SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE

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1 SUSTAINABLE AQUACULTURE Dr. Elena Mente Assistant Professor School of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ichthyology and Aquatic Environment, University of Thessaly, Volos, Greece

2 Overview of my presentation World aquaculture production European aquaculture production Sustainable aquaculture Organic aquaculture present and future Conclusions

3 World fisheries and aquaculture production and utilization production (million tonnes) INLAND Capture Aquaculture Total inland MARINE Capture Aquaculture Total marine TOTAL CAPTURE TOTAL AQUACULTURE TOTAL WORLD FISHERIES UTILIZATI0N Human consumption Non-food uses Population (billions) Per capita food fish supply (kg) Note: Excluding aquatic plants. 1 Preliminary estimate. (SOFIA 2006).

4 Main farmed species production expressed in volume (tonnes) in Europe (2001) Mente, E. Pierce, G.J., Santos, M.B. and Neofitou, C. (2006). The effect of fish feed and feeding on the marine aquatic environment: a review for the European aquaculture. Aquaculture International. 14 (5):

5 Main farmed species production expressed in value (euros) in Europe (2001) Mente, E. Pierce, G.J., Santos, M.B. and Neofitou, C. (2006). The effect of fish feed and feeding on the marine aquatic environment: a review for the European aquaculture. Aquaculture International. 14 (5):

6 Environment Health Sustainable aquaculture Social issues Safety Taste

7 a) Ecological Sustainable Aquaculture - maintaining individual stocks of species at healthy levels and enhancing the quality of ecosystem and environment b) Biological - growth and Nutrition, health of farmed species. Socio-economics Community- Institutional c) Socio-economics - Socio-economic sustainability is connected to the aggregate welfare of individuals, e.g. longterm employment, food security and income security. Prospects for the promotion and development of alternative employment and earnings opportunities such as aquaculture or tourism in order to absorb excess supply labour due to contraction of the fisheries sector and enhance individuals socio-economic welfare should be examined d) Community- Institutional Ecological-Biological - the long-term stability of communities and the integration of the local population into resource management and development practices. While socio-economic sustainability is focused on well being at the "individual" level, this component can be viewed as sustainability at a "group" level. Institutional sustainability is related to the manageability and enforceability of regulations governing activities such as aquaculture and fisheries.

8 Bio-socioeconomic model Biological interactions concerning traditional fishing, aquaculture and the environment Interactions between coastal labour markets in traditional fishing and aquaculture and the regulatory environment ΜcCausland, W.D., Mente, E., Pierce, G.J. and Theodossiou, I. (2006). A simulation model of sustainability of coastal communities: aquaculture, fishing, environment and labour markets. Ecological Modelling. 193:

9 Organic aquaculture Organic aquaculture relies on biological processes to manage the welfare of the animals, the nutrient inputs, the waste that it is produced and the environment in which they live. Organic aquaculture aims at: Minimising the negative effect on the environment Maintaining a high level of biological diversity Respecting animal welfare Satisfying the consumer acceptante

10 Organic aquaculture production (estimate, in tonnes) 5,000 4,500 4,000 3,500 3,000 Salmon Carp/Trout Shrimp/mussels Other 2,500 2,000 1,500 1, Year 2000 Year 2003 Source: Naturland, (Bergleiter, 2001), (Lem, 2004)

11 Organic aquaculture production t? Salmon/trout/cod Mussel Trout/carp/sea bream/sea bass/salmon/tilapia/sturgeon/ mussels (14000t in Europe) 1,200,000 1,000, , , ,000 Tilapia 200, Tilapia Shrimp Salmon Salmon (3000t America) Shrimp (8000t Asia) Mussel Adapted from Lem, 2004

12 Feeding Palatability Physical quality Nutritional content Fish feeds Organic aquaculture in Greece Stock Health (disease spread, parasites prevention) Density (5000 fish per cage) Genetic strain Temperature Water quality Oxygen Many variables Environment Organic Aquaculture Pilot project Started in 2007 Feeding protocol Waste management Other issues Management Mente, E., Nutrition and certification of organic aquaculture of sea bream. A pilot study funded by the Greek Ministry of Rural Development and Food.

13 Organic sea bream farming in Greece Pilot project Started in 2007 Field study in local fish farm in Larymna

14 Organic sea bream farming in Greece Principles: -Low stocking density -Organic feed -No use of antibiotics No use of chemicals -Monitoring of water quality -Monitoring of flesh quality

15 Organic sea bream farming in Greece Conclusions Final Growth Αριστη ποιότητα Εκτροφή φιλική προς το περιβάλλον Βιολογική Εκτροφή Analysis of the quality of the final product (proteins, amino acids, heavy metals, dioxins, lipids) Establishment of standards for certification at the end of the project

16 THANK YOU Conclusions Work is still needed to: - Improve scientific knowledge - Improve aquaculture practices - Address eco-labels Challenges: sustainability of feed supply introduction of bio controls- Diseases place of polyculture in nutrient cycle availability of suitable sites that meet the criteria coherent approach to standards maintaining supply/demand equilibrium

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