Pressures and Threats Identification is also important: remember the causal chain analyses

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1 Participatory Coastal Development Planning Day 3: Coastal Zoning and Management Planning The CRM Cycle Pressures and Threats Identification is also important: remember the causal chain analyses Issue identification and baseline assessment CRM plan preparation and adoption Action plan and project implementation Information management, education and outreach Local legislation Regulation Coastal law enforcement External revenue sources Annual program preparation and budgeting Revenue generation Monitoring and evaluation 1

2 CRM Vision Participatory Coastal Development Planning a planning process and a management tool; delineation of areas or zones for priority uses; addresses conflicting interests among resource-users; pro-active participation of various stakeholders opportunity to identify development opportunities 2

3 Possible Objectives to harmonize resource uses competing in the shared waters and allows stakeholders to reach a consensus on use and management of coastal resources to protect important habitat or ecosystem and endangered species; to reserve suitable areas for particular human activities; to provide policies and guidelines in good governance in coastal resource management; to provide programs and strategies for the development of the coastal zone Some Guiding Principles sustainable use of resources; equitable use and allocation of benefits; promote Functionality, Transparency, Accountability and Participatory [FTAP] decision-making in CRM planning and implementation holistic and integrated approach 3

4 Requirements Commitment and willingness of the LGU and the communities Identification of environmental, socio-economic, cultural and legal-institutional issues Defined management unit (e.g. municipal waters and boundaries) Identification of resources, resource-uses and resource-users Understanding of basic ecological principles, coastal ecosystems and marine populations Knowledge of various resource management tools and options Basic Ecology and Ecological Principles Ecosystem - interaction and inter-relationships of the biotic and abiotic components of the environment 4

5 Data Gathering through PCRA, identification of: Resources - elements in the environment used by individuals or society to satisfy particular needs Resource -Uses Resource -Users - ways of utilizing the elements in the specific area and time - the stakeholders in Coastal Resources Management - individuals or group of individuals who tap various elements in the environment to satisfy needs and wants See also Causal Chain Analyses, Pressure State Response Model (PSR) and DPSIR 5

6 Validation of PCRA Results Identification of environmental, socio-economic and legal-institutional issues through: Ecological Profiling/Situational Analysis Community Resource- and Resource-Use Mapping The Planning Process Commitment and Willingness of the LGU and the Communities Data gathering, consolidation and analysis Community consultations Drafting of plan Legislation Implementation, monitoring and evaluation 6

7 Formation of multi-sectoraltwg Orientation on coastal zoning Participatory Coastal Resources Assessment - Status of Coastal Habitat and Fisheries - Socio-Economic and Cultural Analysis - Issues Identification Enhance implementation of marine sanctuaries and enforcement of fishery laws 7

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10 Community Consultations Village 1 Village 2 Village 3 Village x Village 1 Village 2 Village 3 Village x Village 1 Village 2 Village 3 Village x Consolidation of Zonation Plans Village 1 Village 2 Village 3 Village x Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster x Consensus on Municipal Coastal ZonationScheme Setting of Vision, Mission and Goals Refined/improved Situational Analysis and Resource- Resource-Use Maps Identification of appropriate Resource Management Tools 10

11 Formation of Plan Drafting Committee Options Assessment Workshops Ecological Socio-cultural Economic Policy and IEC Support Workshops 11

12 Multi-Sectoral Forum Presentation of Draft Coastal Development Plan Refinement of Draft Plan by the TWG Legitimization of CDP public hearings passing of ordinance Enhance Implementation, Monitoring and Evaluation formation of monitoring team Chapter V Management, Use and Development of Coastal and Fishery Resource General Principles and Policies Jurisdiction of Municipal Waters Users of Coastal Waters Grant of Exclusive Fishery Registry of Municipal Fishers Zonation of the Coastal Area and Municipal Waters Chapter VI Zonal Management Strategies, Programs and Investment Plan Marine Sanctuary Zone Policies Strategic Activities Management System Inv estment Plan Wildlife Sanctuary and Eco -Tourism Zone Policies Strategic Activities Information, Education, and Communication Campaign Institutio nal Strengthening and Capacity Building Monitoring and Evaluation Management System Investment Plan Mangrove and Fishpond Zone Policies Strategic Activities Information, Education, and Communication Campaign Institutional Strengthening and Capacity Building Monitoring and Evaluation Management System Investment Plan Multiple Fishery Zone Policies Strategic Activities Capacity Building Information, Education and Communication Campaign Monitoring and Evaluation Investment Plan 12

13 13

14 Coastal fishery resources- Fish, invertebrates, seaweeds Economic benefits from fisheries?fish is principal protein source (70% of total animal protein intake)? Individual consumption decreased from 40.0 kg/yr (1987) to 35.0 kg/yr in 1996, projected to decrease to 10 kg/yr by

15 Municipal fisheriesmajor source of food security and livelihood Total fishery production per fishery sector comprise ~34% of total fishery production Contribution to employment per fishery sector provides employment to 5% of the national labor force; ~68% involved in municipal fisheries Municipal fisheries production is declining Total fishery production trends per sector Trends of catch per unit effort since 1948 legally most municipal waters are reserved exclusively for use of municipal fishers 15

16 Open-access can lead to fishery collapse No regulation too much fishing effort overfishing Harvest can exceed rate of replacement or reproduction of fish recruitment overfishing; growth overfishing Sizes of fish caught become smaller High-priced fish is replaced by low-priced fish; in fishermen s income Sample problem tree : Low fish catch 16

17 Key Concepts in Fisheries Management The ability to predict ecosystem behavior is limited; Ecosystems have real thresholds and limits; Once thresholds and limits have been exceeded, changes can be irreversible; Diversity is important to ecosystem functioning; Multiple scales interact within and among ecosystems; Components of ecosystems are linked; Ecosystem boundaries are open; Ecosystems change with time (EPAP, 1999) Some objectives of Fisheries Management Possible Objective Main Goals Sustainability Efficiency Equity Maximize catches * Maximize profit * Conserve fish stocks * Stabilize stock levels * Maintain healthy ecosystem * Provide employment * Increase fisher s income * Reduce conflicts among fishers * Maintain low consumer prices * Increase cost-effectiveness * Reduce overcapacity * * Increase fish exports * Provide government revenue * (modified from Clark,1985) 17

18 Elements of a Typical Fishery Sector Different types of fisheries (e.g. species, gear) that comprise the sector Resource base for each fishery: resource types; habitats Harvesting Sector fleet; fishers; landing sites and infrastructure Post-harvest and Marketing sector processing, retailing, exports Support services boat builders, gear and equipment suppliers 18

19 Fisheries Management Options I. Regulation of Fishing Effort Method Limit access Aim/Effect limits the number of participants in fishery - ideally number of licensing, permits issued should be based on maximum sustainable yield 19

20 Method Size Limits Restrict gears Aim/Effect Specifies the minimum/maximum size of fish that can be landed to ensure replenishment of fish populations ban or limit types of gears that can be used in a particular place and time to allow immature fish to grow or protect habitats e.g. regulated non-active gears Open and Close Season Protects a specific part of the stock at a particular place or time usually spawning or young fish. Also controls the total effort in a particular area of the stock or period of the year. 20

21 Catch Quotas Limits the amount of fish taken from the stock during a fishing season/annually, e.g. Industry Quotas- total allowable catch (TAC is divided up among participants in the fishery Individual Transferable quotas (ITQ)- Quotas may be transferred, sold or traded. FISHERY Use Rights Access Rights Harvest Rights Territorial Rights (TURFs ) Limited Entry Access Rights Input/Effort Rights Output/Catch Rights Time/Location Rights Annual Quotas Gear Rights Trip Limits 21

22 II. Ecosystem-based measures a. Habitat Protection Marine Protected Areas e.g. fish sanctuaries b. Habitat Restoration Mangrove Reforestation Seagrass or Coral transplantation 22

23 c. Habitat Creation, and Enhancement Fish Attracting/Aggregating Device Artificial Reefs e. Restocking/Reseeding III. People-Focused Measures 1. Public Education 2. Community Development 3. Incentive Systems to manage excess fishing capacity 23

24 Incentives inducements to motivate LGUs and local communities to improve management of coastal resources and municipal fisheries Must consider Economic constraints- cost of monitoring, policing and regulation Formal constraints laws, government policies, property rights Social constraints cultural norms, customs, etiquette, etc. Compliance level of observance of formal and social rules Possible Incentives and Disincentives for CRM Tax Policy Tax exemptions Tax deductions Charges Tourist levies Pollution charges User fees Financial Programmes Agreements Grants Compensation payments Property Rights Exclusive use rights Tradable access permits or fishing shares Conservation covenant Leases and Licenses Harvest licenses Breeding licenses Export permits Bio-prospecting permits Enforcement Fines Forfeiture of rights Auditing/reporting Bonds and Deposits Conditional resource security Performance bonds Regulations Harvesting permits Fishing regulations Development zoning Precautionary standards Accreditation Schemes Labelling Industry accreditation Special status agreements Empowerment Co-management Right access to information Self regulation Third party rights to challenge decisions Institutional Mechanisms Sectoral agreements Regional agreements National agreements Information Education Extension Research Monitoring Leverage Mechanisms Cross compliance Conditional grant Awards Awards Prizes Others 24

25 I. Introduction A. Purpose and Scope of Plan B. Legislative Authority for the Action II. Management Content A. Regional and Municipal Setting B.1. Physical Features B.2. Biological Ecosystems B.3. Situational Analyses and Existing Uses C. Existing Legal and Management Framework D. Existing Potential Threats and Implications for Management E. The Plan 1. Goals and Objectives 2. Administration and Site Development 3. Information, Education and Capacity Building and Communication Programs 25

26 4. Policies, Legislation and Enforcement 5. Sustainable Financing 6. Monitoring and Evaluation 7. Penal and Transitory Provisions Fisheries Management Plan Outline 26

27 I. Background and Rationale II. Planning Objectives III. Scope and Duration of the Plan IV. Provincial Fisheries Profile Bathymetry and hydrography Resource diversity Fish production and catch per major gear Fishing effort and catch per unit effort (distribution of effort/gear; fisher density) V. Problems, Issues and Concerns VI. Vision, Mission and Goal VII. Management, Use and Development of the Fishery Resources Statement of General Principles and Policies Jurisdiction of Municipal Waters Users of Municipal Water Resources Registry of Municipal Fishers Registry of Boats Issuances of Licenses 27

28 Penalty: First Offense - Warning Second Offense Fine of P Third Offense Fine of P2,000 or imprisonment for 6 mos to 1 year, or both Funding Mechanisms: Annual management cost > P200,000 Initial funding from outside sources (FPE, Oxfam, ICCO, etc. c/o Pipuli foundation) Subsequently, resource users to pay for mgt. Scheme of payments for fishing permits: Type of Gear Amount (Pesos) Hook and line 20 Fish corral 300 Gill net 50 Lamp/spear fishing from boat 50 Lamp/spear on reef flats 20 Small traps 20 Comm. sea urchin gathering 50 Reef gleaning 5 Mangrove gleaning 5 28

29 DB REMO Management Structure GENERAL ASSEMBLY Admin. Staff Resource Management Council/ExeCom Monitoring & Research Comm. ADVISERS: LGU officials Line Agencies (DA, DENR) PNP Bantay Dagat (Enforcement) Livelihood Committee Economic/ Finance Com. Special Projects PEOPLE S ORGANIZATIONS Sample for Danao Bay in Mindanao 29

30 Sec. 2. Classification of City Waters The City Waters of Davao are hereby divided and classified into the following major zones: A. City Fishing Zone, A1 ; B. Commercial Fishing Zone, A2 ; C. Aquaculture / Mariculture Zone, A3 ; D. Fishing Reserves / Fish Sanctuaries, and A4 ; E. Demarcated Fishing Areas, A5 ; F. Navigational Lanes, A6 ; and, G. Waters Under Jurisdiction of Other Offices or Agencies, A7. Sec. 3. City Fishing Zone.- The City Fishing Zone shall comprise all waters within Inland and Marine City Waters. The City Fishing Zone may be further subdivided into sub-zones for specific fishing activities by the City Mayor through the recommendation of CAO. A map/chart of the City Fishing Zone is hereto attached as Annex A-1 30

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