Alan White The Nature Conservancy

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1 The Coral Triangle Region, The Coral Triangle Initiative, and the Development of the Six Country Marine Protected Area System Alan White The Nature Conservancy

2 The Coral Triangle Initiative Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries and Food Security launched in Manado, Indonesia 2009

3 The Coral Triangle Initiative Global partnership pledged support with 8 major partners onboard: ADB, Australia, CI, CTC, GEF, TNC, USAID, WWF

4 5.7 million km2 of ocean >3000 species of reef fish At least 450 species of reef corals >600 species of reef corals in total >30% of coral reefs in the world

5 The Coral Triangle Initiative Importance of Coral Triangle to Food Security and Livelihoods 395 million people 130 million directly dependent upon marine resources for livelihoods, more for food security Healthy coral reefs support $12 billion/year tourism industry Tuna spawning and nursery grounds support multi-billion dollar tuna fishery Healthy reef systems protect communities from storms, reducing damage and future reconstruction costs

6 Local Threats Coastal development Land-based pollution Marine pollution and damage Overfishing Destructive fishing Global Threats Warming seas Ocean acidification

7 Declines of fish biomass compared to first baseline in 3 countries (not true baseline) 100% 1960s % 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% % 20% 10% 0% 1998 Malaysia Philippines Thailand 1995

8 The Coral Triangle Initiative Overarching Goals of Initiative: CTI-CFF Regional Plan of Action Designate and effectively manage priority seascapes Apply ecosystem-based approach to fisheries Establish networks of marine protected areas Strengthen resilience and adaptation to climate change Strengthen measures to protect threatened marine species

9 The Coral Triangle Initiative Developing and Implementing the CTI: Process of Collaboration National and Regional Coordinating Committees Regional Plan of Action developed National Plans of Action patterned after Regional by each country Measures of progress through indicators and M&E system State of Coral Triangle report Support to action plans by donors and NGOs Monitoring and Evaluation System Operations Manual

10 Contributions to CTI Programs ADB/ GEF AUST USA CI TNC WWF $97.7M $3.6M $81 $12M ~$10M ~13.6M (Grant only, plus $196.8 Loans) now $217.9 Million Total

11 MPAs are critical to healthy oceans and reefs (fisheries, income, biodiversity, resilience) Credit: Conservation International

12 The Coral Triangle Initiative and MPAs CTI-CFF Regional Plan of Action goal for MPAs: Goal 3: By Marine Protected Areas Established and Effectively Managed Target 1: Region-wide Coral Triangle MPA System (CTMPAS) in place and fully functional* *White & Green Special Issue: Establishing a Region-wide System of Marine Protected Areas in the Coral Triangle. Coastal Management Volume 42, Number 2.

13 The Coral Triangle Initiative Or a simple search with CT Atlas or Coral Triangle Atlas

14 MPAs in the six Coral Triangle countries 2014 (>1900) White et al 2014 MPAs in the Coral Triangle: Progress, Issues & Options. Coastal Management 42:

15 CTI MPA System Indicators, Targets and Progress Indicator Target Status of Target (CT Atlas 2014) Percent of total marine habitat in MPA or Locally Managed Marine Area (LMMA) 20% 17.8% of reef habitat 9.4% of territorial waters 1.6% of Extended Economic Zones (EEZ) Percent of each habitat in no-take area 10% Approximately 2% Percent of MPAs under effective management 25% applying criteria in CT MPA System Approximately 1%

16 What is the Coral Triangle MPA System (CTMPAS) Framework and Action Plan of 2013? Clearly defined strategies and principles among six countries Walton et al Establishing a Functional Regional-Wide CTMPAS Coastal Management 42:

17 CTMPAS Design Principles & Objectives & Criteria Ecological ecosystem function, fisheries, CCA, biodiversity, threatened species Governance regional, national local, information, M&E CT MPAS Society communications, learning networks, livelihood, resource use

18 MPA Management Effectiveness Systems: Governance and Ecological Design Criteria

19 Ecological Design Principles for The Coral Triangle Initiative successful networks of MPAs (1) Habitat representation Risk spreading Protecting critical, special and unique areas Reserve size, spacing, location & duration Protecting climate resilient areas Minimizing and avoiding threats (1) Alison L. Green, Leanne Fernandes, Glenn Almany, Rene Abesamis, Elizabeth McLeod, Porfirio M. Aliño, Alan T. White, Rod Salm, John Tanzer & Robert L. Pressey (2014): Designing Marine Reserves for Fisheries Management, Biodiversity Conservation, and Climate Change Adaptation, Coastal Management, 42:2, , DOI: /

20 Larval dispersal and movement patterns of coral reef fishes, and implications for marine reserve network design (Green et al. 2015) Adult and juvenile movement patterns of coral reef and coastal pelagic fishes Modified from Maypa (2012) in Gombos et al. (2013)

21 A MPA system with incentives and a data tracking system through the Coral Triangle Atlas Innovative and effective Incentive for countries to improve effective implementation of MPAs by nomination of sites following agreed criteria CTMPAS creates some peer pressure review among the countries Category 4 Regional Flagship sites Category 3 Priority Development Sites Category 2 Effectively managed Sites Category 1 Recognized CTMPAS Sites REGIONAL-LEVEL REVIEW AND SELECTION COUNTRY-LEVEL REVIEW AND SELECTION

22 CTMPAS flagship sites (Category 4)

23 What makes it work? Regional Interactions Components that lead to success Substantive regional planning exchanges for the six CT countries MPA/network nomination process National MPA management effectiveness systems following regional criteria Enabling factors Regional information system Coral Triangle Atlas--to track progress and share spatial data through maps Strategic technical expertise available through Coral Triangle partner organizations

24 MPAs cannot succeed as islands in a complex coastal environment they must be part of integrated management systems with interventions tailored to local needs and conditions

25 Toward Ecosystem-based Coastal Areas and Fisheries Management in the Coral Triangle: Integrated Strategies and Guidance

26 Seven Integrated Strategies [for EBM] A. Governance of Management Areas B. Fisheries managed for sustainability C. Protected habitats and their connectivity D. Threatened species, and critical species and functional groups E. Community and economic development F. Coastal-watershed and freshwater resources G. Hazard Risk Reduction

27 Tubbataha Reefs Natural Park and World Heritage Site Nationally designated no-take MPA (970 km2) Sulu Sea Established 1988, largest no-take MPA in the Philippines Widely recognized as exemplifying good practice in MPA management Met Coral Triangle MPA System Framework criteria for - Category 4: Flagship Sites, defined as large, already effectively managed sites that have regional ecological, governance and socioeconomic importance.

28 The Coral Triangle Initiative Tubbataha what makes it a success Green marketing of products/services from MPA i.e. dive tourism - $80-$110,000 per year from conservation fees supports park management and local livelihoods Public communication, education and awareness raising Regulatory obligations that require effective MPA conservation & effective judicial system; state capacity, political will, surveillance technologies and financial resources for enforcement Participative governance structures and processes Equity and stewardship by sharing of tourism revenues as a compensatory mechanism & co- ownership with traditional users

29 CTI-CFF Links to ASEAN and PEMSEA Countries 3 CTI countries are ASEAN and PEMSEA members Indonesia, Malaysia and Philippines CT MPA System Framework is not a closed system and can easily accommodate more countries The Coral Triangle Atlas is open ended and part of a global database: MPA guidance materials and CTMPAS policies are equally relevant for all countries in ASEAN with tropical reef systems

30 For more on the Coral Triangle The Coral Triangle Initiative

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