THE FISHERIES REQUIREMENTS FOR AREA IN RELATION TO SEISMIC ACTIVITIES THE FISHERIES

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1 THE FISHERIES REQUIREMENTS FOR AREA IN RELATION TO SEISMIC ACTIVITIES THE FISHERIES The fish stocks in the Norwegian sector can be divided into two separate categories: The pelagic species comprise herring, mackerel, capelin, brisling (sprat), sandeel, Norway pout, blue whiting, etc. all fish that live in the upper part of the water column or near the surface. The demersal species comprise cod, saithe, haddock, pollack, ling, tusk, halibut, etc. fish that live on or near the seabed. FISHING GEAR Fishing gear can generally be divided into two categories: Active fishing gear consists of seines and trawls, which are active during the fishing phase, i.e. the gear finds the fish. Passive gear includes gillnets, long lines, hand lines, Danish seines in other words; stationary equipment. The fish finds the gear. Pelagic fish are mostly caught using active fishing methods, whereas the demersal fish stocks are caught using both methods. The ocean-going fleet catches pelagic stocks, with exception of the long-liners, whereas the coastal fleet makes use of passive gear, with the exception of seine fishing for saithe. DESCRIPTION OF THE FISHING FLEET The Norwegian fishing fleet is divided into two categories; the ocean-going fleet and the coastal fleet. The main rule is that vessels of more than 28 metres are classified as ocean-going vessels, and the general rule for a coastal fishing boat is that it is smaller than 28 metres with a hold capacity of less than 300 cubic metres. In recent years, vessels longer than 28 metres have been permitted in the pelagic sector, but the hold capacity may still not exceed 300 cubic metres. The ocean-going fleet is further divided into two groups: seine and trawl. The coastal fleet uses all types of fishing gear. AREA REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DIFFERENT FISHERIES Purse seiners: Purse seines are employed by the ocean-going fleet and the coastal fleet when fishing pelagic species (herring, mackerel, sprat). The seine is deployed in a circle, with the lengths of the seines varying between metres, and with a depth of between metres. The seine is launched from the starboard side of the vessel. Once the seine has been positioned, the vessel is no longer manoeuvrable and

2 cannot change its position. If all goes well, it will take about one hour from when the seine is launched and until the catch has been brought alongside the vessel. The time it takes to haul the catch onboard depends on the volume of the catch anywhere from half an hour up to two to three hours. When hauling the fish onboard, the ship is unable to manoeuvre. The vessels lanterns are red over white, with a blinking/rotating orange/yellow light on the wheelhouse roof. Trawlers (pelagic): This gear is used in the pelagic fisheries for species such as blue whiting, Norway pout, sandeel, mackerel and herring. Blue whiting and Norway pout trawlers are found in the North Sea, between 62 North and south to N The fishing activity is conducted along the edges of water depths varying between 150 and 300 metres. The full length of the fishing gear with wire is from metres. Towing speed is around three knots. The vessels have low manoeuvrability when towing. They can change direction if necessary, but cannot do much about the towing speed. When the fish is being hauled onboard, the vessels are stationary and not manoeuvrable. Trawling for sand eel takes place in shallow waters in the southern North Sea, from N58 00 to The full length of the gear is metres. The lanterns carried are green over white. Two whites when launching and two red when hauling, placed on the wheelhouse roof. Mackerel trolling: Trolling for mackerel is carried out by smaller vessels of between 9 to 21 metres. They fish as far as 70 nautical miles off the coast in August and September. The gear is only approximately 20 metres behind the vessel. These vessels can operate in close packs, they are manoeuvrable and work in the North Sea. Longline fishing This is a method of fishing for practically all types of demersal stocks. Lines are classified as passive fishing gear, and consist of a line with hooks. The largest vessels are between 35 and 50 metres long, and the fleet numbers around 40 vessels. This fishing activity takes place practically all over the Norwegian economic zone. The fishing activity takes place from water depths of around metres and into more shallow waters. The ling and tusk fishing takes place from spring into the autumn. The cod fisheries in the Barents Sea take place from October until March, and from the end of May until the end of August. The fishing for haddock takes place from N63 up to Svalbard. The average long-liner carries a line quantity of hooks, which would equal a total length of nautical miles. The line can be launched in different directions. In many cases branch lines called snoods are used, and these can vary in length from 2 up to 10 nautical miles. In more shallow waters, snoods are set with around one nautical mile s distance, and at a length of nautical miles. This means that a vessel using, for example, 6 snoods of 6 nautical miles length for 10 days, will require 60 nautical miles. The smaller long-liners operate closer to land, but for the Greenland halibut they go a long way out to sea. They set the line, and wait for a few hours before hauling it.

3 Haddock lines are deployed in two different ways. They can be set as a floating line, with the vessel minding its gear while it is deployed, or it can be set as a bottom line, (demersal longline), with the boats going back to shore before hauling the lines the following day. In these cases the vessels do not remain on the fishing banks, and the Coast Guard s call centre can be used. The Coast Guard report central for fishing gear (bruksvaktsentralen) is the best source of information regarding fishing activity and fixed fishing gear, tel Gillnet fishing for saithe Gillnets are passive fishing gear. This type of fishing is carried out by fishing vessels of all sizes, often in concentrated fleets, making it impossible to carry out seismic acquisition activity. Gillnets are used along the coast by all types of vessels. The larger vessels starts fishing for saithe in the North Sea, and continues on the Mørebanken, Haltenbanken, Trænabanken and Vesterålen. Smaller vessels located in vaious community use gillnets for cod in winter and saithe in spring, summer and autumn. The length per deployment is approximately one nautical mile, and each boat has sets of nets. Vessels longer than 24 metres can be monitored using tracking data, as well as through the Coast Guard report central for fishing gear. Fishing for stone bass is also carried out by smaller vessels in the North Sea. Gillnet fishing for ling, cod and saithe in Vesterålen/Troms Net fishing for ling is carried out along the coast of Sogn og Fjordane and along Eggakanten in Møre. Short sets of approximately nets, set deep. Fishing for saithe takes place off the Vesterålen/Troms coast from May to December, with the greatest activity during the autumn and winter. The Coast Guard report central for fishing gear should be used to obtain information about the position of fixed gear. Be aware that not all use this report central. Fishing for cod is carried out intensively during the winter months. The amount of gear can vary depending on how much fish is available, but is relatively limited. The Coast Guard report central for fishing gear should be used here as well. Trawling for cod, saithe and haddock Trawls are active gear. Trawling for cod and haddock takes place north of 62, particularly in the Barents Sea. Fishing takes place year-round. Trawling speed is 4-5 knots and the length of the gear is metres. The vessels have very limited manoeuvrability. Trawling for saithe takes place throughout the Norwegian economic zone. In the North Sea, this fishing often takes place along the rim between shallow and deeper waters down toward the trench. Speeds and volume of gear are generally as mentioned above. This fishing activity is carried out by larger vessels from metres. Pelagic trawlers in the North Sea also fish for saithe.

4 The Coast Guard report central for fishing gear is essential for the trawlers' activity in relation to fixed fishing gear. Gillnet fishing for monkfish (sea scorpion) This fishing activity takes place all along the Norwegian coast, mostly within 30 nautical miles of the baseline. A vessel is permitted to have a maximum of 500 nets of 27.5 metres each. This fleet is not very mobile. The coastal fleet carries out this fishing activity. These fish are protected north of 62 during the period 1 March 20 May, and north of 64 during the period 1 January 20 May and from 20 December 31 December. Fishing with hand lines: The hand line is a fishing line with rubber lures and a weight or jig at the end. This type of fishing is carried out by the coastal fleet from Møre to the Russian border, mostly by smaller one-man vessels. Automatic hand line machines are used, and the vessels are attached to a specific locality. Shrimp trawling in the North Sea Carried out by vessels from metres in length. The fishing takes place in deep water at a distance of 3-40 nautical miles from land. The length of the gear varies from metres, and towing speeds are from knots. The individual fisheries/fish species Mackerel: The mackerel is a pelagic species. Fishing starts in July/August along the Møre coast. The fish migrate south to the North Sea. Intensive fishing from September-November by all groups in the pelagic fleet. Migrates out of the North Sea and west of the British Isles at the turn of the year. This fish is an important and lucrative catch for the fishers. The fish are extremely sensitive to seismic shooting. North Sea herring The North Sea herring is a pelagic species. Seine fishing starts in May and lasts throughout the year, with a short break in July/August. Fishing is carried out by all groups in the pelagic fleet, in the North Sea. Trawling is preferably carried out in late autumn. The fish is sensitive to seismic shooting. Matie is sought after in the Netherlands, and is a lucrative catch. Norwegian spring spawning herring: This is a pelagic species. Norwegian spring spawning herring is our largest fish stock, measured in biomass. The fishing activity starts in the autumn (September) in the area between Jan Mayen and Vesterålen. The herring gathers north of Andenes in November, moves to the south outside Vesterålen and Lofoten in December, further southward along the Nordland coast in January, and off the Trøndelag/Møre coast in February. The herring spawns in late February/early March on Mørebanken and southwards, as in this past winter as far south as Lindesnes.

5 The Norwegian quota in 2009 exceeded one million tonnes. When the herring has spawned and the eggs have hatched, there is an enormous movement of larvae with the current northwards up the coast, all the way to the Barents Sea. Sandeel, Norway Pout, blue whiting, horse mackerel These are all pelagic species, found in the North Sea basin. Sandeel are very sensitive as regards seismic shooting, as is also the case for horse mackerel. Demersal fish stocks: Here I would refer to the Institute of Marine Research's surveys on the Nordkapp bank in Fishing fleets from other nations in the Norwegian Economic Zone (NØS) In the North Sea there are largely British (Scottish) and Danish fishing vessels. The Danes are industrial trawlers fishing for blue whiting, sandeel and Norway pout, as well as net and Danish seine vessels. Danish seine vessels deploy their gear in a circle with a diameter of about one nautical mile. They set anchor and slowly haul in the gear while monitoring VHF channel 16. Scottish seine vessels trawl in pairs, so-called pair trawling, where two vessels fish together, slowly towing the gear behind them, where each vessel handles one side of the gear. The length of the Scottish pair trawling gear can be up to 1.5 nautical miles. If you see two echoes side-byside on the radar, contact the fishery expert on board. It is easiest to contact the Scottish vessels on VHF channels 12, 13 or 8.

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