Lesson 6: Fisheries Management in the Open Ocean. Open Ocean

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1 !!! Open Ocean Concepts How does fishing equipment affect the amount of fish and bycatch caught in a fishery? How can we change the way we fish to use the ocean better? Standards Addressed HCPS 5. & 5.2 Duration Prep: 45 min Activity: 2 periods (50 minutes each) Source Material PRISM Vocabulary Surveys Management Seiners Trawlers Bycatch Sustainable in the Open Ocean Summary In this lesson students learn how fishing equipment, technology, and the way we fish affect the organisms in the open ocean. Students play the game Fishbowl Fisheries to see how different types of fishing impacts how many fish are caught and how much bycatch is caught. Students must then hypothesize and test how a change in fishing equipment or fishing style can reduce bycatch. This change is called fishery management. Objectives. Describe how fishing equipment changes how much fish and bycatch is caught. 2. Explore how changes in fishing techniques and equipment may change the fisheries catch. Materials folded paper (hook and line) 300 marbles one color spoon (trawlers) 50 marbles of a different color cup (Net or Seiners) 3 large jars 3 cups to hold caught marbles scissors (2 pairs) Fishbowl worksheet for each student teacher s instructions Fishery Project Outline (this is in the final project section) Open Ocean Quiz Making Connections This lesson brings together the fisheries presentation with management of those fisheries. These questions may include impacts to the open ocean (lesson 7), fisheries (lesson 5), open ocean biology (lessons 3 & 4) and physical oceanography (lessons & 2). This lesson also supplements the final project by supplying some effective and often used methods of fisheries management. Background As we learned in the last lesson many fisheries are in trouble whether, this is from overfishing, pollution, or bycatch issues. Commercial fishing has progressed to a point where limitations must be put on the fishery in order to prevent the collapse of the fishery. Many issues have practical solutions as we learned from reading the Ken Norris story. Some of these solutions may be made by the fishermen themselves, such as fishing differently. However many solutions to these fishery problems lay in hands of marine scientists and fishery managers. These two groups must work together to study the fishery and then to implement fishery management.

2 Common types of management include limiting the amount of fish caught, limiting the type of fishing allowed, limiting bycatch, regulating the size of fish caught, or restricting the type of equipment used. A major change in the Hawaiian longline fishery was to change from j shaped hooks to circle shaped hooks in order to reduce the amount of bycatch caught. Fishery managers usually try to allow fishermen to catch the maximum amount fish without hurting the health of the ecosystem. This is called maximum sustainable yield because the fishery catches a maximum amount of fish sustainably. Preparation st Period. Gather the above materials. 2. Count out 00 marbles into each jar. Then count out 50 different colored marbles into a separate cup and hold onto for later. 3. Print a worksheet for each student and an instructions sheet for yourself 4. Arrange the classroom into groups with the hook and line group at one station, the trawlers at one station, and the seiners at the last station. 2 nd Period. Print out a Fishery Project Outline for each student 2. Review the outline and the questions the students will have to answer for their poster presentation. 3. Arrange the Classroom in five stations (one for each fishery group) Procedure st Period Review HW from lesson #6 (0 min). Answer any questions the students may have about the Norris and Labudde stories. Play the Fishbowl fisheries game (40) min. See teacher instructions sheet for methods on how to play the game. 2 nd Period This period is devoted to working on final project. Students should gather in their groups to share the information they have learned from their fishery information cards with each other. Encourage questions and active discussion. If the students have not done their homework or need help completing the worksheet, they should help each other do that now. (25 min) After groups have finished sharing you should hand out the Fishery Project Outline. Remind the students that they need to complete a poster and that the outline will help them design the poster. The first three sections of the outline should be done already and written out on the student s fishery card worksheet. The students should review the outline with you and then work on consolidating the information they have gathered into the outline. IF you have any extra computer time they may work together to answer the questions in sections 4 and 5 of the outline as well as find pictures to include in their poster. Encourage creativity and originality! (25 min) 2

3 Optional Activity: Take the students to the fish market and talk about the different kinds of commercial catch you might see there. Recognize anything? Are all these species caught in Hawaii? Are any of these species overfished?? What adaptations do you notice? Assessment HW: Work on final project by continuing to fill out outline and gather materials for poster presentation. They will be working on their posters during the next lesson. Key Concepts (what the students should know!). Different fishing techniques can change how many fish are caught in a fishery. 2. Different fishing techniques may change how much bycatch including small fish are caught in a fishery. 3. Fishery management is important in conserving the amount of fish left in the ocean Optional activity: Students may conduct a mock survey of a marlin fishery and assess the effects of that fishery on sea turtle and sea bird populations by interpreting data. This activity simulates research questions that biologists must try and answer. Marine Survey Worksheet and Answer key Links Check out these interactive websites that explore the ocean. Notes 3

4 Be a Marine Scientist Marine Fish Survey Form Name of Marine Scientist You are a group of marine scientists in charge of researching blue marlin in the open ocean. You want to figure out how the marlin fishery is affecting the environment. You know that the marlin fishery occasionally catches birds and turtles. Your Question: Is the fishery taking too many turtles and birds as bycatch? Methods: To do this you want to survey different areas of the ocean: Areas that have been fished recently and areas that have not. Once you reach those areas you will count the numbers of turtles and birds.. Complete your hypothesis: In areas where there is a lot of marlin fishing there will be (less or more) birds and/or turtles. You only have enough gas to survey 8 different areas (see attached sheet). Using what you ve learned about the open ocean so far, choose 8 areas to survey. (Hint: make sure marlin can live in all the areas you choose). 2. Fill out the chart below with why you chose each area. AREA # Why we chose that area

5 3. Next ask your teacher to show you how many turtles and birds are in each area. In the table below fill in the number of fish for each area, write a yes or no if the area was recently fished. AREA # # of Turtles # of Birds Recently? 4. Re-arrange your data so that all the areas that were recently fished are in the left box and all the areas that were not recently fished in the right. Fill out the boxes correctly and add the numbers for the totals. Recently Areas AREA # # of Turtles # of Birds Not Recently AREA # # of Turtles # of Birds Totals Totals 5. Look at the total number of birds and turtles in each area. Are there any differences between the two groups?? 6. What does this data mean about the marlin fishery?? 7. Did you prove you hypothesis true or false? 8. Bonus Question!!! Can you think of any solutions to stop the marlin fishery from catching birds and/or turtles?? 2

6 Fishbowl Fisheries Materials Needed: folded paper (hook and line), spoon (trawlers), cup (Net or Seiners), 00 marbles one color, 50 marbles of a different color, large Jar, scissors (2 pairs), 3 cups to hold caught marbles, worksheet for each student, pencil. Divide students into 3 to four groups depending on the amount of supplies you have. One person record turns, one person catches fish, two observers. Students should take turns at each role. Teacher should have each group written on the blackboard with their fish tally, turtle tally, and # of turns fished for each scenario. Read each scenario to the students and then monitor each group in the activity. At the end of each scenario the teacher should answer any class questions and recap the results of each scenario. The questions can be answered as a group, as individuals, or as a class however each student should have all the questions completed on their worksheet at the end of the class. At the end of the activity the teacher should highlight the lessons learned. Scenario : Each group should have a different tool. Folded paper group should use three fingers to grasp the marbles in the paper. Spoon group should trawl spoon across bottom. Cup group should scoop up fish. There are 00 fish (all of the same color) in the ocean (Jar). See how many fish you can catch in ten turns. Make sure to record how many fish you catch for each turn and then record how many fish are left in the ocean. Answer the following questions when you are done. Questions:. Is it easier or harder to catch fish when there are less fish in the ocean?? 2. Which group caught the most fish? Scenario 2: Now pour 50 marbles of the other color into the ocean. These marbles are endangered sea turtles. You do not want to catch the sea turtles but you do want to catch fish (remind students of the term bycatch ). If you catch ten sea turtles you must stop fishing. Fish for as long as you can. This shouldn t be more than 2-3 minutes. Remember to record how many fish you caught and how many turtles you caught for each turn. Then record how many turns it took for you to reach your limit of ten turtles. Questions:. Did you have to stop fishing before time was called? 2. Did you catch more or less fish than the first time you went fishing with no turtles? 3. Which group caught the most fish? 4. Which group fished the longest? Scenario 3: Now you must find a way to fish for five minutes without catching ten seaturtles. You may alter your fishing tool with scissors, fish slower, or fish differently if you think that will help. Questions:. Did you fish for the entire time? 2. How did you change the way you fish? 3. What did you learn from playing fishbowl fisheries??

7 Name Group Homeroom Fishbowl Fisheries Scenario : Make sure to record how many fish you catch for each turn and then record how many fish are left in the ocean (00 fish minus total). Answer the following questions when you are done. Turn # Total Caught Left in Ocean # of Fish Caught Questions:. Is it easier or harder to catch fish when there are less fish in the ocean?? 2. Which group caught the most fish? Scenario 2: Watch out for sea turtles. Record how many turns you took, how many fish you caught, and how many turtles you caught. Number of turns Number of Fish caught Number of Turtles Questions:. How many turns did it take for you to reach your limit of ten turtles? 2. Did you have to stop fishing before time was called? 3. Did you catch more or less fish than the first time you went fishing with no turtles?

8 4. Which group caught the most fish? 5. Which group fished the longest? Scenario 3: Now you must find a way to fish for five minutes without catching ten seaturtles. You may alter your fishing tool with scissors, fish slower, or fish differently if you think that will help. Record how many turns you took, how many fish you caught, and how many turtles you caught. Number of turns Number of fish caught Number of fish caught Questions:. Did you fish for the entire time? 2. How did you change the way you fish? 3. What did you learn from playing fishbowl fisheries?? 4. Does what you did to change the way you fish qualify as fishery management?? 2

9 Answer Key (Areas that are in blue are correct choices, Numbers of Turtles are Green and Birds are Red) 8 Turtles 58 Birds 2 2 Turtles 64 Birds 3 3 Turtles 68 Birds Turtle 45 Birds 2 2 Turtles 57 Birds Turtles 43 Birds Turtles 6 Birds 20 2 Turtles 38 Birds Turtles 47 Birds Turtles 77 Birds 26 Turtle 64 Birds 27 5 Turtles 44 Birds Turtles 49 Birds Turtles 52 Birds 36 9 Turtles 44 Birds Turtles 69 Birds Turtles 85 Birds

10 OCEAN AREAS (area number is in the top left corner) Marlins like areas that are between at Temperatures (20-35 degrees C) and Salinity from ( PSS) 20 degrees 33.2 PSS 2 25 degrees 33.6 PSS 3 25 degrees 33.8 PSS 4 5 degrees 5 5 degrees 6 0 degrees 7 5 degrees 8 8 degrees 33.2 PSS 9 20 degrees 29.6 PSS 0 5 degrees 28.6 PSS 30 degrees 33.2 PSS 2 25 degrees 3 23 degrees 4 9 degrees 5 8 degrees 6 9 degrees 32 PSS 7 20 degrees 8 9 degrees 9 24 degrees degrees 2 28 degrees 3 PSS degrees 3 PSS degrees 32 PSS degrees 3 PSS degrees 34 PSS degrees 35 PSS degrees 35 PSS degrees 3 PSS degrees 3 PSS degrees 3 PSS 3 2 degrees 32 PSS 32 9 degrees 32 PSS degrees 34 PSS 34 9 degrees 33.2 PSS degrees 34 PSS degrees 37 8 degrees degrees 39 8 degrees 32 PSS degrees

11 Open Ocean Quiz. If you went snorkeling in the open ocean, could you see the bottom? 2. Name the four important parts of the open ocean that make up an open ocean animal s habitat (remember the maps). 3. What is salinity? 4. What happens when water with a lot of salt meets water with no salt? 5. Who is the top predator of almost all open ocean food webs? 6. Who is at the bottom of all open ocean food webs? 7. Name four organisms that live in the open ocean? 8. What is a fishery? 9. If you were a fish that lived in the open ocean, name an adaptation that would help you to escape predators. 0. Name 3 features/adaptations of a squid and how they might help the squid survive.. Name one tool that we can use to study fisheries or animals in the open ocean (like using tags). 2. Name one supercool thing you learned about the open ocean. 3. What is one way that people can help protect the animals of the open ocean?

12 Teacher s Guide Open Ocean Quiz. If you went snorkeling in the open ocean, could you see the bottom? No, because it is too deep. 2. Name the four important parts of the open ocean that make up an open ocean animal s habitat (remember the maps). Salinity, Temperature, Depth, Nutrients. (Currents, pressure, and predators may also be considered correct) 3. What is salinity? The amount of salt in water. 4. What happens when water with a lot of salt meets water with no salt? The high salt water goes under the low salt water. (high salt water is more dense and therefore sinks) 5. Who is the top predator of almost all open ocean food webs? People or Humans 6. Who is at the bottom of all open ocean food webs? Phytoplankton or Plankton or Plants 7. Name four organisms that live in the open ocean? Many acceptable answers here. 8. What is a fishery? An organized effort by humans to catch fish or A bunch of people fishing in the same place. 9. If you were a fish that lived in the open ocean, name an adaptation that would help you to escape predators. High speed fins, streamlined body, really great eyes, poison, spines, ink, flashing lights, there are tons more. 0. Name 3 features/adaptations of a squid and how they might help the squid survive. Many acceptable answers here as well. As long as the student adequately explains them.. Name one tool that we can use to study fisheries or animals in the open ocean (like using tags). Sattelite pictures, catch data from fisherman, talking to fishermen, scubadiving or direct observation, cameras, sonar. 2. Name one supercool thing you learned about the open ocean. 3. What is one way that people can help protect the animals of the open ocean? Stop pollution, don t overfish, don t destroy habitat, many more acceptable answers.

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