, and access to a pool with a shallow and a deep end. Daily Schedule Week One Day One 7:30-11:00 Introductions, organization, and overview 11:00 12:00 Dr. Thon from Kasetsart University to discuss fish hatcheries on reefs in Pattaya Ocean water- properties of water Density and buoyancy lab activity Salinity- How much salt is in 1 liter of ocean water? 12:00-12:30 break 12:30-3:30 PADI Open Water introduction, Chapter 1 & Chapter 2 Day Two 7:30-1:30 Science Set up blogs (google accounts), post first blog The Ocean- currents, tides, upwelling, the water cycle Abiotic Factors affecting coral reef growth- Groups research a different abiotic factor and present to the rest of the groups.
9 Temperature, salinity, light, nutrients, waves 1:30-3:30 PADI Open Water Chapter 3 and Chapter 4 Day Three 7:30-1:30 Science Acid and its effect on coral, lab activity- on line, J. Lubchenco interview Acidification for link to online activity Blog #2-The connection between the ocean and our atmosphere is tremendously important for life on Earth. If you were a scientist hired by an advertising agency to promote greater awareness of the connection, what would you suggest the message should be and why Types of coral reefs- fringing, barrier, atoll Main reef builders- understanding the relationship of coral and algae Learn to identify the different types of organisms that live near coral reefs of Thailand. 1:30-3:30 Open Water Chapter 5 Day Four 7:30-1:30 Science Ecosystems- definition, trophic levels, energy transfer, relationships between organisms Producers- evidence of photosynthesis Look at algae and other microbial organisms using a microscope. examples of relationships between organisms in the ocean. Ocean Behaviorso Protective Coloring o Top Predators o Symbiosis o Schooling o Territorial Setup a mini-experiment to test for evidence of photosynthesis Make observations (draw and/or describe).of elodea cells, 1 type of algae, a drop of ocean water and 2 other microscopic organisms. 1:30-3:30 PADI Final Exam and Buoyancy Day Five 7:30-12:30 Science Form and Function Work on organism identification Blog 3- what s the most interesting marine behavior? Embed an image of it in your blog and explain why you think it s cool, describe what the behavior is and why it is important to marine ecosystems Food Chains and Food Webs Individually make 2 coral reef food chains, as a small group turn these into a food web. Include unique organisms as well as decomposers. 12:30-2:30 PADI Project AWARE 2:30-3: yard swim & 10 minute float
10 Week Two Day One 7:30-12:30 Science D. Gallo TedTalk Cleaner Fish article Sea Creature Facebook page Gulf of Thailand organism identification Finish Facebook page for your assigned sea creature. Continue work on the identification of organisms with your group. Food chains and food webs Individually make 2 different food chains. Work with a group to then put these food chains into a food web. Present these food webs to the class. 12:30-3:30 PADI Pool Sessions 1 & 2 Day Two 7:30-12:30 Science How do organisms get oxygen? Measure lung capacity- humans Dissolved Oxygen- marine organisms Measure your lung capacity Investigate dissolved oxygen in watertemperature, turbulence Animal Kingdom and classification- Form and Function- finding a niche in an ecosystem Gulf of Thailand Organism Identification and Food Web- Blog 4 - Which organism from the Gulf of Thailand is most interesting to you and why? What questions do you have about this organism? Include a photo of it as well as a description of its habitat. 12:30-3:30 Project AWARE classification and identification Day Three 7:30-12:30 Science Individual Investigation: Threats to Coral Reefs Research a threat to coral reefs or the ocean ecosystems in general. A list of potential ideas includes: Pollution*Garbage patch*over fishing*by catch*tourism*aquarium enthusiasts*shark Fin soup* global warming* acidification* sedimentation* coastal development* loss of mangroves * fishing of top predators Effectiveness of coral reef protection plans like: *artificial reefs or *national parks (protected areas) Develop a student awareness campaign about a
11 particular issue that is threatening the health of coral reefs or the ocean in general. Your project must include the following components: A visual component- poster or digital glogster (that can be printed out and displayed) Information on what is causing the problem and why it is important. Include the science behind this topicresearch that has been done, scientific basis for why/how it's affecting the ocean. What can students do to help the situation? get involved? A list of resources- where you got your information and where students could go for more information if interested, organization that are involved 12:30-3:30 PADI Pool Sessions 3 & 4 Day Four 7:30-12:30 Science Ecosystem field work research-random sampling, transects, quadrants, Simpson s diversity index, indicator species. work in research teams to collect ecology data 12:30-3:30 Project AWARE Fish Morphology observation of fish, carefully dissect marine fish to learn their external and internal structures and organs What did you learn during the dissections? What were the easiest structures to identify? What are some major similarities between the organisms that were dissected (invertebrates and fish)? What are the major differences? Day Five 7:30-12:30 Science Presentation of Ocean Awareness Campaign Projects 12:30-3:30 PADI Pool Session 5, Buoyancy Skills and Fish ID/research skills Week Three Day One 6:00-8:30 Travel to Jomtien, check in at dive shop, equipment organization 8:30-4:30 PADI Open Water Dives one, two and three at Koh Sak 7:00-9:00 classroom, review dive skills and research skills
12 Day Two 8:00-4:30 PADI Open Water Dive four, Peak Performance Buoyancy dives one and two 7:00-9:00 Classroom presentation and discussion by Dive Tribe on shark fining and beach/reef clean-up Day Three 8:00-4:30 Project AWARE and reef research Dive 1 practice buoyancy control observing the reef system. Dive 2 Practice buoyancy control and observe the individual coral and fish species. Dive 3 Practice buoyancy control and document coral and fish species. 7:00-9:00 Review and compile data Day Four 8:00-4:30 Project AWARE and reef research Dive 1 on a 30 meter transect line, observe and document all fish and coral species in your zone. Dive 2- shift location on 30 meter transect line, observe and document all fish and coral species in your zone. Dive 3 pleasure drift dive. 6:00 8:00 travel back to Bangkok Day Five 7:30-12:00 review, compile and present data 12:00-3:30 Feedback and evaluation